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Anne Bradstreet & Edward Taylor_图文

? Anne Bradstreet,
– “To My Dear and Loving Husband” 《献给我亲爱 的丈夫》 – The Prologue 《序言》

? Edward Taylor,
– “Huswifery” 《家务》

? Anne Bradstreet (1612-72)

? the first poet and first female writer in the British North American colonies

Anne Bradstreet
? 1. Life ? Anne Bradstreet was born in Northampton, England. Well tutored in literature and history in Greek, Latin, French, Hebrew, as well as English ? Married at 16 to Simon Bradstreet and emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony at 18. Had eight children. ? Father Thomas Dudley and husband Simon Bradstreet both served terms as governor of the colony. ? Anne caught smallpox at her wedding and was complicated by her childhood bouts of rheumatic fever. For the rest of her life, her health was precarious.

Anne Bradstreet
? 2. Poetic characteristics ? 1. The images of the human body, illness and mortality are dominant in her poetry. ? 2. The poems reveal deep human love, passion, pain, as well as those pleasures associated with home such as entertaining friends and seeing children grow and marry. ? 3. Some of her poems and meditations show a Puritan consciousness.

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_miWK Nhj983o/S7NddVctAWI/AAAAA AAAAH0/eh7KLV1knY/s320/AnneDudleyBradstr ee.jpg

Stained glass window, St. Botolph's Church, Boston, Lincolnshire, England.

Obedient daughter Industrious housewife Devout Christian believer What else?

? 3. Major Works ? The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung up in America ? "To My Dear and Loving Husband" ? "A Letter to My Husband" ? "The Felsh and the Spirit" ? "Contemplations"

http://www.finebooksmag azine.com/issue/200908/ cements_library-1.phtml

? The Prologue

Pre-reading Discussion
? What do you think would be biggest obstacles for women to publish poems in the 17th C. New England? ? Find words that suggest humbleness of the author? How does it related with the theme?

The Prologue
? To sing of wars, of captains, and 讴歌战争,讴歌船长和国王, of kings, 城市的建立,联邦的始创, Of cities founded, commonwealths begun, For my mean pen are too superior 对于我卑微的笔过于堂皇: things: 它们所有或其一的盛衰兴亡, Or how they all, or each, their dates have run; 也让诗人和历史学家去撰写, Let poets and historians set these forth, 我无名的诗行不会使他们黯 My obscure lines shall not so dim 然失色。 their worth.

? Setting up comparisons ? My mean pen ? Poets and historians

? But when my wondering eyes and envious heart Great Bartas' sugared lines do but read o'er, Fool I do grudge the Muses did not part 'Twixt him and me that overfluent store;-A Bartas can do what a Bartas will, But simple I according to my skill.

当我徜徉的双眼和仰慕的心 灵 浏览巨匠巴特斯的甜蜜诗 行, 愚蠢的我委实嫉妒缪斯偏 心, 没把那流畅的思想与我分 享; 让巴特斯去作巴特斯想作的 诗, 很简单,我将按我的技能行 事。

Guillaume DuBartas
? the great French historian and poet,whose work was popular with Puritans because of its emphasis on Christian history.

? ? ? ?

I am not a great writer She is envious of Bartas and his Muse The muses helped Bartas more than me My skill is less than Bartas

? From school-boys tongues no rhetoric we expect, Nor yet a sweet consort from broken strings, Nor perfect beauty where's a main defect: My foolish, broken, blemished Muse so sings; And this to mend, alas, no art is able, 'Cause nature made is so, irreparable.

从小学生之口我们不奢望华 丽的文词, 不奢望断弦弹奏出甜美的乐 章, 也不奢望在缺陷之处找到完 美: 我愚蠢、破裂、瑕疵的缪斯 依旧歌唱, 要补救此事,啊呀,无法做 到, 因为天性已经使之不可救药。

? Nor can I, like that fluent, sweettongued Greek Who lisped at first, in future times speak plain; By art he gladly found what he did seek-A full requital of his striving pain. Art can do much, but this maxim's most sure: A weak or wounded brain admits no cure.

我也不能像那位希腊人 文章流畅, 他开始口齿不清,后来 言语滔滔。 艺术使他愉快地找到他 的理想, 这是对他艰苦努力的圆 满回报。 艺术产生奇迹,但这句 格言肯定无疑: 薄弱和受伤的大脑都没 有救治。

? In stanza four, the highly educated Bradstreet alludes to Demosthenes, the famed Greek orator who overcame a lisp to achieve great prestige. Bradstreet, however, does not feel that it is possible to overcome “a weak or wounded brain.”

? I am obnoxious to each 我深深受害于每一张饶舌的尖嘴, carping tongue 说我的手更适合缝纫的针线。 Who says my hand a 世人嘲笑我冤枉了诗人的笔, needle better fits. 这是对我们女性心智的轻贱: A poet's pen all scorn I 即使我作品优秀,也不会有所进 展, should thus wrong; For such despite they cast 他们会说是剽窃,或者是偶然。 on female wits, If what I do prove well, it won't advance-They'll say it was stolen, or else it was by chance.

? But shure the ancient Greeks were far more mild, Else of our sex why feignéd they those Nine, And Posey made Calliope's own child? So 'mongst the rest they placed the Arts Divine. But this weak knot they will full soon untie-The Greeks did naught but play the fools and lie.

但可以肯定,古希腊人对我 们这一性 更温柔,否则他们怎会想出 九位缪斯, 让诗歌成为克莱俄帕自己的 孩子; 这样他们可使神圣的艺术与 其它平等。 这个松松的结,他们很快解 散, 希腊人一事无成,仅仅在愚 弄和欺骗。

? Let Greeks be Greeks, and women what they are. Men have precedency, and still excell. It is but vain unjustly to wage war, Men can do best, and women know it well. Pre?minence in all and each is yours-Yet grant some small acknowledgement of ours.

让希腊人作希腊人,女性 作女性, 男性优先,他们仍然超群 卓越, 挑起两性之争,自负而不 公平; 男性事业杰出,女性深深 明白。 所有和一切的优胜都属于 你们; 但是请给我们一点点应有 的承认。

And oh ye high flown quills 啊,翱翔蓝天展翅高飞的羽翼, that soar the skies, 你永远以你捕捉的猎物获得礼 And ever with your prey still 赞, catch your praise, 如果你能让双眼屈就这段拙诗, If e'er you deign these lowly 请献百里香或欧芹,我不指望 桂冠; lines your eyes, 我这些低劣和未经提炼的岩矿, Give thyme or parsley wreath, 必将使你闪光的金子更加闪光。 I ask no bays; This mean and unrefined ore of mine Will make your glist'ring gold but more to shine.

Rhyme and metre
? Precise iambic pentameter ? rhyming ABABCC

? Women more often were taught to read so that they could read the Bible but few learned to write as it was thought that there was no reason a woman should know how to write. Writing was the prerogative of men. ? A woman was expected to be subservient to her father until she married and then to her husband. Ministers often reminded their flock that women were inferior to men and more inclined to sin and error. ? As a result of such beliefs some women lived out their lives in suffering and hopelessness. Much depended on who a woman's father chose as her husband.

? In the poem, Anne Bradstreet laments and ironizes her inferiority in her ability to write poems compared to great male poets. ? Despite the indignation over male’s overall disbelief of women’s talent, her only request lies in the small acknowledgement of women’s achievement in literature and not in any obvious rebellion of the whole patriarchal system.

? Critic Eileen Margerum considers "The Prologue" to be in the tradition of humility that was common in the poetry of Bradstreet’s time. ? Margerum refuted some critics’ claims that Bradstreet was unhappy with her own work and was too deferential to male poets and figures in her life, like her father. ? Instead, she elucidates that Bradstreet was actually writing within the traditions of the time. Humility and submissiveness towards the audience was common in Latin poetry, and that was a holdover from the Roman oratorical tradition.

? Overall, as Margerum notes, Bradstreet never “uses her sex as an excuse for writing poor poetry” and never offers apologies for writing poetry in the first place. She did not think it sinful or uncouth for her to write, but rather, her humble remarks “are creative applications of conventional and obligatory poetic formulae, and not as expressions of selfdoubt or deprecations of her poetic abilities.”

? “To My Dear and Loving Husband”

Pre-reading Discussion
? Who is poem addressed to? ? What’s the major theme of the poem? ? How does this poem reflect Bradstreet’s puritan thinking. Does it challenge Puritan theology in any place?

To my dear and loving Husband
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? If ever two were one, then surely we. If ever man were loved by wife, then thee; If ever wife was happy in a man, Compare with me, ye women, if you can. I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold Or all the riches that East doth hold. My love is such that rivers cannot quench, Nor ought but love from thee,give recompense. Thy love is such I can no way repay, The heavens reward thee manifold,I pray. Then while we live,in love let’s so persevere That when we live no more, we may live ever.
Anne Bradstreet
Anaphora 首语反复

译文: 致我亲爱的丈夫
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 如果有两人默契,那是我和你 如有谁深受妻爱,那人就是你 若是有妻子满意于她的丈夫 那就同我来比,看看谁更满足 我视你的爱永远高于整座金矿 远高于东方的全部财富宝藏 我对你的爱,江河也没法浇熄 只有你的爱才能跟我相抵 可要回报你的爱我毫无办法 只能求上帝多倍的报答 愿你我的爱在世时永远忠贞
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 如果曾经两人默契如一,那就是我 和你。 如果曾经丈夫被妻子钟爱,那就是 你; 如果曾经妻子被丈夫幸福环绕 如果你能,女士们,请跟我来比较。 我珍惜你的爱胜过金矿, 胜过东方的无尽宝藏。 我的爱万水不能冷眼相待, 无物可偿还,除了你对我的爱。 你如此的爱让我无以为偿, 我只能祈祷上苍赐予你缤纷奖赏。 在人间,相爱的我们不衰长盛, 而当远离尘世,我们会步入永生。

Features of this poem I
To my dear and loving husband has several standard poetic features. 1.One is the two line rhyme scheme. 2.The second is the popular iambic pentameter. 抑扬格五音部 3.Another is the anaphora[?'n?f?r?], the repetition of a phrase at the beginning of a successive lines. Here we can notice them in the first three lines.

Features of this poem anaphora
? 3. anaphora [?'n?f?r?] n. 【语】首语(句)重复 法;首语反复 ? If ever two were one,then surely we. ? If ever man were loved by wife, then thee; ? If ever wife was happy in a man, Function:英语首语反复既是一种修辞方法,也是语篇 中的一种衔接手段.使用得当,它能够产生均衡结构、 突出重点、加强语气和增加节奏感与韵律美等积 极修辞效果,同时具有促成语篇的层次性、连贯性 和整体性的功能.

Features of this poem metaphor1
? 4. Metaphysical poetry is noted for its playfulness戏谑 with extended延伸性 and sometimes exaggerated metaphors. The poem exhibits this feature. ? E.g.1 I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold ? Or all the riches that East doth hold. This exaggerated metaphor compare ? their emotion of their love To ? The emotion of the ownership of a whole mines of gold and the riches in East ? (The emotion of the physical wealth)

Features of this poem metaphor2
? E.g. My love is such that rivers cannot quench, Compare ? Her love To ? the fire, which cannot be put out by rivers Function:These two metaphors show that Bradstreet dictated by her emotion which was such great love for her husband.

Features of this poem Paradox
1. If ever two were one,then surely we. 2. That when we live no more,we may live ever.
They will be explained later.

Features of this poem
Simplicity of diction
? 6. Simplicity of diction ? This poem is not only admired for its vivid imagery,but also for its simplicity, directness of language, and unadorned 不加装饰的 affection. Her deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the love to her husband produced a kind of pure and profound poetry. It made the poem lyrical .

The influence of Puritanism
? 1. paradox I: ? e.g.If ever two were one,then surely we. How can two become one? (Genesis 2:24) "a man shall leave his father and his mother and hold fast to his wife, and they shall become one flesh." (Matthew 19:6)"so they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate." 「因此,人要离开父母与妻子连合,二人成为一体。」 (创世纪2:24) 「既然如此,夫妻不再是两个人,乃是一体的了。所 以神所配合的,人不可分开。」(马太福音19:6) ? Two individuals become one unit through a marriage that based on mutual love and respect.

The influence of Puritanism
? 1. paradox II: e.g.That when we live no more,we may live ever.

(John 3:16)For God so loved the world, that he gave
「神爱世人,甚至将他的独生子赐给他们,叫一切信他的,不至灭亡,反得永 生。」 ——约翰福音三章 16 节

his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

It determines the value of love when the person are alive, then if they are passed away.

The influence of Puritanism
? 2. "My love is such that rivers cannot quench"
? (Song of Solomon 8:7)Many waters cannot

quench love, neither can the floods drown it: if a man would give all the substance of his house for love, it would utterly be contemned.
「爱情众水不能熄灭,大水也不能淹没。若有人拿家中所有的财宝要换 爱情,就全被藐视。」(雅歌书8:7)

The influence of Puritanism
? 3. "I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold""Or all the riches that East doth hold."
? (Genesis 2:8)"And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in

Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed"2:10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 11The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone.
「耶和华神在东方的伊甸立了一个园子,把所造的人安置在那里。2:10 有河从伊甸流出来,滋润那园子,从那里分为四道。11 第一道名叫 比逊,就是环绕哈腓拉全地的。在那里有金子,12 并且那地的金子 是好的。在那里又有珍珠和红玛瑙。」(创世纪2:8)

? Edward Taylor (ca. 16421729)

Edward Taylor
1. Life

? Born in Sketchly, England and grew up as a nonconformist. ? After graduating from college, he became a schoolmaster, but his teaching career was cut short. ? In 1668 Taylor came to America and studied Theology at Harvard College. Graduating in 1671 with advanced standing, he chose to serve as a minister in a community of western Massachusetts. It was in that position that Taylor's spiritual preparation took a poetic turn.

Edward Taylor
? 2. Poetic characteristics: ? 1. That the word "meditation" occurs some 200 times in the titles of Taylor's poems strongly suggest that he is a meditative poet. ? 2. His poetry also shows an anguished search for God, an intense personal struggle with his spirituality and with Satan. ? 3. Taylor's meditations follow the same poetic structure: six-line stanzas, iambic pentameter, ababcc rhyme scheme.

? Taylor is the only known American poet who wrote in the metaphysical style. His best-known work is the conceit titled “Huswifery,” a direct comparison between weaving and God's salvation through divine grace.

–housekeeping –weaving

Pre-reading Discussion
? Discuss Edward Taylor's style carefully by identifying images of the rustic country, the influence of the Bible and his connection with the metaphysical school.

Make me, O Lord, Thy Spinning Wheel complete. ?????? Thy Holy Word my Distaff make for me. Make mine Affections Thy Swift Flyers neat ?????? And make my Soul Thy holy Spool to be. ?????? My conversation make to be Thy Reel ?????? And reel the yarn thereon spun of Thy Wheel.

? ? ? ?

主啊,将我做成你完美的纺车吧, 你的教诲做线杆,我的激情做梭子, 我的灵魂做线轴,我的谈话做线筒, 将纺出的线卷起搭在你的轮上。

http://www.rootsweb.a ncestry.com/~norway/i ndex001.html

? “I” was compared to a spinning wheel, each part of it reflects God’s will. ? Metaphysical conceit

http://danceswithwool.wor dpress.com/2009/06/

http://www.romanianmonasteries.org/images/ maramures/lifeandstyle/MaramuresLife&Style17.jpg

Swift [flyer]


Spool, bobbin, quill

http://www.apartm enttherapy.com/ui mages/ny/2-24spool-stool.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Sz1mz9 kArCU/SYDKmrxQz9I/AAAAAAA AAXM/2sE5gPIYuyw/s400/rainbo w+spool+lines.jpg


Reel fishing

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Make me thy Loom then, knit therein this Twine: ?????? And make Thy Holy Spirit, Lord, wind quills: Then weave the Web Thyself. The yarn is fine. ?????? Thine Ordinances make my Fulling Mills. ?????? Then dye the same in Heavenly Colors Choice, ??????All pinked with Varnished Flowers of Paradise.

http://www.spinner schoice.com/imag es/Weaving/loom_ t6.jpg

“I” was further extended to the process of looming upon which God weaves His clothes. The poet desires to receive God’s direct communion and to be accepted in heavenly paradise.


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http://www.dfwishart. co.uk/external/comm erce/1/gfx/hires/4330 000205.jpg

? Fulling is a process unique to making woollen cloth. It is essential as it thickens the woven cloth making it strong and fit for use. ? Fulling mill 蒸洗厂

Then clothe therewith mine Understanding, Will, Affections, Judgment, Conscience, Memory My Words, and Actions, that their shine may fill ?????? My ways with glory and Thee glorify. ?????? Then mine apparel shall display before Ye ?????? That I am Clothed in Holy robes for glory.

? Then after the clothe is done, it should also reflects my value and deeds which are directly reflecting the glory received from God. ? Only in this way can the clothe be a symbol of God’s grace.

? Give your account of the “witch-hunt” in Salem. ? What is Anne Hutchinson remembered for by later generations? What did she do that made her such a figure? ? What is the time span of the age of reason and revolution? ? Elaborate the literature features of this period. ? Name the representative authors in this period and their primary works. ? Read selected works of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin