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类比和反义词速记


abandon vt. 放弃,沉溺 to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon:inhibition=despair:hope abash a. 害羞的 to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement embolden←→abash/faze/cow abate v. 减轻,降低 to reduce in degree or intensity abate:tax=alleviate:distress abate←→intensify/promote abbreviate vt. 缩写,使...简略,缩短 to make briefer; especially :to reduce to a shorter form intended to stand for the whole abbreviate:sentence=abridgment:essay abbreviate←→extend abdicate v. 让位,辞职,放弃 to renounce a throne, high office, dignity, or function abdicate:throne=resign:office abdicate←→constitute abdicate←→assume aberrant a.脱离常轨的 deviating from the usual or natural type:ATYPICAL aberrant←→typical/normal abet vt. 教唆,帮助 to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose abet:assistance=counsel:guidance abet←→thwart/impede stymie←→abet frustrate←→abet abeyance n. 中止,暂搁,停止 temporary inactivity:SUSPENSION abeyance←→continuance abhor vt.憎恶 (n. abhorrence) to regard with extreme repugnance


abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness abiding a. 永久的,持久的,不变的 ENDURING, CONTINUING abiding←→evanescent abject adj. ①凄惨的 ②怯懦的 cast down in spirit:SERVILE, SPIRITLESS abject←→exultant abjure vt. 发誓放弃 to abstain from:AVOID abjure←→embrace/espouse abnegate vt. 放弃,舍弃,禁忌 SURRENDER, RELINQUISH abnegate←→reaffirm abolitionism n. 废除主义,废奴主义 principles or measures fostering abolition especially of slavery anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery abolitionist←→persiste in slavery arboretum n. 树园,植物园 a place where trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants are cultivated for scientific and educational purposes arboretum:trees=aviary:birds aboveboard a. 光明正大的,率直的 in a straightforward manner surreptitious←→barefaced/aboveboard abrasion n. 表面磨损(v. abrade) a wearing, grinding, or rubbing away by friction abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration scuff:abrasion=heat:vaporization abrade←→augment abridge vt. 删节,缩短,剥夺 to shorten by omission of words sense:CONDENSE abbreviate:sentence=abridgment:essay abrogate v. 废止,废除?


without

sacrifice

of

to abolish by authoritative action:ANNUL abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold abscond v. 潜逃,逃亡? to depart secretly and hide oneself abscond:depart=pilfer:take follow:shadow=leave:abscond lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart absolve vt.赦免;解除(责任等) to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt exculpatory:absolve=motivational:stir hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve absolve←→inculpate abstain vi. 自制,戒绝,弃权,避免 to refrain deliberately and often with an effort of self-denial from an action or practice mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain abstemious adj. 有节制的,节俭的 marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate { intransigence:control} reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge abstract a. 抽象的,不具体的;n. 摘要,提要 having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content abstract←→elaborate abstruse adj.深奥的 difficult to comprehend:RECONDITE abstruse←→accessible/patent abuse n./v. 辱骂,滥用? to attack in words:REVILE diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery polemic:disputatious=invective:abusive accede v.同意 to express approval or give consent:give in to a request or demand accelerate vt.vi. 加速 to move faster:gain speed


expedite:process=accelerate:pace accelerate←→retard accessible a. 易接近的,可进入的,易受影响的,可理解的 capable of being understood or appreciated abstruse←→accessible/patent accessory n. 附件 a thing of secondary or subordinate importance:ADJUNCT accessory←→of primarily importance accidental a. 意外的,偶然的 occurring unexpectedly or by chance inventiveness:accidental=effect:casual safeguard:accident=hedge:loss intentional:accidental=arrogant:humble acclimate vt.使习惯于新环境 to adapt to a new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation acclimate←→make unfamiliar with accolade n. 推崇备至,赞扬 an expression of praise accolade←→cutting remark/speak ill/derogate/denounce deplore←→accolade/extol accomodate v. 容纳,留宿,使...适应 to provide with something desired, needed, or suited (as a helpful service, a loan, or lodgings) obliterate:remove=accomodate:supply (不是 convey:conduct) accomplice n. 共犯,同谋 one associated with another especially in wrongdoing accost vt.向人搭话 to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way accost:approach accountability n. 有责任,有义务 an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one's actions accrete v. 共生,附着,增加


ACCUMULATE accrete:growth=erode:destruction accumulate vt.vi. 积聚,堆积 to gather or pile up especially little by little:AMASS accumulation←→dissipation accuse v. 责备,控告,谴责 to charge with a fault or offense:BLAME acme n.顶点,极点 the highest point or stage acquiesce v.勉强同意,默认 to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical acquiesce←→defy resist←→acquiesce acquisition n. 获得,添加物品 the act of acquiring divestiture←→acquisition acquit vt. 开释,释放,完成,表现 to discharge completely acrid a. 苦味的,辛辣的,尖刻的 sharp and harsh or unpleasantly odor:IRRITATING acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile grating:sound=acrid:odor stridency:sound=acridity:odor acrid←→gentle

pungent

in

taste

or

acrimonious a. 严厉的,辛辣的,刻毒的 caustic, biting, or rancorous especially in feeling, language, or manner acrimonious←→harmonious adamant a.强硬的,固执的 unshakable or immovable especially in opposition:UNYIELDING adamant:flexibility=refractory:control impossible:execute=adamant:moved


adamant:yield=cautious:gamble adamant←→vacillatory adamant←→moved adapt vt. 使适应,改编 to make fit (as for a specific or new use or situation) often by modification adapt←→remain unchanged addicted adj. 痴迷 to devote or surrender (oneself) to something habitually or obsessively inured:tolerance=addicted:dependency ad-hoc adv. 临时地,没有充分准备的 for the particular end or case at hand without consideration of wider application adjacent a. 毗连的,邻近的,接近的

adjourn vi. 延期,休会,换地方 to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place convoke←→adjourn adjudicator n. 评判员 one that act as judge adjunct n. 附属物,附件,修饰语 something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it adjunct:←→essential element ad-lib v. 即兴演唱,临时穿插,信口说出? without restraint or limit ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent admission n. 许可,入会费,承认 the act or process of admitting lottery:raffle=ticket:admission admonish v. 训诫,警告 to express warning or disapproval to especially in a gentle, earnest, or solicitous manner admonish:denounce=punish:pillory {persuade:convince}


peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation pretense:deceive=admonition:reprove alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory adore vt. 崇拜,爱慕,喜爱 to regard with loving admiration and devotion abhorrence:dislike=adoration:fondness adulate:fawn=woo:adore apprehension:terror=affection:adoration fascination:interest=adoration:fondness adroit adj. 熟练的,灵巧的 having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations loquacious:succinct=adroit:ungainly adroit←→ungainly adulate v. 谄媚,奉承 to flatter or admire excessively or slavishly adulate:fawn=woo:adorn aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore adulate←→scorn adulation←→disdain adulterate vt. 掺杂 to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior substance or element stickler approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration adversary n. 敌手,对手 one that contends with, opposes, or resists:ENEMY adversary←→ally advertise vt. 做广告,通知 to announce publicly especially by a printed notice or a broadcast advertising:commercial=publishing:journal advocate vt. 主张,提倡 to plead in favor of exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass aerate v. 充气,让空气进入? to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration


aerate:oxygen=hydrate:water aerial a. 空中的,航空的,空想的,空气的 of, relating to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere aerial:air=aquatic:water aesthetics n. 美学 a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste and with the creation and appreciation of beauty aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge philistine←→aesthete affable adj.易于交谈的,和蔼的 characterized by ease and friendliness affable←→irascible affected a. 假装的 assumed artificially or falsely:PRETENDED posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant affected←→natural affection n. 爱,情感,影响,病 tender attachment:FONDNESS apprehension:terror=affection:adoration embrace:affection=shrug:indifference scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust} antipathy←→affection affidavit n. 宣誓书 a sworn statement in writing made especially under oath or on affirmation before an authorized magistrate or officer affidavit=statement←→wedding:ceremony affiliation n.入会,加入 to bring or receive into close connection as a member or branch affiliation←→dissociation affinity n.密切关系,吸引力 likeness based on relationship or causal connection aloft←→affinity affinity←→aversion/hideous affliction n. 痛苦,苦恼,苦难 great suffering


affluent adj. 富裕的 n. 支流 having a generously sufficient and typically increasing supply of material possessions affluent←→needy impecunious←→wealthy/prosperous/affluent penury←→affluence indigent←→affluent agenda n.议程 a list or outline of things to be considered or done program:concert=agenda:meeting repertoire:performance=manifest:cargo=agenda:meeting aggrandize vt. 增加,夸大 to make appear great or greater:praise highly aggrandize←→disparage aggravate vt. 使恶化,使更严重加重 to make worse, more serious, or more severe:intensify unpleasantly succor←→aggravate ameliorate←→aggravate aggregate vt.vi. 聚集,集合,合计 to collect or gather into a mass or whole coalesce←→disaggregate disaffected←→content aggrieve vt. 使委屈,使苦恼,侵害 to give pain or trouble to:DISTRESS aggrieve←→gratify agony n. 极大的痛苦 intense pain of mind or body:ANGUISH, TORTURE agonized:distress=obsessed:concern painful:agonizing=important:paramount airtight a. 密闭的,不透气的,无懈可击的 airtight:loophole= alacrity n. 敏捷,轻快,乐意 promptness in response:cheerful readiness husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance


albino n. 白公,白化病者,白化变种 (or albinism) an organism exhibiting deficient pigmentation albino:pigment=prairie:tree alibi n.托辞,借口,辩解 an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory align v.定位,对齐,排成一行,结盟 to bring into line or alignment aligned←→askew awry←→orderly/aligned allay v. ①平息(愤怒等) ②缩小 to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity:ALLEVIATE allay←→increase the intensity of adversary←→ally allegiance n.忠诚,拥护 devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans allegory n. 寓意;寓言 the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence allegory:fiction alleviate v.缓和,减轻 RELIEVE, LESSEN abate:tax=alleviate:distress alleviate←→exacerbate alliterate v. 押头韵 the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables alliterate:remove=blazon:efface allude vi. 暗示,提及 to make indirect reference; broadly :REFER allude←→mention explicitly aloft ad. 在高处,在上的 at or to a great height aloft←→affinity
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founder←→stay aloft grounded←→aloft aloof a. 疏远的,冷淡的 removed or distant either physically or emotionally politic:offend=aloof:associate gregarious←→aloof alphabetical a.字母(表)的,ABC 的 arranged in the order of the letters of the alphabet dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological altruism n. 利他主义,不自私 unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others altruism←→egocentric amalgamate v. 合并,混合 to merge into a single body amalgamate←→separate/isolate amass v.积聚 to collect for oneself:ACCUMULATE ambiguous a.模棱两可的;分歧的 doubtful or uncertain especially from obscurity or indistinctness ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal watershed←→ambiguity ambivalent a. 矛盾的,好恶相克的 a:continual fluctuation (as between one thing and its opposite) b:uncertainty as to which approach to follow ambivalent←→commitment amble vi. 缓行,溜蹄 a leisurely walk walk:amble=talk:chat ambrosial a. 特别美味的 something extremely pleasing to taste or smell mellifluous:music=ambrosial:food ameliorate vt. 改善,改良,变好
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to make better or more tolerable ameliorate←→aggravate amenity n. 适意,温和,礼仪 something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful amenable←→inimical amiable a. 亲切的,和蔼可亲的 being friendly, sociable, and congenial inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable amicable a. 友 善 的 , 和 平 的 goodwill:PEACEABLE inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable amiss a. 有毛病的,出差错的 in a faulty way:IMPERFECTLY amorphous adj. 无定形的,散漫的? having no definite form:SHAPELESS amorphous:shape=errant:course amphibian n. 两栖动物,水陆两用飞机,水陆两用车 any of a class (Amphibian) of cold-blooded vertebrates (as frogs, toads, or salamanders) intermediate in many characters between fishes and reptiles and having gilled aquatic larvae and air-breathing adults eaglet:bird=frog:amphibian amplify vt. 扩大,详述,使增幅 to make larger or greater (as intensity):INCREASE mute←→amplify characterized by friendly

in

amount,

importance,

or

amplitude n.广大;充足;振幅 the quality or state of being ample:FULLNESS amplitude←→meagerness anaerobic a.厌氧的. anaerobe n.厌氧微生物 living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen anaerobic←→living in oxygen anaerobic←→respiration

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analgesic n.镇痛剂, a.止痛的 insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic pain:analgesic=symptom:palliative analgesia:pain=simplify:complexity tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden analogy n. 类似,相似,类比,类推 a:resemblance in some particulars between unlike:SIMILARITY b:comparison based on such resemblance analysis n. 分析 separation of a whole into its component parts synthesis←→analysis anarchist n. 无政府主义者 one who rebels against any authority, established order, or ruling power anarchist:government=abolitionist:slavery anarchist:rebel=apologist:defend anarchy←→order anathema n. 诅咒 the denunciation of something as accursed panegyric←→anathema ancestor n. 祖先,祖宗 one from whom a person is descended and who is usually more remote in the line of descent than a grandparent heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator anecdote n. 短故事,轶事 a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident anecdote:amusement=lecture:instruction=caption:illustration anesthetic a.麻醉的 ,麻醉剂的 lacking awareness or sensitivity analgesic:pain=anesthetic:sensation aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs pain:analgesic:sensation:anesthetic
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things

otherwise

sensation←→anesthesia anew ad. 重新,再 in a new or different form angle n. 角,角落 ;夺取、追逐 to turn, move, or direct at an angle anhydrous a. 无水的 free from water and especially water of crystallization anhydrous←→wet animation n. 活泼,生气,卡通制作 possessing or characterized by life:ALIVE lassitude←→vim/animation annals n. 纪年表,年鉴,年报 a record of events arranged in yearly sequence dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological annoy vt. 使苦恼,骚扰 to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts mawkish:sentimental=peeve:annoy testy:annoy=tractable:control annul v. 宣告无效,取消 to declare or make legally invalid or void annul←→make legal anodyne n. 止痛药 something that soothes, calms, or comforts anomalous a. 不规则的,反常的 inconsistent with or deviating from what is usual, normal, or expected:IRREGULAR, UNUSUAL anomaly:paradigmatic=blemish:flawless anomalous←→typical/conformity to norms anonymous a.匿名的 not named or identified anonymous:identify=nonchalant:excite antagonize vt. 使成敌人,敌对,反对 to incur or provoke the hostility of
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placate←→antagonize synergic←→antagonistic propitiate←→antagonize mollify←→antagonize/ire antennae n. 天线,触须,触角 one of a pair of slender movable segmented sensory organs on the head of insects, myriapods, and crustaceans {antennae:butterfly} anterior a. 前面的,在前的 coming before in time or development anterior←→ensuing anthology n.诗集,文选 a collection of selected literary pieces or passages or works of art or music compendium:summary=anthology:collection antic adj 古怪的,笨拙的 characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity facetious:speech=antic:behavior anticipatory adj. 1 预想,预期的 2 占先的,先发制人的 to give advance thought, discussion, or treatment to retrospective←→anticipatory antidote n. 解毒剂,解药 a remedy to counteract the effects of poison antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation remedy:disease=antidote:poisoning antipathy n. 憎恶,反感 settled aversion or dislike:DISTASTE antipathy←→affection antique a. 旧式的,过时的 existing since or belonging to earlier times:ANCIENT antiseptic n. 杀菌剂,防腐剂 opposing sepsis, putrefaction, or decay; oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect antonym n. 反义字,反义语,对语
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a word of opposite meaning anvil n. 铁砧 a heavy usually steel-faced iron block on which metal is shaped hammer:anvil=pestle:mortar apathy n. 漠然,冷淡 lack of feeling or emotion:IMPASSIVENESS ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic apex n. 顶点,最高点 the highest or culminating point aphorism n. 格言 a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment:ADAGE brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature apocalyptic adj 预示灾祸的,启示的 forecasting the ultimate destiny of the world:PROPHETIC apocalyptic←→inconsequential apocrypha n. 伪经,伪书? writings or statements of dubious authenticity apologist n.辩护士(尤指卫护基督教教义的辩护者) one who speaks or writes in defense of someone or something saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend apologist←→critic/detractor apophasis n. 『修』故抑其词,以求婉达 apophasis:claim=oxymoron:paradox apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate apoplectic adj.中风的,易怒的 greatly agitated apoplectic←→calm apostasy n. 背教,脱党 renunciation of a religious faith apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy apostasy←→fidelity

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apostrophe n 书写中撇号(') (表示省略或所有格) a mark ' used to indicate the omission of letters or figures, the possessive case, or the plural of letters or figures apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence appall vt. 使胆寒,使惊骇 to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay appall←→embolden/nerve encourage←→appall apparel vt. 使穿衣,装饰 to put clothes on:DRESS gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak tonsorial:hair=sartorial:apparel appeal vi. 求助,诉请,要求 to make an earnest request remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal appealing a. 引起兴趣的,动人的 having appeal:PLEASING noisome←→appealing appease vt. 安抚,缓和,平息,满足 to bring to a state of peace or quiet:CALM roil←→clarify/appease vex←→pacify/appease/soothe appease←→rile appetite n. 食欲,欲望,爱好 an inherent craving voracity←→lack of appetite applause n. 鼓掌,喝彩,赞许 approval publicly expressed mirth:laughter=approval:applause approve:applause=?? applicant n. 申请者,请求者 one who applies remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal appoint vt. 任命,指定,命令 to name officially appoint:official=cast:actor
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apposite adj. 适当的,恰切的 highly pertinent or appropriate:APT apposite←→extraneous appreciable a. 可感知的,可评估的 capable of being perceived or measured appreciable←→imperceptible apprehension n. 理解,忧惧,逮捕 suspicion or fear especially of future evil:FOREBODING apprehension:terror=affection:adoration apprentice n. 学徒,生手 an inexperienced person:NOVICE approbation n. 认可,嘉许 COMMENDATION, PRAISE praise:approbation=demur:objection censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible appropriate a. 适当的 especially suitable or compatible:FITTING meet←→inappropriate/unsuitable apt←→extremely inappropriate appropriate v. 盗用 to take or make use of without authority or right lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart approve vt. 赞同,核准,证实 to have or express a favorable opinion of mirth:laughter=approval:applause approve:applause=?? substantiate←→disapprove approximate a. 大约的,近似的 nearly correct or exact paraphrase:verbatim=approximate:precise stickler:approximation/imprecision=purist:adulteration apt a.易于... unusually fitted or qualified:READY apt←→extremely inappropriate
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apt←→unlikely aquatic a. 水生的,水中的,水上的 growing or living in or frequenting water aerial:air=aquatic:water aqueduct n. 高架渠,渡槽 a conduit for water aqueduct:water=pipeline:gas=vessel:blood aquifer n. 含水土层((含水量足以成为井水或泉水)) a water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel shaft:lode=well:aquifer arboreal adj. 树木的 of, relating to, or resembling a tree arboreal:trees=sidereal:stars archaic a.古老的 of, relating to, or characteristic of an earlier or more primitive time:ANTIQUATED evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency archaic←→current archipelago n. 群岛,多岛海 an expanse of water with many scattered islands range:mountain=chain:link={archipelago:island } archetype n. 原型 the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies:PROTOTYPE; also :a perfect example harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify archive n. 档案文件 a place in which public records or historical documents are preserved archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon archive:records=museum=artifacts arctic a. 北极的,极寒的 bitter cold:FRIGID torrid←→arctic ardor n. 热心,热情
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extreme vigor or energy:INTENSITY assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor argot n. 隐语,暗语,暗号 an often more or less secret vocabulary and idiom peculiar to a particular group argot←→standard language/common verbalism arid a.干旱的 excessively dry marsh:sodden=desert:arid arid←→damp armory n. 纹章,纹章学,军械库,兵工厂 a place where arms and military equipment are stored pantry:food=armory:weapons arrest vt. 拘捕,妨碍,吸引,阻止 to make inactive arrest←→vitalize arresting adj. 引人注意的; 醒目的; 有趣的 catching the attention:STRIKING, IMPRESSIVE blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting arresting←→banal arrhythmic a. 无节奏的 lacking rhythm or regularity arrhythmic←→regular arrogance n.傲慢,自大 a feeling or an impression of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or presumptuous claims mean:prodigality=meek:arrogance confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory intentional:accidental:arrogant:humble arsenal n. 兵工厂,军械库 a:an establishment for the manufacture or storage of arms and military equipment b:a collection of weapons archive:manuscript=arsenal:weapon articulate vt. 以关节连接,接合,明白地说
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to give clear and effective utterance to:put into words ratiocination:thinking:articulation:talking artifacts n. 史前古器物 something created by humans usually for a practical purpose; especially :an object remaining from a particular period archive:records=museum=artifacts artifice n. 巧办法,诡计 false or insincere behavior artifice←→candor artless adj. 朴质; 率直; 拙劣 free from guile or craft:sincerely simple blemish:impeccable=guile:artless artless←→cunning/guile artlessness←→urbanity sly←→artless artless←→disingenuous ascendant n. 运星,运道,支配力,优势 governing or controlling influence:DOMINATION ascendant←→having no influence ascent n. 上升,上坡路 an upward slope or rising grade:ACCLIVITY ascetic adj. 禁欲的 n. 苦行者 austere in appearance, manner, or attitude glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial sybarite←→ascetic voluptuary←→ascetic indulgent←→ascetic aseptic adj. 无菌的,洁净的 preventing infection aseptic:disinfections=anesthetic:numbs askew adj. 歪斜的 v. 歪斜,弯曲 out of line:AWRY aligned←→askew{curve} asperity n.粗鲁,艰苦 roughness of manner or of temper:HARSHNESS
21

asperity:optimistic=?? asperity←→mildness of temper aspiration n.渴望,热望 a strong desire to achieve something high or great audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration assert vt. 主张,声明,断言 to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony assess v.估价,评价 to determine the importance, size, or value of assess:value=plumb:depth asset n. 资产,有用的东西 the entire property of a person, association, corporation, or estate applicable or subject to the payment of debts asset←→liability assiduous adj.勤勉的,专心的 marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application assiduous←→remiss assuage vt. 缓和,减轻,镇定 to lessen the intensity of (something that pains or distresses):EASE assuage:sorrow=dampen:ardor assuage←→intensify/inflame gall←→calm/assuage assume vt. 假定,承担,摆架子 to take to or upon oneself:UNDERTAKE abdicate←→assume assume←→refuse unassuming←→overbearing astounding a. 令人惊骇的 causing astonishment or amazement indelible:forget=astounding:expect astute a. 机敏的,狡猾的 having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity asunder ad.分开,化为碎片
22

into parts asymmetrical adj. 不匀称的,不对称的,不均匀的 not symmetrical circular:asymmetrical:protean:rigid asylum n. 庇护,收容所 an inviolable place of refuge and protection giving shelter to criminals and debtors:SANCTUARY refugee:asylum atone v. 赎罪,补偿 to supply satisfaction for:EXPIATE atrocious adj.残忍的,凶恶的 (n. atrocity) extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel:BARBARIC atrocious:bad=momentous:important attenuate v.变薄,变弱 to lessen the amount, force, magnitude, or value of:WEAKEN attenuate:force=decelerate:speed attenuate:thickness=cool:temperature/enervate=vitality/debilitate: strength collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness debase:value=attenuate:force auction n.拍卖 a sale of property to the highest bidder audacious adj. 大胆的,愚勇的 intrepidly daring:ADVENTUROUS audacious:trepidation=laconic:aspiration audacious:cautious=?? circumspect←→audacious/reckless/direct encounter audible a. 听得见的 heard or capable of being heard audible:stentorian=discernable:obvious augur n. 占兆官,占卜师,相命者 to foretell especially from omens augur:predict=pundit:opine intercessor:mediate=augur:prediction pundit:opinion=augur:prediction
23

worship:sacrifice=prediction:augury augury:appearance=?? auspicious adj.吉兆的;幸运的 affording a favorable auspice:PROPITIOUS auspicious←→boding ill austere a.朴素的,(人)正经的;(经济)紧缩的 markedly simple or unadorned abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate baroque←→austere authenticity n. 确实性,真实性 not false or imitation:REAL, ACTUAL authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical genuine:authenticity=honest:trust discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic authority n. 权威,专家,威信 power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention authoritativeness:pundits=allegiance:partisans contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:chang e/innovation/novelty avarice n.贪婪 excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain:GREEDINESS, CUPIDITY avarice:money=gluttony:food stoic:perturb=avaricious:satisfy aversion n.嫌恶,憎恨 a feeling of repugnance toward something with a desire to avoid or turn from aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration aversion:inclination=?? affinity←→aversion aversion←→court penchant←→aversion propensity←→aversion avid adj.热切的,贪婪的 characterized by enthusiasm and vigorous pursuit reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm
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avid←→indifferent awash a. 与水面齐平的,被浪冲打的 covered with water:FLOODED awash←→dry awe n. 敬畏 an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder that is inspired by authority or by the sacred or sublime redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard awe←→irreverence awkward a. 笨拙的 lacking dexterity or skill craven:admirable=deft:awkward dexterous:awkward=?? lithe←→awkward svelte←→paunchy and awkward awl n. 锥子,尖钻 a pointed tool for marking surfaces or piercing small holes (as in leather or wood) awl:pierce=pestle:hash awning n.雨篷,遮阳篷 a rooflike cover extending over or in front of a place (as over the deck or in front of a door or window) as a shelter awning:sun=umbrella:rain awry adj. 扭曲的,走样的 in a turned or twisted position or direction:ASKEW awry←→orderly/aligned babble vt.唠叨;说话不清 to utter meaningless or unintelligible sounds babble:sense=parrot=originality babble←→express succinctly backdrop n. 背景幕,背景 a painted cloth hung across the rear of a stage placebo:painkiller=backdrop:vista backset SETBACK n. 倒退,逆流,涡流

25

backset←→hike badge n. 半自动防空警戒管制组织,徽章,标记 a device or token especially of membership in a society or group chevron:badge=caisson:cart badger vt. 纠缠 to harass or annoy persistently badger:bother=belabor:mention badinage n. 打趣,嘲弄 playful repartee:BANTER badinage←→serious conversation bait n.饵;引诱物 ENTICE, LURE bait←→disarm baleful adj. 邪恶的,恶意的 deadly or pernicious in influence balk n. 障碍,错误,失败 vt. 阻止,突然停止,退缩 to check or stop by or as if by an obstacle:BLOCK balk←→move ahead willingly balky a. 停蹄不前的 refusing or likely to refuse to proceed, act, or function as directed or expected balky←→tractable ballad n. 民谣 a narrative composition in rhythmic verse suitable for singing ballad:stanza=novel:chapter ballet n. 芭蕾舞 a theatrical art form using dancing, music, and scenery to convey a story, theme, or atmosphere instrumentalist:symphony=dancer:ballet balm n. 香油,药膏; 安慰; 慰藉 a soothing restorative agency antidote:poisoning=balm:irritation balm←→irritant inclement←→balmy
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balmy←→piquant bamboozle v. 欺骗,隐瞒 to deceive by underhanded methods:DUPE, HOODWINK ban n. 禁令 to prohibit especially by legal means

ban:protect

banal a.陈腐的 lacking originality, freshness, or novelty:TRITE equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal arresting←→banal banal←→novel banality←→freshness trite←→unbanal baneful adj.有害的,致祸的 productive of destruction or woe:seriously harmful banish vt. 驱逐,消除 to drive out or remove from a home or place of usual resort or continuance evict:residence=banish:country banister n. 栏杆的支柱,楼梯的扶栏 a handrail with its supporting posts staircase:banister=garden:fence barb n. 尖锐而严厉的批评 a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment barb:caustic=pan:harsh barefaced a. 公然的,无耻的,无面具的 a:OPEN, UNCONCEALED b:lacking scruples barefaced←→surreptitious bargain n. 交易,买卖,物美价廉的东西 to negotiate over the terms of a purchase, agreement, or contract:HAGGLE debate:issue=bargain:price baroque characterized n./adj. (艺术、建筑等)高度装饰的,过份雕琢的 by grotesqueness, extravagance, complexity,
27

or

flamboyance baroque←→austere barter n. 物物交换,实物交易 to trade by exchanging one commodity for another correspond:letters=barter:commodities jog:exercise=barter:trade base a. 卑鄙的,低级的 being of comparatively low value and having relatively inferior properties debase:value=attenuate:force base←→virtuous base←→noble sublime←→base/common baseboard n. 护壁板,脚板 a molding covering the joint of a wall and the adjoining floor veneer:furniture=baseboard:wall bathetic adj. 平凡的,陈腐的,顿降的 exceptional commonplaceness:TRITENESS bedeck vt. 装饰,修饰 to clothe with finery:DECK bedeck←→strip bedlam n. 混乱,骚乱,疯人院 a place, scene, or state of uproar and confusion tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive belabor vt. 冗长的解释,痛打 to explain or insist on excessively badger:bother=belabor:mention beleaguer vt. 使困扰,使烦恼,围攻 TROUBLE, HARASS beleaguer←→delight belie v. ①掩饰,②证明为假 to show (something) to be false or wrong belie←→affirm belittle vt. 轻视,使渺小
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to speak slightingly of:DISPARAGE belletristic a. 文学研究的,纯文学的

bellicose adj. 好战的,好斗的 favoring or inclined to start quarrels or wars imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable bellicose←→appeasing belligerence n. 交战,好战性,斗争性 an aggressive or truculent attitude, atmosphere, or disposition bemoan vt. 惋惜,认为遗憾,哀叹 to express deep grief or distress over bend vi. 弯曲,屈服 to make submissive:SUBDUE,COMPROMISE bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble benediction n. 祝福 the invocation of a blessing curse←→benediction beneficent a. 仁慈的,慈善的,善行的 doing or producing good; especially :performing acts of kindness and charity beneficent:harm=tenacious:yield philanthropist:beneficence=comedian:humor noxious←→beneficial toxic←→beneficial bequest n. 遗赠物,遗产,遗赠 something bequeathed:LEGACY heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator beseech v. 祈求,恳求? to request earnestly:IMPLORE supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious besmirch v. 诽谤,玷污? SULLY, SOIL besmirch←→honor betray vt.背叛;辜负;泄漏
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to deliver to an enemy by treachery bibliophile n. 爱书者,藏书家 a lover of books especially for qualities of format; also :a book collector bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} bigot n. (宗教,政治等的)盲信者,顽固者 a person obstinately or intolerantly devoted to his or her own opinions and prejudices bigot:tolerance=turncoat:constancy bigot=dedication=rage:anger bigoted:advice=conservative:change posturer:unaffected=bigot:tolerant bigot:tolerant:provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination} bit n. 钻头 the jaws of tongs or pincers bit:drill=blade:razor blackout n.(幕间或剧中)灯暗;临时眩晕;删除;新闻封锁) a blotting out by censorship:SUPPRESSION bland a. 温和的,乏味的,冷漠的 DULL, INSIPID pungency←→blandness tangy←→bland blandishment n.奉承 something that tends to coax or cajole:ALLUREMENT blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive blandishment←→threat blase adj. 1 对享乐 [人生] 等厌倦的 apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence or enjoyment miser:munificent:zealot:blase blaspheme vt.vi. 亵渎 REVILE, ABUSE blast n.一阵(风) ;v. 爆破 a violent gust of wind blast:whiff=gush:trickle

30

blatant adj. 喧哗的,无耻的? completely obvious, conspicuous, or obtrusive especially in a crass or offensive manner:BRAZEN ambiguous:understand=blatant:ignore blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting blatant←→inconspicuous/unimpressive/unobtrusive blatant←→subtle blazon vt. 以家徽装饰,宣布 to publish widely:PROCLAIM alliterate:remove=blazon:efface blazon:adorn=pillar:support blazon←→efface bleach vt. 漂白 to remove color or stains from blemish v. 损害,玷污 n. 瑕疵,缺点 to spoil by a flaw blemish:impeccable=guile:artless blender n. 混合的人,混合器,搅拌器 an electric appliance for grinding or mixing blight n. 植物枯萎病 v. 使…枯萎? a disease or injury of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of parts without rotting blighted←→hale blimp n. 软式小型飞船,顽固的保守分子 a nonrigid airship bliss n.狂喜 complete happiness dislike:loathing=pleasure:bliss blunder v.犯大错 n.愚蠢之举 a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness protocol:blunder=bumper:damage blunt a. 钝的,坦率的,麻痹的 blunt←→whet

31

blurb n. 大肆宣传 a short publicity notice blurb:notice=gloss:explanation bluster vt. 风狂吹,咆哮,汹涌 to talk or act with noisy swaggering threats blustering:speak=swaggering:walk pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate :aimless boding n. 凶兆,前兆,预感 an omen, prediction, or presentiment evil:PORTENT ,FOREBODING auspicious←→boding ill

especially

of

coming

boggle vi. 犹豫,踌躇,吃惊,搪塞 to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples boggle←→embolden boisterous adj. 喧闹的,欢闹的 noisily turbulent:ROWDY boisterous←→quiet bolster n. 枕垫 v. 支持,鼓励 a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing bolster:support=tackle:hoist bombast n. 夸大的言辞 pretentious inflated speech or writing nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast bombast←→down to earth language/understated/unpretentious bonhomie n. 好性情,温和,和蔼 good-natured easy friendliness congenial:bonhomie=?? bonhomie:good natured=?? bonus n. 奖金,红利 something in addition to what is expected or strictly due bonus:employee={decoration:soldier} boon n. 恩惠 BENEFIT, FAVOR
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boon←→misfortune boor n. 粗野的人,不懂礼貌的人,农民 a rude or insensitive person insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp bootless a. 无用的,无益者 USELESS, UNPROFITABLE bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile bore vt. 使烦扰,钻孔 to make a hole by or as if by boring die:shaping=drill:boring entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore bottleneck n.瓶颈口,(喻)交通易阻塞的狭口;妨碍生产流程的一环 NARROW {bottleneck:indefinite} bough n. 大树枝 a branch of a tree; especially :a main branch box vi. 拳击 to fight with the fists:engage in boxing box:fight:debate:argue bracing adj. 增加气力的,令人振奋的,提神的,使心神清爽的 giving strength, vigor, or freshness bracing←→vapid bracket n. 支架,括弧,托架 an overhanging member that projects from a structure (as a wall) and is usually designed to support a vertical load or to strengthen an angle buttress:wall=bracket:shelf brackish a. 有盐味的,可厌的 REPULSIVE brackish:repulse braided adj. 编织成的,梳成辫子的,编成缏的;束 made by intertwining three or more strands grooved:striated=braided:stranded
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brake n. 刹车,阻碍,丛林 to retard or stop by a brake divert:shunt=retard:brake brash a. 性急的,仓促的,无礼的,傲慢的 done in haste without regard for consequences frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion brassy a. 似黄铜的,厚脸皮的 being shamelessly bold diffident←→brassy furtive←→open/forthright/brassy brassy←→humble brattish adj. (指小孩) 讨厌的; 宠坏的; 不听话的; 不礼貌的 an ill-mannered annoying child tightfisted:parsimonious=brattish:mischievous bravura adj. 雄壮华丽的,气势磅礴的 marked by an ostentatious display of skill bravura:performance=resplendent:appearance brazen a. 黄铜制的,厚颜无耻的 marked by contemptuous boldness impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive brazen←→modest breach v. 毁坏,泄密 n. 缺口? to make a breach in breach←→solder solder←→breach breezeway n. 有屋顶的通路 a roofed often open passage connecting two buildings (as a house and garage) or halves of a building breezeway:building=stairway:floor brevity n.简短,简洁 shortness or conciseness of expression brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram bribe v. & n. 贿赂,收买
34

to induce or influence by or as if by bribery bribe:incorruptible=affect:insensible bridle v. 限制,阻止 to restrain, check, or control with or as if with a bridle bridled←→without restraint brisk a. 敏锐的,凛冽的,活泼的 keenly alert:LIVELY ponderous←→lively/vibrant/briskly bristle n. 硬毛 v. 气势汹汹,直立,发怒,充满 to take on an aggressive attitude or appearance (as in response to a slight) bristle←→cower brittle a. 易碎的,脆弱的,易坏的 easily broken, cracked, or snapped manifest:perceive=brittle:break broach v. ①开瓶 ②提出(问题) to open for the first time broach←→close off bromide n. 溴化物(镇静药用) ,平庸的人或物 a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed browbeat vt. (用神情、言词) 威吓; 严词厉色地斥责 instigator:incite=bully:browbeat bruit vt. 散播 to noise abroad:REPORT bruit←→keep secret buck n. ①雄鹿 ②美元 to refuse assent:BALK buck←→assent to v. (马)跳跃,反对,吹牛,闲聊

bucolic adj. 乡村的,牧羊的 relating to or typical of rural life palatial:hovel=city:bucolic bucolic←→urban

35

budge vi. 移动,微微一动,放弃 to give way:YIELD palter:candor=diehard:budge buffoon n.丑角,缺乏教养之人 a ludicrous figure:CLOWN ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag bully n. 欺凌弱小者,土霸 one habitually cruel to others who are weaker instigator:incite:bully:browbeat underdog←→bully bumper n. 缓冲器,满杯,丰收 a device for absorbing shock or preventing damage protocol:blunder=bumper:damage bumptious a. 瞎自夸的,瞎自大的,傲慢的 presumptuously, obtusely, and often self-assertive:OBTRUSIVE dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness bumptious←→humble bung n. (桶口等的) 塞子 the stopper especially in the bunghole of a cask bungle vt.vi. 拙劣地工作,粗制滥造,失败 to act or work clumsily and awkwardly bungle←→bring off buoy vt. 使浮起,支撑,鼓励 SUPPORT, UPLIFT buoyed←→unsupported buoyant adj.易浮的,快乐的 a:capable of floating b:CHEERFUL, GAY bend:rigid=submerge:buoyant=dissolve:insoluble hangdog←→buoyant buoyant←→sink burgeon v. 迅速成长,发展 to grow and expand rapidly:FLOURISH burgeon←→wither
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noisily

burgeon←→subdue burial n.安葬,埋葬,埋藏 the act or process of burying inter:burial=obliterate:removal burlesque n. 讽刺或滑稽的戏剧 mockery usually by caricature diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery doggerel:verse=burlesque:play burnish v. 擦亮,磨光 to make shiny or lustrous especially by rubbing numb:insensible:burnish:lustrous burrow n. (兔子等)所掘的地洞,v. 挖洞 to construct by tunneling ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern buttress n.扶墙,拱壁 a projecting structure of masonry or wood for supporting or giving stability to a wall or building strut:wing=buttress:wall buttress:wall=bracket:shelf buttress v.支持 to furnish or shore up STRENGTHEN contravene←→buttress

with

a

buttress;

also

:SUPPORT,

bygone n. 过去的事,往事 gone by:PAST; especially :OUTMODED byline n. (列作者名字的)报刊文章首行? a line at the beginning of a news story, magazine article, or book giving the writer's name article:byline=movie:credits cabal n. 徒党,秘密结社,(尤指政治上的)阴谋 the artifices and intrigues of a group of persons secretly united to bring about an overturn or usurpation especially in public affairs cabal:association=plot:plan cacophony n. 刺耳的声音
37

harsh or discordant sound:DISSONANCE cacophony:sound=malodor:scent cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious cadge v.行乞,乞求 BEG, SPONGE cadge←→earn !caisson n. 弹药箱,弹药车,潜水箱(水中工程用) a usually 2-wheeled vehicle for artillery ammunition attachable to a horse-drawn limber chevron:badge=caisson:cart cajole v. (以甜言蜜语)哄骗 to persuade with flattery or gentle urging especially in the face of reluctance:COAX blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede calamitous a. 多灾难的,不幸的 being, causing, or accompanied by calamity calcify vi. 变成石灰质,钙化 to make inflexible or unchangeable

calcification←→flexibility

calibrate vt. 测定口径,校准,查看刻度,划刻度 to determine, rectify, or mark the graduations of measure:dimensions=calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:d epth calibrated←→unstandardized calligrapher n. 书法家 one who writes a beautiful hand bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} callow adj. (鸟)未生羽毛的, (人)未成熟的 lacking adult sophistication:IMMATURE frank:secretiveness=callow:maturity callow←→behaving with adult sophistication callus n. 皮肤的硬结,胼胝,(植物伤口的)愈合组织 a thickening of or a hard thickened area on skin or bark gully:erosion=callus:friction calorie n. 卡路里
38

the amount of heat required at a pressure of one atmosphere to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to about 4.19 joules power:watt=heat:calorie=decibel:sound=volt:electricity calumniate v. 诽谤,中伤( adj. Calumnious) to utter maliciously false statements, charges, or imputations about corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood calumny:assertion=perjury:testimony calumniate←→vindicate calumnious:←→flattering calumny←→approbation cameo n. 刻有浮雕的宝石或贝壳 a small piece of sculpture on a stone or shell cut in relief in one layer with another contrasting layer serving as background peccadillo:offense=cameo:sculpture candidate n. 候选人,投考者 one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office, membership, or award roster:personnel=slate:candidate ballot:candidates=?? candor n. 坦白,直率 unreserved, honest, or sincere expression:FORTHRIGHTNESS palter:candor=diehard:budge artifice←→candor canon n. 教会法规,圣典,准则 (1)the authentic works of a writer (2)a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council religion:devoutness canon:orthodoxy canon←→apocrypha canonical←→nontraditional cantankerous adj.脾气坏的,好争吵的 difficult or irritating to deal with canvas n. 帆布,画布,油画 a piece of cloth backed or framed as a surface for a painting canvas:painter=marble:sculptor canvass v.游说
39

to seek orders or votes:SOLICIT exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass canyon n. 峡谷,溪谷 a deep narrow valley with steep sides and often with a stream flowing through it ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern capitulate v. (有条件地)投降 to cease resisting:ACQUIESCE acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical capitulate←→resist capitulation←→resistance caprice n.异想天开 a sudden, impulsive, and seemingly unmotivated notion or action caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate capricious←→steadfast caprice←→confirmation caption n. 说明,字幕,标题 the part of a legal document that shows where, when, and by what authority it was taken, found, or executed captivate vt. 迷住,迷惑 to influence and dominate by some special charm, art, or trait and with an irresistible appeal captivate←→repulse careworn a. 疲倦的,饱经忧患的 showing the effect of grief or anxiety careworn←→lighthearted caricature n. 讽刺画,滑稽模仿 exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of parts or characteristics brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature caricature:presentation exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature carouse vi. 痛饮,畅饮 to drink liquor deeply or freely
40

roisterer:carouse=recluse:withdraw carp vi. 吹毛求疵,挑剔 to find fault or complain querulously caviler:carping=libertine:licentious complain:carp=drink:guzzle cartographer n. 绘制地图者 one that makes maps cartographer:map=tailor:clothing/lexicographer:dictionary cast n. 演员阵容,投掷,性质 the set of actors in a dramatic production appoint:official=cast:actor letter:signature=playbill:cast castigation n. 申斥,强烈反对? to subject to severe punishment, reproof, or criticism castigation:disapproval=misbehave:crime castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial/glorification:merit peccadillo:sin=admonishment:castigation catalyze vt. 催化 BRING ABOUT, INSPIRE catalyze←→retard !cataract n. 大瀑布,奔流,洪水,白内障 WATERFALL; especially :a large one over a precipice catastrophe n. 大灾难,大祸 a momentous tragic event ranging from extreme misfortune to utter overthrow or ruin catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment categorical adj. 无条件的,绝对的 ABSOLUTE, UNQUALIFIED acquiesce:yield=capitulate:categorical categorical←→qualified/conditional cater vi.迎合,投合 to supply what is required or desired catholic a.天主教的,宽宏大量的,一般的,普遍的 COMPREHENSIVE, UNIVERSAL; especially :broad in sympathies,
41

tastes, or interests catholic←→narrow caustic adj.腐蚀性的,刻薄的 marked by incisive sarcasm barb:caustic=pan:harsh caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry caustic:smoothing:?? caustic←→palliating/genial !caveat n.警告; 防止误解的说明 a warning enjoining one from certain acts or practices overture:introductory=caveat:warning cavern n. 巨穴,洞窟 CAVE; especially :one of large or indefinite extent ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern cavil v.挑毛病,吹毛求疵 to raise trivial and frivolous objection cavil:criticize=probe:investigate caviler:carping=libertine:licentious encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil nitpick:criticize=cavil:object nitpicker:criticize=preacher:sermon=quibbler:cavil !cavort vi. 腾跃 to walk or move in a spirited manner dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly cede vt. 放弃 to yield or grant typically by treaty cede:possess=?? celebrity n. 名声,名人 the state of being celebrated celebrity←→obscurity cement n.水泥;胶粘剂 to unite or make firm by or as if by cement cement←→fracture censor vt. 检查,审查,删改 to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered
42

:PRANCE

objectionable censorship:communication=preservative:decay censorship:information=sanitation:disease vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate censorious a. 受批判的,挑剔的 marked by or given to censure censure n./v. 责难,非难 to find fault with and criticize as blameworthy lamentable:pity=reprehensible:censure remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure censure:blameless=approbation:reprehensible exonerate←→censure extol←→censure census n. 户口普查 a count of the population census:population=inventory:stock centrifuge n. 离心分离机 a machine using centrifugal force for separating substances of different densities, for removing moisture, or for simulating gravitational effects centrifuge:separate=colander:drain ceremony n. 典礼,仪式,礼节 a formal act or series of acts prescribed by ritual, protocol, or convention affidavit:statement=wedding:ceremony cessation n. 中止, (短暂的)停止 a temporary or final ceasing (as of action):STOP cessation←→commencement chaff n. 谷壳,糠,揶揄 the seed coverings and other debris separated from the seed in threshing grain winnow:chaff=filter:impurities chagrin n. 懊恼 disquietude or distress disappointment, or failure

of

mind

caused

by

humiliation,

43

chamber n. 室,房间,枪膛 a. 室内的 a natural or artificial enclosed space or cavity chameleon n. 变色龙,善变的人,轻浮的人 any of a family (Chameleon ) of chiefly arboreal Old World lizards with prehensile tail, independently movable eyeballs, and unusual ability to change the color of the skin salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist champion vt. 保卫,拥护 to act as militant supporter of:UPHOLD, ADVOCATE champion←→disparage impugn←→champion charade n. 看手势猜字谜游戏 a word represented in riddling verse or by picture, tableau, or dramatic action charade:word=mime:story charade:dissimulate=?? charlatan n. 吹牛者 one making usually showy pretenses to knowledge or ability:FRAUD, FAKER chasm n. 深渊,大差别,代沟 a deep cleft in the surface of a planet (as the earth):GORGE cleft:chasm=cut:gash check n.支票 ;阻止 to block the progress of jolt:move=check:stop propagate←→check chef n. 厨师 a skilled cook who manages the kitchen (as of a restaurant) !cherubic a. 天使的,无邪的,可爱的 innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy cherubic←→somber !chevron n. 山形袖章,回文状雕饰 a sleeve badge that usually consists of one or more chevron-shaped stripes that indicates the wearer's rank and service (as in the armed forces)
44

chevron:badge=caisson:cart !chiaroscuro n.(绘画中的)明暗对照法;用明暗对照法绘的图画 the interplay or contrast of dissimilar qualities chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy [filigree:delicacy ] chic adj. 漂亮的,时髦的 smart elegance and sophistication manner:STYLE

especially

of

dress

or

chicanery n.欺诈,欺骗 deception by artful subterfuge or sophistry:TRICKERY chicanery:clever=tactlessness:truthful gullible:chicanery=servile:domination chide vt.vi. 斥责,责骂 to voice disapproval to:reproach in a usually mild and constructive manner:SCOLD chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle chip n. 晶片,薄片,碎片 a small usually thin and flat piece (as of wood or stone) cut, struck, or flaked off chip:stone=shard:glass choke vt. 窒息,阻塞,噎,抑制 to check normal breathing of by compressing or obstructing the trachea or by poisoning or adulterating available air smother:choke=?? !choleric adj. 易怒的,暴躁的 easily moved to often unreasonable anger:hot-tempered choleric←→difficult to provoke

or

excessive

choreography n. 舞蹈,舞蹈编排 the composition and arrangement of dances especially for ballet choreography:dance=plot:story chronic a.长期的,慢性的,惯常的,经常的 always present or encountered; especially :constantly vexing, weakening, or troubling chronic←→sporadic

45

chronicle n. 年代记,记录,编年史 a usually continuous historical account of events arranged in order of time without analysis or interpretation chronological adj. 按年月顺序的 of, relating to, or arranged in or according to the order of time dictionary:alphabetical=annals:chronological churlish adj. 脾气暴躁的,粗野的 marked by a lack of civility or graciousness:SURLY complaisance←→churlishness cinder n. 煤渣,灰烬 the slag from a metal furnace:DROSS cipher n.暗号,密码 a method of transforming a text in order to conceal its meaning cipher:cryptic=precis:concise circuitous a. 迂回的路的,迂曲的,绕行的 not being forthright or direct in language or action immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness circumference n. 圆周,周围,胸围 the perimeter of a circle border:country=circumference:circle !circumlocutory a. 委婉曲折的,迂回的 the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to express an idea circumlocutory←→direct encounter circumspect adj.慎重的;小心的 careful to consider all circumstances consequences:PRUDENT circumspect←→audacious/reckless temerity←→circumspection

and

possible

circumvent vt. 绕行,陷害,包围,智取 to manage to get around especially by ingenuity or stratagem circumvent←→confront circumvention←→direct encounter cistern n. 贮水器,水槽,水箱
46

an artificial reservoir (as an underground tank) for storing liquids and especially water (as rainwater) cistern:liquids=landfill:refuse citation n. 引用,引证,引用文,传票 an official summons to appear (as before a court) summons:citation=?? civility n. 礼貌,端庄 COURTESY, POLITENESS civility←→rudeness clandestine adj.秘密的 marked by, held in, or conducted with secrecy:SURREPTITIOUS clandestine:secretly=overt:openly clandestine←→open clarion n. 尖音号角,a. 清澈响亮的 loud and clear clarion←→soft and undistinct clarity n. 清楚,透明 the quality or state of being clear:LUCIDITY ambiguous:clarity=mendacious:truth consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity misunderstood:clarify=erroneous:retract ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity roil←→clarify/appease obfuscate←→clarify clasp n. 扣子,钩,紧握 a device (as a hook) for holding objects or parts together lathe:shape=clasp:fasten cleft n.裂缝 a usually V-shaped indented formation:a hollow between ridges or protuberances cleft:chasm=cut:gash clement adj.仁慈的,温和的 inclined to be merciful:LENIENT

47

cliche a. 陈腐的 a trite phrase or expression hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original cling vi. 粘紧,附着,紧贴,坚持 to hold together clique n. 朋党派系,小集团? a narrow exclusive circle or group of persons; especially :one held together by common interests, views, or purposes clique:intimates=flock:sheep clog n. 障碍,重物 v.障碍,阻塞 something that shackles or impedes:ENCUMBRANCE clog:drainage=stalemate:negotiations closet n. 壁橱,小室 a. 秘密的,空论的 a cabinet or recess for especially china, household utensils, or clothing pantry:food=closet (wardrobe):clothes clot n. 凝块,群 a coagulated mass produced by clotting of blood clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed cloudburst n. 倾盆大雨,豪雨 a sudden copious rainfall gust:wind=cloudburst=rainfall clout n. 权力,势力 PULL, INFLUENCE clout←→impuissance cloying adj. 甜得发腻的? excessively sweet or sentimental garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet loquacious:talkative=cloying:sweet clumsy a. 笨拙的,不雅观的,粗陋的 lacking dexterity, nimbleness, or grace inane←→clumsy coagulant n. 凝结剂 something that produces coagulation coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve
48

coalesce v.合并,联合,结合 to unite into a whole:FUSE coalesce←→disaggregate coarse a. 粗略的 not precise or detailed with respect to adjustment or discrimination fastidious←→coarse coax vt.用巧言诱哄 to manipulate with great perseverance and usually considerable effort toward a desired state or activity equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten blandishment:coax=medal:honor/prevarication:deceive equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten

with

coda n. 终结句,乐章结尾部,完结部 a concluding musical section that is formally distinct from the main structure dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata coeval adj. 同年龄的,同时代的? of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration congruent:dimension=coeval:age cogent adj. 有说服力的 appealing forcibly to the mind or reason:CONVINCING cogent:convince=repugnant:repel cognizant a. 已认识,既知道,晓得 knowledgeable of something especially through personal experience incognizance:knowledgeable=penury:wealthy cognizant←→oblivious colander n. 滤器,漏勺 a perforated utensil for washing or draining food centrifuge:separate=colander:drain collapse vt.使倒塌 vi. n.倒塌 to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely collapse:implode=divide:sunder collapse:volume=attenuate:thickness collude v. 串通,共谋
49

CONSPIRE, PLOT collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey colonnade n. 柱廊 a series of columns set at regular intervals and usually supporting the base of a roof structure colonnade:pillar=queue:person coma n. 昏迷状态 a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion combustible a. 易燃的,燃烧性的,易动激情的 capable of combustion impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible comely n. 清秀,美丽,合宜 having a pleasing appearance:not homely or plain comeliness←→unattractiveness commencement n. 开始 an act, instance, or time of beginning cessation←→commencement cease←→inaugurate/commencement commencement n. (大学的)毕业典礼 the ceremonies or the day for conferring degrees or diplomas commencement←→matriculation commend vt. 委托给,推荐,嘉奖 to mention with approbation:PRAISE execrable←→commendable/laudable commensurate adj. 同样大小的,相称的 equal in measure or extent:COEXTENSIVE preponderant←→commensurate tantamount←→incommensurate commentary n. 注释,评论,批评 an explanatory treatise commercial n. 广告节目 an advertisement broadcast on radio or television
50

advertising:commercial=publishing:journal commitment n. 委托,实行,承担义务,赞助 (1) an engagement to assume a financial obligation at a future date (2) the state or an instance of being obligated or emotionally impelled crime:misdemeanor=commitment:decision dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction ambivalent←→commitment committed adj.在…方面]受约束的,受束缚的[in] 献身于 [主义、主 张] 的,致力于 OBLIGATE, BIND profligate:solvent=mercurial:committed commodious adj.宽敞的 comfortably or conveniently spacious:ROOMY taut:commodious=extraordinary:purlieu constricted/(cramped)

commodious ← →

commonsense a. 具有常识的 sound and prudent but often unsophisticated judgment preposterous←→commonsensical !commotion n.骚动,动乱 an agitated disturbance:TO-DO squall:commotion=flash:illumination compendium n. 简要,概略 a brief summary of a larger work knowledge:ABSTRACT compendium:summary=anthology:collection encyclopedia:compendious=?? compensate vt.vi. 偿还,补偿,付报酬 to offset an error, defect, or undesired effect !complaisance n. 彬彬有礼,殷勤,柔顺 disposition to please or comply:AFFABILITY complaisance:intractable=adeptness:maladroit complaisance←→churlishness complaisance←→obstinacy
51

or

of

a

field

of

compliant a. 顺从的,适应的 ready or disposed to comply:SUBMISSIVE compliant:servile=trusting:gullible obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield compliment vt. 称赞,褒扬,恭维 expressing or containing a compliment apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed vituperative←→complimentary comply vi. 顺从,答应 to conform or adapt one's actions to another's wishes, to a rule, or to necessity mandatory:comply=forbidden:abstain composed a. 镇静的,沉着的 free from agitation:CALM; especially :SELF-POSSESSED distraught←→composed compress vt. 压缩,压榨 to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing compression←→increase in volume distention←→compression compromise n. 妥协,折衷,折衷案,和解 to come to agreement by mutual concession mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction implacable:compromise=honest:swindle intransigent←→open to compromise compunction n. 良心的责备,后悔,悔恨 anxiety arising from awareness of guilt concatenate v. 连结,连锁 to link together in a series or chain concatenate←→separate concede v. 承认(为正确) ,让步 to grant as a right or privilege concede←→refuse to grant concentrate vt.vi. 集中,专心,浓缩 a. to bring or direct toward a common center or objective:FOCUS b. to make less dilute
52

concentrate←→dilute solution deploy←→concentrate concerted a. 商议好的,协定的,预定的 mutually contrived or agreed on concerted←→individually devised concerto n. 协奏曲 a piece for one or more soloists and orchestra with three contrasting movements conciliate v. 安抚,调和? APPEASE:to cause to subside:ALLAY especially :to buy off (an aggressor) by concessions usually at the sacrifice of principles sop:conciliatory=subsidy:supportive conciliate←→vex vex←→conciliation contentious←→conciliatory conciseness n. 简明; 简洁 marked by brevity of expression or statement:free from all elaboration and superfluous detail synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity concord n.和睦,公约 a state of agreement:HARMONY concord←→dissension dissonance←→concord concur vi. 意见相同,一致,互助 to act together to a common end or single effect concur←→naysay condemn vt. 判刑,责备,谴责,声讨,处刑 to declare to be reprehensible, wrong, or evil usually after weighing evidence and without reservation countenance←→condemn exaltation←→condemnation extol←→condemn/impugn/detract condescending a. 谦逊的,故意屈尊的,叫人领情似的 showing or characterized by condescension:PATRONIZING condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn patronize:condescension=deride:mockery
53

condign a. 相当的,适宜的 DESERVED, APPROPRIATE condign←→undeserved/unmerited condone vt. 赦,宽恕 to pardon or overlook voluntarily; especially :to treat as if trivial, harmless, or of no importance condone←→denounce conducive adj. 有助于…的 tending to promote or assist conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate confederacy n. 联盟,邦联 a league or compact for action:ALLIANCE

mutual

support

or

common

confess vt.vi. 承认,坦白,忏悔,供认 to disclose one's faults; specifically :to unburden one's sins or the state of one's conscience to God or to a priest recantation:error=confession:crime confidant n. 心腹朋友,知己 one to whom secrets are entrusted confidante n. 知己的女友 CONFIDANT; especially :one who is a woman confident a. 有信心的,有把握的 characterized by assurance; especially :SELF-RELIANT confident:timid=open:shy confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory confine vt. 限制,闭居,禁闭 something that restrains loose:confinement:=disabuse:misconception conform vt.使遵守 vi.一致 to be similar or identical; also :to be in agreement or harmony incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey confront vt. 使面对,对抗,比较,使对质 to face especially in challenge:OPPOSE
54

self

craven:confront=honest:deceive circumvent←→confront congeal v. 凝结,凝固 to make viscid or curdled:COAGULATE congeal←→melt/disintegrated congeal←→fail to solidify congenial a. 同性质的,适意的,趣味相同的 SOCIABLE, GENIAL congenial:bonhomie dour←→congenial/genial congruent a.全等的 superposable so as to be coincident throughout congruent:dimension=coeval:age incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey variance←→congruity conjecture n./v. 推测,臆测 inference from defective or presumptive evidence conjecture←→restrain from the speculation conjecture←→fact connoisseur n. 鉴赏家,行家? EXPERT; especially :one who understands the details, technique, or principles of an art and is competent to act as a critical judge connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine conquest n. 战胜,征服,战利品 the act or process of conquering inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest conscientious a. 有责任心的,负责的,本着良心的 governed by or conforming to the conscience:SCRUPULOUS !consensus n. 一致,交感,,团结 group solidarity in sentiment and belief consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion law:criminality=consensus:factionalism conservative a.保守的 n.保守的人 tending or disposed to maintain existing views, conditions, or institutions:TRADITIONAL
55

dictates

of

bigoted:advice=conservative:change contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:chang e/innovation/novelty conservatory n.温室,音乐学院 a. 保存性的,有保存力的 a school specializing in one of the fine arts conservatory:music={seminary:theology }=observatory:astronomy observatory:astronomy=conservatory:music conserve n. 蜜饯,果酱 vt. 保存,保全 to keep in a safe or sound state conserve←→waste/squander/exhaust considerable a. 相当的,可观的,重要的 worth consideration:SIGNIFICANT restive:calmness=piddling:considerable consignment n. 委托 the act or process of consigning consignment:invoice console n.悬臂,肘托;控制台 vt. 安慰,藉慰 to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of:COMFORT embarrass:shame=console:comfort consolidate vt. 巩固,使联合,统一 to join together into one whole:UNITE consolidation←→fragmentation consonance n. 一致,调和,和音 harmony or agreement among components conspicuous adj.显著的,显而易见的 obvious to the eye or mind authoritative:acceptance=conspicuous:attention conspicuous:see=transparent:understand conspicuous:sheltered=?? blatant←→inconspicuous nondescript←→conspicuous salient←→unconspicuous constellation n. 星座,星群 the configuration of stars. constellation:star=chord:note{ queue:person}
56

constitute vt. 构成,组成,任命 to appoint to an office, function, or dignity abdicate←→constitute constrained a. 被强迫的,拘泥的,不舒服的 to appoint to an office, function, or dignity constrain←→release intemperate←→constrained consultation n. 请教,咨询,协议会 COUNCIL, CONFERENCE; specifically :a deliberation between physicians on a case or its treatment contagious a. 传染性的,会蔓延的,会传播的 communicable by contact:CATCHING sprain:injure=cold:contagion contagious←→incommunicable contaminate vt. 弄污,弄脏,毒害,传染,染污 to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident contemplate vt. 注视,沉思,打算 to view or consider with continued attention:meditate on contempt n. 轻视,轻蔑 the act of despising:the state of mind of one who despises:DISDAIN measly:contemptibly=puny:weakly paragon:admire=pariah:contempt redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard wince:pain=smile:pleasure=pout:displeasure=sneer:contempt estimable←→contemptible content a. 满足的,满意的,意义的 feeling or manifesting satisfaction with one's possessions, status, or situation disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction gripe:discontent=praise:admiration disaffected←→content restiveness←→contentment contentious adj. 好辩的,喜争吵的 exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes
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contentious←→conciliatory contingent a. 或许发生的,附随的,暂时的 likely but not certain to happen:POSSIBLE contradictory a. 反驳的,反对的,抗辩的 involving, causing, or constituting a contradiction paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise contravene v. 违反,违背,反驳,反对 to oppose in argument:CONTRADICT contravene←→support contravene v.违背(法规,习俗等) to go or act contrary to:VIOLATE contravene←→buttress contrite a. 悔悟了的,后悔的,痛悔的 grieving and penitent for sin or shortcoming apologize:contrite=compliment:impressed contrived adj. 做作的,不自然的 ARTIFICIAL, LABORED contrived:design=?? contumacious adj. 违抗的,不服从的 stubbornly disobedient:REBELLIOUS contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:chang e/innovation/novelty contumacious←→obedient !convalesce vi. 渐渐康复,渐愈 to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness recidivism:relapse=rehabilitation:convalesce convenience n. 方便,便利的事物,无忧虑 something (as an appliance, device, or service) conducive to comfort or ease opportune:convenience=impermanent:transience opportune←→inconvenient convention n. 大会,协定,惯例 usage or custom especially in social matters overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention
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eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated offbeat←→conventional ossify←→transcend conventions convergent a. 趋集于一点的,会聚性的,收敛的 tending to move toward one point or to other:CONVERGING convergent←→moving apart discrepancy←→converge

approach

each

convert vt. 使改变信仰,兑换,倒置 n. 皈依者,改宗者 to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another veer:direction=convert:belief hunter:quarry=proselytizer:convert convey vt. 传达,运输,转移 to transfer or deliver to another collude:cooperate=smuggle:convey splint:immobilize=duct:convey conviction n.确信,信服,深信 a strong persuasion or belief disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction conviction n. 定罪 the act or process of convicting of a crime especially in a court of law mediation:compromise=prosecution:conviction convoke v. 召集会议? to call together to a meeting convoke←→adjourn convoluted adj. 旋绕的,费解的 INVOLVED, INTRICATE convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience convulsion n. 骚动,痉挛 an abnormal violent and involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the muscles convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion coop n. 小屋,鸡笼,捕鱼笼 a cage or small enclosure (as for poultry)
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corral:horses=coop:chickens copious adj.丰富的 present in large quantity:taking place on a large scale copious←→sparse coquette n. 风骚的女人,爱卖弄风情的女子,玩弄男人的女人 a woman who endeavors without sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration of men supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious cord n. 绳索,束缚,木料计量单位 a unit of wood cut for fuel equal to a stack 4 x 4 x 8 feet or 128 cubic feet ream:paper=cord:wood cordon n. 哨兵线,非常警戒线,饰带 a line of persons or objects around a person or place levee:river=cordon:crowd cornucopia n.象征丰收的羊角(羊角装饰器内装满花、果、谷物等以示 富饶) an inexhaustible store:ABUNDANCE cornucopia←→lack/pittance coronation n.加冕,加冕礼 the act or occasion of crowning; also :accession to the highest office coronation:reign=wedding:marriage wedding:marriage=coronation:reign corporeal a. 肉体的,有形的,物质的 having, consisting of, or relating to a physical material body:as a:not spiritual b:not immaterial or intangible:SUBSTANTIAL corporeal←→intangible/disembodied spiritual←→corporeal corral vt. 占有,围住 n. 畜栏 a pen or enclosure for confining or capturing livestock corral:horses=coop:chickens corroborate vt. 使坚固,确证 to support with evidence or authority:make more certain corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood
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corroboration←→lessening of certainty corrosive a. 腐蚀的,腐蚀性的,蚀坏的 tending or having the power to corrode etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive cosmopolitan n. 四海为家的人,世界主义者,无国家偏见的人 having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing bigot:tolerant=provincial:cosmopolitan{servile:domination} insularity←→cosmopolitanism insular←→cosmopolitan cosset v. 宠爱,娇养? to treat as a pet:PAMPER cosset←→slight cosseted←→unspoiled coterie n. (有共同兴趣的)小团体,小圈子 an intimate and often exclusive group of persons with a unifying common interest or purpose coterie:group=?? countenance n. 面容,表情 v. 支持,赞成 ? to extend approval or toleration to:SANCTION countenance←→condemn counterfeit n. 赝品,伪造品 made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive:FORGED sophism:reasoning=counterfeit:money counterpart n. 副本,复本,配对物,相应物 one of two corresponding copies of a legal instrument:DUPLICATE couplet n. 对句,对联 two successive lines of verse forming a unit marked usually by rhythmic correspondence, rhyme, or the inclusion of a self-contained utterance:DISTICH court n.法院,法庭;庭院 vt. 献殷勤,追求,招致危险 to seek the affections of; especially :to seek to win a pledge of marriage from aversion←→court court←→repel intentionally/repulse intentionally/snub spurn←→court ,crave, embrace
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courtesy n. 礼貌,谦恭,允许 a:courteous behavior b:a courteous act or expression coven n. (尤指十三个) 女巫的集会 an assembly or band of usually 13 witches retainer:retinue=witch:coven covetous adj. 贪婪的,贪心的 marked by inordinate desire for wealth or possessions or for another's possessions troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious cow v.恐吓,吓倒,威胁 to destroy the resolve or courage of cowed←→undaunted embolden←→abash/faze/cow cowardice n. 懦弱 lack of courage or resolution pluck←→cowardice cower vi. 畏缩,退缩,抖缩 to shrink away or crouch especially for shelter from something that menaces, domineers, or dismays fear:cower=anger:rant bristle←→cower craft n. 技艺,手艺,诡计 skill in planning, making, or executing:DEXTERITY cramp a. 狭窄的,难解的 CONFINE, RESTRAIN commodious←→constricted/(cramped) crass a.粗糙,粗厚的;愚钝的;极度的,非常的 having or indicating such grossness of mind as precludes delicacy and discrimination crass←→refined craven adj.懦弱的,畏缩的 lacking the least bit of courage:contemptibly fainthearted craven:admirable=deft:awkward
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craven:hero=parsimonious:spendthrift craven:heroic=volatile:constant heroic:craven=erratic:permanent craven:confront=honest:deceive craving n. 渴望,热望 an intense, urgent, or abnormal desire or longing terror:fear=craving:desire spurn←→court ,crave, embrace credence n. 信用,祭器台,供桌,凭证 mental acceptance as true or real creek n. 小溪,小河,小湾 a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river hill:mountain=creek:river crescendo n. (音乐)渐强,高潮? a gradual increase; specifically :a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage crest n.鸡冠, 顶饰; the top of a wave crest:wave=summit/peak:mountain crestfallen adj. 挫败的,失望的 feeling shame or humiliation:DEJECTED criteria n. 标准 a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based cronyism n. 任人唯亲 partiality to cronies especially as evidenced in the appointment of political hangers-on to office without regard to their qualifications nepotism:relative=cronyism:friend croon v. 低声歌唱,低吟? to sing or speak in a gentle murmuring manner; especially :to sing in a soft intimate manner adapted to amplifying systems croon:sing=murmur:speak crop n. 农作物,产量,平头 a plant or animal or plant or animal product that can be grown and
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harvested extensively for profit or subsistence:COLLECTION crop←→pittance crouch v. 蹲伏、弯腰? to bend or bow servilely:CRINGE crown vt. 使成王,加冕,居...之顶 to place a crown or wreath on the head of; specifically :to invest with regal dignity and power inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king crucial adj.严重的;极重要的 important or essential as resolving crisis:DECISIVE relevant:crucial=perceptible:obvious crucial←→inconsequential crude a. 天然的,未成熟的,粗糙的,粗鲁的 marked by the primitive, gross, or elemental or by uncultivated simplicity or vulgarity delicacy←→crudity crutch n. 拐杖,支撑,帮助 a support typically fitting under the armpit for use by the disabled in walking crutch:walk=glasses:see crux n. 十字架形,关键,难题 an essential point requiring resolution or resolving an outcome crux←→peripheral element cryptic a. 秘密的,神秘的,含义模糊的 having or seeming to have a meaning:MYSTERIOUS cipher:cryptic=precis:concise cryptic:perplex=cryptic←→self explain cryptic←→self explanatory cuisine n.烹调 manner of preparing food:style of cooking; connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine

hidden

or

ambiguous

also :the food prepared

culpable adj.该受谴责的 meriting condemnation or blame especially as wrong or harmful exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame
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culpable←→innocent cultivated a. 耕耘的,栽植的,有教养的 REFINED, EDUCATED feral←→cultivated cumbersome a. 讨厌的,麻烦的,累赘的 unwieldy because of heaviness and bulk cumbersome←→easy to handle cunning a. 狡猾的,巧妙的,可爱的 characterized by wiliness and trickery artless←→cunning/guile ingenuous←→cunning curative a.治病的,有治病效力的 relating to or used in the cure of diseases:tending to cure curator n. (博物馆、图书馆等的) 馆长,主持 one that has the care and superintendence of something; especially :one in charge of a museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit ranger:forest=curator:museum cursory adj.粗略的,草率的 rapidly and often superficially performed or produced:HASTY cursory←→painstakingly thorough fastidious←→easygoing/cursory/uncritical curt adj. (言词、行为)简略而草率的 sparing of words:TERSE curt:words=parsimonious:resource curtail vt.截短,缩短;削减 to make less by or as if by cutting off or away some part curtail:period=enervate:energy protract←→curtail cyclone n. 飓风,暴风 a storm or system of winds that rotates about a center of low atmospheric pressure, advances at a speed of 20 to 30 miles (about 30 to 50 kilometers) an hour, and often brings heavy rain snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone cynical having or a. 愤世嫉俗的,讽刺的,冷嘲的 showing the attitude or
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temper

of

a

cynic;

especially :contemptuously distrustful of human nature and motives ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness dabble vi. 玩水,泼溅,涉猎 to work or involve oneself superficially or intermittently especially in a secondary activity or interest dabble←→dedicate/devote dabbler←→specialist daft adj. 傻的,愚蠢的? a:SILLY, FOOLISH b:MAD, INSANE daft←→judicious daguerreotype n. (早期)银板照相 an early photograph produced on a silver or a silver-covered copper plate; also :the process of producing such photographs dally vi. 戏耍,玩弄,赋闲 a:to act playfully; especially :to play amorously b:to deal lightly:TOY damp n. & a. 潮湿(的);v. 打湿, !抑制 MOISTURE,HUMIDITY, DAMPNESS tint:suffuse:damp:quench sere←→lush/damp dander n. 生气,头皮屑 DANDRUFF; specifically :minute scales from hair, feathers, or skin that may be allergenic dandy n.花花公子,好打扮的人 a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion dank adj.阴湿的 unpleasantly moist or wet dank:moisture=?? dapper adj.衣冠楚楚的,干净的 a:neat and trim in appearance b:excessively spruce and stylish dapper:fastidious=?? dapper←→frowsy unkempt←→dapper
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dappled a. 斑纹的,花的 marked with small spots or patches contrasting with the background striated:groove=mottled/dappled:spot daredevil n. 铤而走险的人,不怕死的人 a recklessly bold person prudence:daredevil=sagacity:simpleton daredevil:???=malcontent:dissatisfaction dart vi. 疾走,突进 to move suddenly or rapidly fall descend:plummet=move:dart daunt v. 使胆怯,使畏缩 to lessen the courage of:COW, SUBDUE dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment cowed←→undaunted daunt←→embolden/make resolute daunting←→meek dauntless←→craven/easily discouraged/pusillanimous dawdle vi.vt. 游手好闲,混日子 to move lackadaisically hie←→dawdle deactivate vt. 解除动员,复员,使无效,使不活动 to make inactive or ineffective deactivate←→potentiate deaden vt. 使减弱,消除 to impair in vigor or sensation:BLUNT tonic:invigorate=analgesic:deaden !deadpan a. 无表情的脸 marked by an impassive matter-of-fact manner, style, or expression impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive dearth n. 缺乏,粮食不足,饥谨 an inadequate supply:LACK plethora←→dearth spate←→dearth debase v.贬低,贬损
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to lower in status, esteem, quality, or character debase:value=attenuate:force enervation:vitality=debase:value debilitate vt. 使衰弱 to impair the strength of:ENFEEBLE attenuate:thickness=debilitate:strength debilitate←→invigorate/fortified debunk v.揭穿真相,暴露 to expose the sham or falseness of debut n.初次登台,初次露面 a first appearance debut:←→farewell performance decadence n. 衰落,颓废 the process of becoming decadent:the quality or state of being decadent decadence←→wholesomeness !decant vt. 轻轻倒出,移入其他容器 to pour out, transfer, or unload as if by pouring subterfuge:deceive=decant:pour decibel n. 分贝(音量的单位) a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average pain level decibel:sound=volt:electricity=watt:power=lumen:light decipher vt. 译解,解释 a:to make out the meaning of despite indistinctness or obscurity b:to interpret the meaning of legible:decipher=?? decode vt. 解码,译解 to convert (as a coded message) into intelligible form tacit:infer=encoded:decode decorum n.礼仪 propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum decorum←→impropriety
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decrepit adj. 衰老的,破旧的 wasted and weakened by or as if by the infirmities of old age decrepit←→vigorous dedication n. 奉献,致力,献辞 a devoting or setting aside for a particular purpose bigot=dedication=rage:anger zeal:dedication={mesmeric:interest} dabble←→dedicate/devote default n. & v. 拖欠,违约,欠缺,默认,缺省 a failure to pay financial debts default:pay=yield:resist deference n. 敬意,尊重 respect and esteem due a superior or an elder; ingratiating regard for another's wishes defer:leader=admire:hero deferential:offend=scornful:respect intransigent:acquiesce=deferential:offend frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant impudent←→deferential/respectful

also :affected or

deficiency n. 缺乏,不足 an amount that is lacking or inadequate:SHORTAGE surfeit←→deficiency defile v.弄污,弄脏 n. (山间)小道 a narrow passage or gorge precipice:steepness=defile:narrowness defoliate vt.vi. (使)落叶 to deprive of leaves especially prematurely defoliate:tree=insecticide:insect defraud vt. 欺骗 to deprive of something by deception or fraud deft adj. 灵巧的,熟练的(deft) ? characterized by facility and skill craven:admirable=deft:awkward maladroit:deft=voluble:verse deft←→maladroit
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defuse vt. 放松,抚慰,减轻 to make less harmful, potent, or tense defuse←→foment defy vt. 藐视,挑衅,使落空 to challenge to do something considered impossible:DARE acquiesce←→defy dehydrate vt. (使)脱水(n. dehydration) to remove bound water or hydrogen and oxygen from (a chemical compound) in the proportion in which they form water abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration dehydrate:water=wither:vitality=fade:brightening fatigue:rest=dehydration:water reconstitute←→dehydrate deject vt. 使沮丧,使灰心 to make gloomy mollify:anger=hearted:dejection dejected←→exultant deleterious adj. (对身心)有害的,有毒的 harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way wholesome←→deleterious deleterious←→salutary/salubrious deliberate a.深思熟虑的;审慎的 to think about or discuss issues and decisions carefully apophasis:claim=caprice:deliberate hasty←→characterized by deliberation hasty←→deliberate impetuous←→deliberate delicacy n. 细软,精致,精美的食品,娇气 the quality or state of being dainty:FINENESS delicacy←→crudity husky←→delicate delinquent n. 行为不良的人,流氓 offending by neglect or violation of duty or of law delirium n.精神错乱,发狂 a mental disturbance characterized by confusion, disordered speech,
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and hallucinations coma:unconsciousness=delirium:confusion delude vt. 迷惑,蛊惑 to mislead the mind or judgment of:DECEIVE, TRICK transparent←→delusive deluge n.大洪水,豪雨 a. an overflowing of the land by water b. a drenching rain rain:deluge=wind:hurricane droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide deluge←→drizzle !delve vt.vi. 探究,查考 to make a careful or detailed search for information quaff:sip=delve:skim scrutinize=gloss=delve:skim demagogue n. 煽动者,群众煽动者 a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power {demagogue:instruct } demise n.死亡 DIE, DECEASE vt. 让渡,遗赠,转让

demography n. 人口统计学 the statistical study of human populations especially with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics demography:population=meteorology:weather !demolition n. 破坏,毁坏,毁坏之遗迹 the act of demolishing; especially :destruction in war by means of explosives recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition demoralize vt. 使道德颓废,使堕落,挫折锐气 a:to weaken the morale of:DISCOURAGE, DISPIRIT b:to upset or destroy the normal functioning of c:to throw into disorder demur v.表示异议,反对 to take exception:OBJECT
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praise:approbation=demur:objection demur←→accept demystify vt. 使非神秘化 to eliminate the mystifying features of den n. 兽穴,洞穴 the lair of a wild usually predatory animal denigrate vt. 使变黑,玷污,诋毁 to cast aspersions on:DEFAME denigrate←→honor denouement n.(小说的)结尾,结局 the final outcome of the main dramatic complication in a literary work joke:punch line=plot:denouement denounce v. 指责,揭发 to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil admonish:denounce=punish:pillory {persuade:convince} castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial/glorification:merit condone←→denounce denude v.脱去,剥蚀,剥夺 to strip of all covering or surface layers denude←→cover denunciation n. 谴责,告发 an act of denouncing; especially :a public condemnation depart vi. 离开,出发,去世,违反,放弃 to go away:LEAVE abscond:depart=pilfer:take lurk:wait=purloin:appropriate/abscond:depart depict vt. 描述,描写 to represent by or as if by a picture deplete vt. 耗尽,使衰竭 to lessen markedly in quantity, content, power, or value enrich←→deplete deplore vt. 悲悼,哀叹,悔恨
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a:to feel or express grief for b:to regret strongly deplore←→laud deplore←→accolade/extol deploy v.[军]展开,调度,部署 to extend (a military unit) especially in width deploy←→concentrate deportation n. 驱逐,放逐 the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful or prejudicial deportation:country=eviction:dwelling depose vt. 免职,废,作证 to testify to under oath or by affidavit perjury←→deposition deposit vt.使淤积 a natural accumulation (as of iron ore, coal, or gas) deposit←→process of eroding depravity n. 堕落,腐败,邪恶 a corrupt act or practice doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue deprecate vt. 声明不赞成,抨击,反对 BELITTLE, DISPARAGE deprecate:value=restrict:diameter depreciation:value=ossification:flexible deprecate←→extol vaunt←→deprecate depreciate v. 贬低,贬值 to lower the price or estimated value of fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger imperious:fawn=swagger:self depreciate imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger depress vt. 使沮丧,压低,降低,使萧条 to press down depressant:mood=??? protuberant←→depressed

73

deprivation n. 剥夺,剥夺官职,免职 the state of being deprived:PRIVATION; an office, dignity, or benefice deprivation←→surfeit {fecundity} !deracinate vt. 根除,灭绝,使孤立 UPROOT deracinate←→plant

especially :removal from

derelict n. 遗弃物,被遗弃的人,玩忽职守者 a destitute homeless social misfit:VAGRANT, BUM derelict←→pillar of society deride vt. 嘲弄,嘲笑 to subject to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule patronize:condescension=deride:mockery pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate :aimless smirk:smugness=sneer:derision ridicule:derision=?? deride←→praise veneration←→derision derivative adj. 派生的,无创意的 lacking originality:BANAL precursory←→derivative derogatory a. 贬损的 expressive of a low opinion:DISPARAGING descendant n.后代,后裔 one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype forbears←→descendants desecrate vt. 供俗用,亵渎,污辱 to violate the sanctity of:PROFANE desecrate←→sanctify/revere desert vt. 放弃,遗弃,逃跑 to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return desiccate vt. 使干,干贮 (adj. Desiccated) to preserve (a food) by drying:DEHYDRATE abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration
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caustic:eat away=desiccant:dry desiccate:moisture=detoxify:poison despair vi. 绝望 to lose all hope or confidence abandon:inhibition=despair:hope despicable a. 可鄙的,卑劣的 deserving to be despised:so worthless or obnoxious as to rouse moral indignation redoubtable:regard/awe=despicable:scorn/contempt/disregard venerable:reverence=despicable:scorn despicable:value=mulish:flexible despondent adj. 失望的,意气消沉的 feeling or showing extreme discouragement, depression elated←→despondent sanguine←→despondent

dejection,

or

dessert n.甜点心 a usually sweet course or dish (as of pastry or ice cream) served at the end of a meal dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata detach vt. 分离,分遣 to separate especially from a larger mass and usually without violence or damage tether←→detach deter vt. 制止,使断念,威慑 to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting intrepid:deter=rapt:distract inducement←→deterrent deter←→spur detestable a. 嫌恶的,可憎的,可厌恶的 arousing or meriting intense dislike:ABOMINABLE detract vt.vi. 减去,贬低 to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something extol←→condemn/impugn/detract detritus n. 碎石
75

a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away:DEBRIS detritus←→valuable mass deviation n. 背离 noticeable or marked departure from accepted norms of behavior devise vt. 设计,发明,图谋,遗赠给 to form in the mind by new combinations or applications of ideas or principles:INVENT devoted a. 投入的,深爱的 characterized by loyalty and devotion devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious fanatic:devoted=prude:proper elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence dabble←→dedicate/devote devout a. 虔诚的,虔敬的,衷心的 devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises religion:devoutness=canon:orthodoxy impiety←→devoutness dexterous a. 灵巧的,用右手的 mentally adroit and skillful:CLEVER dexterous:awkward=?? diabolic adj. 恶魔 (一样) 的,魔鬼性格的 of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil:DEVILISH diabolize←→benediction diagnose vt.vi. 诊断 to recognize (as a disease) by signs and symptoms diaphanous adj. (布)精致的,半透明的 characterized by such fineness of texture as to permit seeing through diaphanous←→opaque diaphanous adj. (布)精致的,半透明的 INSUBSTANTIAL, VAGUE diaphanous←→substantial diatribe n. (口头或书面猛烈的)抨击,抨击性演说 a bitter and abusive speech or writing
76

diatribe:abuse=burlesque:mockery lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse didactic adj.教诲的、说教的 designed or intended to teach didactic:teach=hortatory:urge==exhortative:urge didactic:teach=fantastic:amaze diehard n. 顽固分子 strongly or fanatically determined or devoted palter:candor=diehard:budge diffident a. 无自信的,客客气气的,羞怯的 hesitant in acting or speaking through lack of self-confidence diffident←→brassy expansive←→reserved/diffident digit n. 数字,位数,指头 any of the divisions in which the limbs of amphibians and all higher vertebrates terminate, which are typically five in number but may be reduced (as in the horse), and which typically have a series of phalanges bearing a nail, claw, or hoof at the tip fang:tooth=finger:digit dignity n. 尊严,高贵 quality or state of being worthy, honored, or esteemed digress v. 离题,把(话题)离开 to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant digressive:topic/subject=stray:group stray:group=digress:subject dilapidate vi.vt. (使)荒废,(使)毁坏 to bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin restored

dilapidated←→

dilate vt.使膨胀;使扩大 to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent:DISTEND, WIDEN ←→contract dilatory a. 拖拉的 characterized by procrastination:TARDY
77

dilate

dilatory:procrastinate=malcontent:complain alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance precipitate←→retard/dilatory dilettante n. 半瓶醋,业余爱好者 a person having a superficial interest in an art or a branch of knowledge:DABBLER dilettante:commitment=nonentity:consequence diligent a. 勤勉的,用功的 characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort:PAINSTAKING procrastination←→diligence dilute v. 冲淡,稀释 to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture slacken:tautness=dilute:strength/concentration din n. 喧闹声,嘈杂声 a loud continued noise; especially :a welter of discordant sounds stench:nose=din:ear dingus n. ((俚))新发明品; 新玩意儿 an ornamental attachment or decoration :DOODAD dingy adj. 肮脏的,褪色的 DIRTY, DISCOLORED dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere diocesan a. 主教管区的 a bishop having jurisdiction over a diocese diocesan←→ ecumenical dire a. 可怕的,悲惨的,阴惨的,极端的 DISMAL, OPPRESSIVE dire←→pleasant dirge n. 哀歌、凄凉之曲调? a song or hymn of grief or lamentation; accompany funeral or memorial rites

especially :one intended to

disabuse v. 打消(某人)的错误念头,纠正 to free from error, fallacy, or misconception disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease loose:confinement:=disabuse:misconception
78

disaffected adj. (政治上)不满的,叛离的 discontented and resentful especially against authority:REBELLIOUS disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction officious:meddle=disaffected:rebel disaffected←→contented disaggregate vt.释放;排出 n.释放 to separate into component parts disagreeable a. 不愉快的,厌恶的,不为人喜的 causing discomfort:UNPLEASANT, OFFENSIVE disagreeable:hateful=harmful:lethal disarm vi. 放下武器,缓和 to deprive of means, reason, or disposition to be hostile bait←→disarm disavow vt. 否认,否定,抵赖 to deny responsibility for:REPUDIATE disavow←→affirm discard vt. 丢弃,抛弃,解雇 to get rid of especially as useless or unpleasant retain←→discard discerning adj. 有洞察力的,眼力好的,眼光敏锐的 showing insight and understanding:DISCRIMINATING palatable:savory=discernible:manifest myopic←→discerning discharge vt. 卸下,放出,解雇,放电,履行 to dismiss from employment discharge←→hire disclaim vt.vi. 放弃,弃权,拒绝 to renounce a legal claim to discography n. (按作曲家、演奏家或演唱家分类之) 音乐唱片分类目录 a descriptive list of phonograph records by category, composer, performer, or date of release list:discography=tool:hoe discommode v. 使失态,慌张
79

to cause inconvenience to:TROUBLE discommode←→assist discommode←→convenience/pacificate/ease/mollify discompose vt. 使不安,使烦乱,使烦恼 to destroy the composure of discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic discord n. 不调和,不和 lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas) harmony←→discord discourse n.演讲;论文 a:formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject b:connected speech or writing c:a linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence lullaby:song=diatribe:discourse discrepancy n. 不同,矛盾 an instance of being discrepant discrepancy←→converge discretion n. 慎重,辨别力,考虑,处理权 the quality of being discreet:CIRCUMSPECTION; especially :cautious reserve in speech frivolous gravity=brash:discretion foolish:discretion=impecunious:money overdose:prescription=indiscretion:convention discretionary adj.随意的,自由裁量的 left to discretion:exercised at one's own discretion discretionary←→obligatory discretionary←→mandatory discriminate vt.vi. 区别,差别待遇 to mark or perceive the distinguishing or peculiar features of epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching liken:similarity=discriminate:difference sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating equitable←→discriminatory/unfair discursive adj. 散漫的,无层次的
80

moving from topic to topic without order:RAMBLING discursive←→keen on title discursive←→succinct disdain v. 轻视、鄙视 a feeling of contempt for what is beneath one:SCORN snub:disdain=double cross:disloyalty adulation←→disdain disengage vt. 使自由,解放,解开 to release from something that engages or involves disgorge v. 呕出, (水)流走 to discharge by the throat and mouth:VOMIT disgorge←→swallow disgruntle vt. 使不高兴 to make ill-humored or discontented ? usually used as a participial adjective disgruntle←→refresh disgruntled←→contented disguise vi.隐瞒,掩埋 n.假装 to furnish with a false appearance or an assumed identity padding:damage=disguise:recognition disgust n. 厌恶,嫌恶 marked aversion aroused by something distasteful:REPUGNANCE blatant:arresting=odious:disgusting odious:disgust=menacing:fear scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust} entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore dishevel vt. 使蓬乱,使头发凌乱 to throw into disorder or disarray disinclination n. 不起劲,不感兴趣,厌恶 a preference for avoiding something:slight aversion aversion:disinclination=adulation:admiration aversion:inclination=?? disinfect vt. 消毒 to free from infection

highly

especially
81

by

destroying

harmful

microorganisms oil:lubricate=antiseptic:disinfect disinterested a. 无私欲的,廉洁的,公平的 free from selfish motive or interest:UNBIASED factional←→disinterested iniquity←→disinterestedness disjunctive a. 可分的,分离的,分隔的 marked by breaks or disunity nominal:significance=disjunctive:unity dismantle vt. 拆除...的设备,分解,去除覆盖物 to take to pieces; also :to destroy the integrity or functioning of disparage v. 贬抑,轻蔑 to depreciate by indirect means (as invidious comparison):speak slightingly about scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore aggrandize←→disparage champion←→disparage extol←→disparage disparate adj. 迥然不同的,不可并论的 containing or made up of fundamentally different and often incongruous elements dispassionate adj. 平心静气的 not influenced by strong feeling; personal or emotional involvement dispassionate←→responsive

especially :not affected by

dispatch v. 派遣,一下做完、吃完? n. 迅速 ? promptness and efficiency in performance or transmission dispatch←→leisureliness disposal n. 处理,排列,支配,布置,废料 systematic destruction; especially :destruction or transformation of garbage recycle:disposal=rehabilitate:demolition disquiet n./v. 担心,焦虑 to take away the peace or tranquillity of:DISTURB, ALARM disquiet←→put at ease

82

disrupt vt. 使分裂,使瓦解 to throw into disorder saboteur:disrupt=apologist:defend dissect vt.vi. 解剖,切细 to analyze and interpret minutely specimen:dissect=sentence:parse dissemble v. 隐藏、掩饰(感受,意图) to put on a false appearance:conceal facts, intentions, or feelings under some pretense dissemble:honesty=snub:politeness dissemble:information=masquerade:feeling ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub disseminate vt. 散播,传播,宣传 to spread abroad as though sowing seed disseminate:information=foment:discontentment disseminate←→garner dissension n. 意见不合,纠纷,倾轧 DISAGREEMENT; especially :partisan and contentious quarreling concord←→dissension dissent vi. 持异议,不同意 to withhold assent dissenter:orthodox=maverick:group dissertation n. 论文 an extended usually written treatment specifically :one submitted for a doctorate dissipate vt. 散失,驱散,浪费 (dissipation) husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate accumulation←→dissipation dissipate←→accumulate dissipate←→gather amass←→dissipate dissociate vt.vi. 分离,游离,分裂 to separate from association or union with another affiliation←→dissociation dissolute adj.放荡的,无节制的
83

of

a

subject;

lacking restraint; especially :marked by indulgence in things libertine:dissolute=sycophant:obsequious ludicrous:buffoon=dissolute:libertine=humorous:wag voluble:speech=licentious:dissoluteness dissolve vt.vi. 溶解,解散 to cause to pass into solution clot:dissolved=crowd:dispersed coagulant:thicken=solvent:dissolve dissonance n.不和谐(的音调) lack of agreement; especially :inconsistency between the beliefs one holds or between one's actions and one's beliefs dissonance←→concord dissuade vt. 劝阻 to advise (a person) against something remonstrance:dissuade=reprehensible:censure remonstrator:dissuade=applicant:appeal dissuade←→abet distention n. 膨胀 the act of distending or the state of being distended especially unduly or abnormally distention←→compression distillation n. 蒸馏 the process of purifying a liquid by successive evaporation and condensation synopsis:conciseness=distillate:purity distill:purity=leaven:volume distinction n. 区别 the quality or state of being distinguishable nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion nebulous←→distinct repute←→lack of distinction distinguished a. 卓著的,著名的 marked by eminence, distinction, or excellence eminent←→undistinguished distort to twist vt. 扭曲,歪曲 out of the

true
84

meaning

or

proportion

brevity:aphorism=distortion:caricature distract vt. 转移,分心,使发狂 to draw or direct (as one's attention) to a different object or in different directions at the same time intrepid:deter=rapt:distract rapt←→distracted distraught adj. 心神狂乱的 agitated with doubt or mental conflict troubled:distraught=covetous:rapacious distraught←→composed ditch n. 沟 a long narrow excavation dug in the earth ditch:canyon=burrow:cavern ditty n. 小调,小曲 an especially simple and unaffected song fable:tale=ditty:song diurnal adj. 白昼的,白天的? of, relating to, or occurring in the daytime diurnal←→nocturnal diverge vi. 分歧,岔开 to move or extend in different directions from a common point:draw apart ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent diverge:apart=traverse:across divert vt.使转向 vi.转移 to turn from one course or use to another:DEFLECT divert:shunt=retard:brake divestiture n. 剥夺,脱衣 the act of divesting divestiture←→acquisition divulge vt.泄漏(秘密等);宣布,公布 to make known (as a confidence or secret) divulge←→keep secret doctrine n.教义,主义;学说
85

a principle or position or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief:DOGMA doctrine:heretical=course:errant dodder vi. 摇摆,蹒跚 to progress feebly and unsteadily dodder:unsteady=cavort:sprightly doff vt. 脱,丢弃,废除 to remove (an article of wear) from the body doff←→don dogged a. 顽固的,顽强的 marked by stubborn determination dogged←→yielded dogged←→easily discouraged doggerel adj. 歪诗的,打油诗 loosely styled and irregular in measure especially for burlesque or comic effect; also :marked by triviality or inferiority doggerel:verse=burlesque:play doggo adv. ((俚)) (一动不动地) 隐藏着 in hiding doggo:instability=?? dogma n. 教条 something held as an established opinion; authoritative tenet dogma←→heresy

especially :a definite

doldrums n. (海洋上的)无风带,情绪低沉 ? state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump doldrums:energy=depravity:virtue dolorous adj. 悲哀的,忧愁的 causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief dolorous←→jubilant dolt n. 呆子,笨蛋,傻瓜 a stupid person wag:humorous=dolt:stupid domination n. 支配,控制,管辖
86

supremacy or preeminence over another gullible:chicanery=servile:domination impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest domineering adj. 盛气凌人的,跋扈的,作威作福的 inclined to domineer don vt. 穿上 to put on (an article of clothing) doff←→don donor n. 捐赠人 one that gives, donates, or presents something legacy:predecessor=gift:donor doodle n.v. 乱写,乱画? an aimless or casual scribble, design, or sketch draw:doodle=travel:ramble dour a. 不爱讲话的,沉沉的,严厉的 STERN, HARSH dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness dour←→congenial/genial downpour 暴雨 a pouring or streaming downward; especially :a heavy rain downpour:flooding=wind:erosion wind:erosion=downpour:flooding doyen n. 老资格,首席 a:the senior member of a body or group b:a person considered to be knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated draconian adj. 严峻的,苛刻的 CRUEL; also :SEVERE palmy:prosperity=draconian:severity draconian←→indulgent/mild drawl vt.vi. 懒洋洋地说,做作而慢慢地说 to utter in a slow lengthened tone inch:move=drawl:speak
87

pontificate:pompous=scoff:derisive=drawl:slow=bluster:loud=prate :aimless dreary a. 沉闷的 having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest:GLOOMY, DISMAL jocund←→dreary drivel vi. 淌口水,说傻话 to utter in an infantile or imbecilic way nonsensical:drivel=pompous:bombast drizzle n./v. 下毛毛雨,毛毛雨? a fine misty rain deluge←→drizzle droll adj. 古怪的,好笑的? having a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality grisly:flinch=droll:laugh droll←→grave droplet n. 小滴 a tiny drop (as of a liquid) droplet:deluge=pebble:landslide drudgery n. 苦差事,苦工 dull, irksome, and fatiguing work:uninspiring or menial labor drudgery←→rewarding work dryad n. 森林的精灵 WOOD NYMPH dubious a. 可疑的,不确定的 questionable or suspect as to true nature or quality disaffected:contentment=dubious:commitment/conviction dubious←→certain dulcet adj. (声音)悦耳的,美妙的 pleasing to the ear cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious dull a. 钝的,无趣的,呆滞的,阴暗的 lacking brilliance or luster tarnish:dull=vitrify:smooth
88

brilliance←→dullness perspicuous←→dull resplendent←→dull trenchant←→vague/dull dullard n.笨蛋 a stupid or unimaginative person dupe n. 傻瓜,易受骗的人 one that is easily deceived or cheated:FOOL reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe dwelling n. 住处 a shelter (as a house) in which people live deportation:country=eviction:dwelling potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling dyspeptic a. 消化不良的,胃弱的,患胃病的 INDIGESTION genial←→dyspeptic eaglet n. 小鹰 a young eagle eaglet:bird eaglet:bird=frog:amphibian earnest a.认真的,诚恳的 characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind facetious←→earnest earplug n. 耳栓 device of pliable material for insertion into the outer opening of the ear (as to keep out water or deaden sound) earplug:noise=shield:impact earshot n. 听力所及之范围,声音所及的距离 the range within which the unaided voice may be heard earshot:hear=ken:see earsplitting a. 震耳欲聋的 distressingly loud or shrill earsplitting:voice=?? ebullience n. 沸腾,热情,热情洋溢
89

the quality of lively or enthusiastic expression of thoughts or feelings:EXUBERANCE ebullience←→impassiveness eccentric a. 古怪的,反常的,不同圆心的 deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct especially in odd or whimsical ways hero:admirable=eccentric:unconventional eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated echelon n.[军]梯队;组织系统中的等级 an arrangement of a body of troops with its units each somewhat to the left or right of the one in the rear like a series of steps echelon:hierarchy=?? eclat n. 辉煌的成就; 喝采; 名声 brilliant or conspicuous success eclat←→fiasco eclectic n. 折衷主义者,折衷派的人 selecting what appears to be best in various doctrines, methods, or styles eclipse n. (日,月)蚀,名声缺落,失势 a falling into obscurity or decline; also :the state of being eclipsed eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor ecumenical adj. 世界范围的,节俭的?,一般性的,普遍性的 worldwide or general in extent, influence, or application ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity diocesan←→ecumenical edifice n. 大厦,大建筑物 BUILDING; especially :a large or massive structure tower:edifice=rampart:barrier efface v. 擦掉,抹去 to make (oneself) modestly or shyly inconspicuous alliterate:remove=blazon:efface blazon←→efface effervesce vi. 冒泡,沸腾,兴奋 to show liveliness or exhilaration effervesce←→be flat effervescent←→still
90

effete adj. 衰老的,虚弱的,精疲力尽的 having lost character, vitality, or strength effete←→hale effluvia n. pl. 臭气(effluvium 的复数形式),没用的副产品 a by-product especially in the form of waste effluvia←→desired products effulgent adj.光辉的,灿烂的 radiant splendor:BRILLIANCE bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence effusive a. 感情横溢的,流出的 characterized or formed by a nonexplosive outpouring of lava gush:effusive=rage:irate emotion:effusive=liberty:licentious{ manner:grandiose} egocentric adj.自我中心的,利己的 concerned with the individual rather than society altruism←→egocentric elaborate a. 精细的,详尽的,精心的 marked by complexity, fullness of detail, or ornateness fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy abstract←→elaborate elastic a. 有弹性的,能伸缩的,可通融的 capable of being easily stretched or expanded and resuming former shape:FLEXIBLE ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch elastic:expand=viable:live elated adj. 得意洋洋的振奋的 marked by high spirits:EXULTANT elated←→despondent elation←→dejection eleemosynary a. 施舍的,慈善的,接受接济的 of, relating to, or supported by charity philanthropist:eleemosynary=?? elegant a. 优雅的,端庄的,高雅的 of a high grade or quality:SPLENDID
91

insolent←→polite {elegant} elegy n. 哀歌、挽歌? a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation especially for one who is dead satire:ridicule=elegy:sorrow elegiac:sorrow=devotional:reverence elephantine a. 象的,巨大的,粗笨的 having enormous size or strength:MASSIVE microscopic←→elephantine elevate vt. 举起,提拔,鼓舞 to raise in rank or status:EXALT debasement←→elevation elicit vt. 引出,抽出,引起 to draw forth or bring out evoke←→fail to elicit elitism n.精英论,优秀人士统治 leadership or rule by an elite ellipsis n ?省略 the omission of one or more words that are obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a construction grammatically complete apostrophes:word=ellipsis:sentence elliptical a.椭圆的;省略的 , 朦胧的,含糊的 of or relating to deliberate obscurity (as of literary or conversational style) elliptical←→palpable elongate v.延长,伸长 to extend the length of elucidate v.阐明?说明 to give a clarifying explanation garble←→elucidate obfuscate←→elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly emanate vi. 散发,发出,发源 to come out from a source
92

emancipate v. 解放,解除 to free from restraint, control, especially :to free from bondage emancipate←→shackle

or

the

power

of

another;

embargo n. 禁运令,封港令? a legal prohibition on commerce embargo:commerce=quarantine:contact embark vi. 乘船,着手,从事,上飞机 to make a start conclude←→embark on embarrass vt. 使困窘,使局促不安,阻碍 to place in doubt, perplexity, or difficulties catastrophe:mishap=humiliation:embarrassment embarrass:shame=console:comfort unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement embed vt.埋 to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix embed←→extract embolden v.给……壮胆,鼓励 to instill with boldness or courage appall←→embolden/nerve embolden←→abash/faze/cow boggle←→embolden embolden←→daunt

embrace n. 拥抱 close encircling with the arms and pressure to the bosom especially as a sign of affection:HUG embrace:affection=shrug:indifference abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold eschew←→embrace, greet , welcome abjure←→embrace/espouse ostracize←→include/embrace spurn←→court ,crave, embrace encompass v. 围绕,包围 to form a circle about:ENCLOSE
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encompass←→exclude emigrate vi.vt. (使)移居,(使)移民 to leave one's place of residence or country to live elsewhere repatriate:emigration=repeal:ratification eminence n. 卓越;显赫;(此处喻指高处) one that is eminent, prominent, or lofty:as a:an anatomical protuberance (as on a bone) b:a person of high rank or attainments c:a natural elevation master:experience=luminary:eminence maven:experience=luminary:eminence eminent←→undistinguished emphasis n. 强调,加强,重要,强语气 special consideration of or stress or insistence on something underscore:emphasis=brand:ownership emulate vt.与…竞争;效法 strive to equal or excel emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary enact vt. 制定法律,扮演,颁布 to establish by legal and authoritative act; (as a bill) into law rescission←→enactment

specifically :to make

enamel n. 珐琅,瓷釉 a hard calcareous substance that forms a thin layer capping the teeth enamel:tooth=bark:tree enclosure n. 附件,围墙,围绕 something that encloses stockade:enclosure=pillar:support encomium n. 赞颂,颂辞 glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise; encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil encomium←→harsh criticism encompass 1. 围绕,包围 2. 包含,含有 to form a circle about:ENCLOSE obsolete :to go completely around
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encounter n. v. 相会,相遇,遭遇 to come upon face-to-face circumlocutory←→direct encounter encumbrance n. 阻碍,妨害物,累赘 something that encumbers:IMPEDIMENT encyclopedia n. 百科全书 a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or treats comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually in articles arranged alphabetically often by subject encyclopedia:compendious=?? endorse vt.签名于(票据)等的背面 vt.确认;赞同;支持 to approve openly especially :to express support or approval of publicly and definitely rider:bill=endorsement:policy endorse←→oppose publicly impugn←→endorse enduring a. 持久的,忍耐的 LASTING, DURABLE ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living transitory:endure=immutable:change transitory←→enduring enervate vt.使衰弱 to lessen the vitality or strength of enervation:vitality=debase:value curtail:period=enervate:energy eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor enervate←→invigorate enervate←→fortify/strengthen enfeeble vt. 使衰弱 to make feeble:deprive of strength eclipse:prestige=enervation/enfeeble:vigor enfeeble←→invigorate tonic←→enfeebling enfranchise vt. 给予自治权,给予选举权,解放 to endow with a franchise:as a:to admit to the privileges of a citizen and especially to the right of suffrage b:to admit (a municipality) to political privileges or rights
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enfranchise←→enfetter engender vt. 产生,引起 to cause to exist or to develop:PRODUCE quash←→engender engross vt.全神贯注于 to take or engage the whole attention of:occupy completely attentive:officious=refined:snobbish { absorbed:engrossed} enigmatic a. 阴阳怪气的,谜一般的,高深莫测的 of, relating to, or resembling an enigma:MYSTERIOUS enigmatic:simplistic=?? enigmatic←→broadly known { wildly accepted} enigmatic←→ readily understood enlighten vt. 授予...知识,启发,教导,开导 a:to furnish knowledge to:INSTRUCT b:to give spiritual insight to equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten ennoble vt. 授予爵位,使高贵 to make noble:ELEVATE ennui n. 倦怠,厌倦 a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction:BOREDOM ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic ennui←→energy/enthusiasm ennui←→keen interest ennui←→exuberance enslave vt.奴役 to reduce to or as if to slavery:SUBJUGATE manumit←→enslave ensuing adj. 随后的,接着的 to take place afterward or as a result anterior←→ensuing entangle vt. 使纠缠,卷入,使混乱 a:to wrap or twist together:INTERWEAVE b:ENSNARE disentangle←→snarl

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enthusiasm n. 狂热,热心 a:strong excitement of feeling:ARDOR b:something inspiring zeal or fervor ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic enthusiasm:mania=suspicion:paranoia reverence:respect=avidity:enthusiasm energy/enthusiasm

ennui





entice vt. 诱骗,引诱,怂恿 to attract artfully or adroitly or by arousing hope or desire:TEMPT command:entreaty=goad:enticement entrance vt. 使出神,使入迷 to carry away with delight, wonder, or rapture entrancing←→disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse; bore unprepossessing←→entrancing/winsome entrap vt. 骗入,诱捕,使陷入 to catch in or as if in a trap vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied entreaty n. 恳求,哀求 an act of entreating:PLEA command:entreaty=goad:enticement protest:dissuade=supplicate:entreat entry n. 登录,条目,报关手续,入口,进入 a descriptive record (as in a card catalog or an index) journal:entries=run:performance enumerate vt. 列举,计算,枚举,数

to specify one after another:LIST enunciate v. 发音,(清楚地)表达 a:to make a definite or systematic statement of b:ANNOUNCE, PROCLAIM enunciate←→mumble envision vt. 想象,预想 to picture to oneself ephemeral adj. 朝生暮死的,生命短暂的 lasting a very short time
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convoluted:complexity=ephemeral:transience ephemeral:endure=inelastic:stretch ephemeral:transience=permanent:perpetually repellent:attract=ephemeral:endure ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility ephemeral←→permanent/perpetual epic 史诗;英勇的;超出正常范围的 extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope epic←→modest epicure n. 美食家 one with sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine epicure:discriminating=spectator:watching sentinel:watchful=epicure:discriminating epigram n. 警句,讽刺短诗 a concise poem dealing pointedly and often satirically with a single thought or event and often ending with an ingenious turn of thought exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram paradox:contradictory=epigram:wise epilogue n. 收场白,尾声 a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work; the final scene of a play that comments on or summarizes the main action; the concluding section of a musical composition:CODA dessert:meal=epilogue:play=coda:sonata terminus:stop=epilogue:story preface←→epilogue

epistemology n. 认识论 the study or a theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity aesthetics:beauty=epistemology:knowledge epitomize vt. 摘要,概括 to serve as the typical or ideal example of equable adj. 稳定的, (脾气)温和的 marked by lack of noticeable, unpleasant, or extreme variation or inequality equable←→intemperate
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equipoise n. 平衡,均衡 a state of equilibrium equipoise:vacillate=?? equity a. 公平的,公正的 justice according to natural law or right; specifically :freedom from bias or favoritism illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution equitable←→discriminatory/unfair equivocal adj. 意义含糊的,不直率的? a:subject to two or more interpretations and usually used to mislead or confuse b:uncertain as an indication or sign equivocation:clarity=prevarication:truth equivocation:coax=explanation:enlighten equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity equivocate:commitment=procrastinate:action equivocation:ambiguous=platitude:banal fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive equivocation:truth=metaphor:description waffle←→speak unequivocally erect vt. 使竖立,使直立,树立,建立 SET UP, ESTABLISH suspend←→erect erect a. 直立的,竖立的,笔直的 characterized by firm or rigid straightness in bodily posture prostrate←→erect slouch←→stand erect erode v. (受)腐蚀,(受)侵蚀 to diminish or destroy by degrees accrete:growth=erode:destruction downpour:flooding=wind:erosion gully:erosion=callus:friction wind:erosion=downpour:flooding deposit←→process of eroding errant a. 周游的,错误的,不定的
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traveling or given to traveling amorphous:shape=errant:course doctrine:heretical=course:errant erratic a.反复无常的,古怪的 having no fixed course:WANDERING heroic:craven=erratic:permanent erudite adj.博学的,饱学的 possessing or displaying erudition:LEARNED erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered escalate v.(战争等)升级,扩大,上升 to increase in extent, volume, number, amount, intensity, or scope escalate←→diminish eschew v.避开,戒绝 to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds:SHUN eschew←→embrace, greet , welcome esoteric adj.秘传的,神秘的 designed for or understood by the specially initiated alone esoteric←→common accepted esoteric←→generally known espouse vt. 支持,赞成,嫁娶 to take up and support as a cause:become attached to abjure←→embrace/espouse

esteem n. 尊敬,尊重 to set a high value on:regard highly and prize accordingly stigma←→mark of esteem odium←→esteem estimable a. 可尊敬的,可估计的 estimable←→contemptible worthy of esteem estrange vt. 使疏远,离间,使离开 to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE
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estrangement←→rapprochement estrange vt.使疏远 to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness:ALIENATE etch n. 腐蚀剂 a chemical agent used in etching etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive ethereal a. 轻的,象空气的,天上的 a:lacking material substance:IMMATERIAL, INTANGIBLE b:marked by unusual delicacy or refinement ethereal←→material/ponderous ponderous←→ethereal/gossamer/lively ethics n. 道德规范 the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation logic:reasoning=ethics:behavior eulogize vt. 称赞,颂扬 to speak or write in high praise of:EXTOL encomiast:eulogize=quibble:cavil panegyric:eulogize=lampoon:satirize eulogy:speak=?? euphemism n. 婉言,委婉的说法 the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant equivocation:truth=euphemism:offense/obfuscation:clarity euphemism:offend=invulnerable:injure euphemism:offensive=aphorism:diffuse euphonious a. 音响好的,悦耳的,和谐的 pleasing to the ear cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious euphoria n. 安乐感,陶醉,陶醉感 a feeling of well-being or elation satisfaction:euphoria==?? evade vt.vi. 规避,逃避,躲避 to avoid answering directly:turn aside
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evade:answer=goldbrick:work evanescent adj.短暂的,瞬息的 tending to vanish like vapor evanescent:permanence=archaic:currency evanescent:disappear=pliant:yield cacophonous←→dulcet/euphonious abiding←→evanescent evasive a. 逃避的,回避的,托辞的 tending or intended to evade:EQUIVOCAL

inclemency:evasion

everlasting a. 永恒的,持久的,无止境的 lasting or enduring through all time:ETERNAL countless/innumerable/myriad/untold:number=everlasting/intermin able:duration evict vt. 逐出,赶出,驱逐 to force out:EXPEL deportation:country=eviction:dwelling evict:residence=banish:country harbor←→evict evoke vt. 唤起,引起 to call forth or up evoke←→fail to elicit exacerbate vt. 恶化,增剧,激怒,使加剧 to make more violent, bitter, or severe palliate←→exacerbate exacting a. 苛求的,吃力的 tryingly or unremittingly severe in making demands vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied =wary:gulled exaggerate vt.vi. 夸大,夸张 to enlarge or increase especially normal:OVEREMPHASIZE anger:tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole exaggeration:caricature=brevity:epigram malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole pithiness:aphorism=exaggeration:caricature exalt n. 提升,提高,得意洋洋 to elevate by praise or in estimation:GLORIFY
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beyond

the

exaltation←→condemnation exasperate vt. 使恼怒,激怒,恶化 a:to excite the anger of:ENRAGE b:to cause irritation or annoyance to exceptional a. 例外的,异常的,特别的 deviating from the norm prosaic←→exceptional/imaginary/exciting excerpt n.摘录,节录; 引用(from) to select (a passage) for quoting:EXTRACT exclamation n. 惊呼,惊叹词 a sharp or sudden utterance excoriate v. 撕去皮,严厉批评 to censure scathingly excoriate←→extol/praise lavishly excrete vt.排泄,分泌 to separate and eliminate or discharge (waste) from the blood or tissues or from the active protoplasm excrete←→ingest exculpate vt. 使无罪,分辩,辩解,开脱 to clear from alleged fault or guilt exculpatory:absolve:=motivational:stir hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve alibi:exculpatory=warning:admonitory exculpate←→inculpate excursive a. 游览的,离题的,散漫的 constituting a digression:characterized by digression digress:excursive=reiterate:redundant execrate v.憎恶,咒骂 to declare to be evil or detestable:DENOUNCE execrable←→commendable/laudable execute vt. 执行,实行,制成,处死 to carry out fully:put completely into effect impossible:execute=adamant:moved
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vagary:predict=impossibility:execute exemplary a. 可仿效的,可做模范的 a:serving as a pattern b:deserving imitation:COMMENDABLE emulate:exemplary=obviate:unnecessary exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame/redoubtable:regard exempt a. 免除的 vt. 使免除,豁免 n. 免税者,被免除义务者 free or released from some liability or requirement to which others are subject exempt:liability:pardon:penalty exert vt. 发挥,运用,施以影响 to bring to bear especially with sustained effort or lasting effect exhaust vt. 用尽,耗尽,抽完,使精疲力尽 to consume entirely:USE UP infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap exhilarate vt. 使高兴,使愉快 a:to make cheerful b:ENLIVEN, EXCITE exhilarate←→sadden exhortation n.劝告,规劝 language intended to incite and encourage exhortation:motivate=invective:discredit exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite exhortative:urge=didactic:teach { risible:ridicule} exodus vt.大批离去 a mass departure:EMIGRATION exodus←→influx exonerate v. 免除责任,确定无罪 to relieve of a responsibility, obligation, or hardship exonerate←→censure exonerate←→inculpate incrimination←→exoneration exorbitant adj.过份的,过度的 exceeding in intensity, quality, amount, or size the customary or
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appropriate limits exorbitant:moderation=perfidious:loyalty exotic a.外来的,异国的 introduced from another country:not native to the place where found exotic←→indigenous expansive a. 易膨胀的,易扩张的,健谈的 characterized by high spirits, generosity, or readiness to talk:OPEN expansive←→reserved/diffident expansive←→malicious expansive←→taciturn/withdrawn/limited expedite vt. 加快,促进,派出 a. 畅通的,无阻碍的,迅速的,方便的 to accelerate the process or progress of:speed up expedite:process=accelerate:pace expedite←→retard expedition n. 远征,探险队,迅速 efficient promptness:SPEED expedition←→foot dragging explicit adj.清楚明确的 fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity:leaving no question as to meaning or intent explicit←→obscure immanent←→explicit exponent n. 说明者,支持者 a:one that expounds or interprets b:one that champions, practices, or exemplifies exponent:advocate=pollster:canvass expurgate v. 净化,删去 to cleanse of something morally harmful, offensive, or erroneous; especially :to expunge objectionable parts from before publication or presentation vendor:purvey=censor:expurgate extant adj. 现存的,传世的 currently or actually existing extant←→extinct/lost

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extenuate vt. 减轻,使人原谅 to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial excuses:MITIGATE moderate:intensify=extenuate:seriousness exterminate vt. 扑灭,消灭,根绝 to get rid of completely usually by killing off extinct a.绝种的;熄灭了的 no longer existing extant←→extinct extinct←→resuscitated extinction←→perpetuation extinguish vt.熄灭,扑灭;消灭 to cause to cease burning:QUENCH extinguish←→kindle ignite←→extinguish extol v. 赞美 to praise highly:GLORIFY deprecate←→extol excoriate←→extol/praise lavishly extol←→censure extol←→disparage extol←→condemn/impugn/detract extol←→malign extort vt. 勒索,敲诈,强要 to obtain from a person by force, intimidation, or undue or illegal power:WRING sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation extort:obtain extraneous adj.外来的,无关的 a:not forming an essential or vital part b:having no relevance apposite←→extraneous extraneous←→essential extravagant adj.奢侈的 无节制的 a:spending much more than necessary b:PROFUSE, LAVISH frugality←→extravagancy

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extricate v. 拯救,救出 to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty extrovert n. 『心理』性格外向的人 a gregarious and unreserved person extrovert:outgoing=perfectionist=exacting exuberant a. 繁茂的,丰富的,非凡的 joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic ennui←→exuberance exude vt.vi. (使)流出,(使)渗出 to undergo diffusion exude←→absorb exultant adj. 愉悦的 filled with or expressing great joy or triumph:JUBILANT abject←→exultant dejected←→exultant fabricate vt.制造;装配,伪造 CONSTRUCT, MANUFACTURE; specifically diverse and usually standardized parts discompose:pacific=fabricate:authentic

:to

construct

from

facetious adj. 轻浮的,好开玩笑的 joking or jesting often inappropriately:WAGGISH facetious:speech=antic:behavior facetious←→earnest facilitate vt. 帮助,使容易,促进 to make easier:help bring about facilitate←→impeding obstruct←→facilitate hamper←→facilitate faction n. 小派系,内讧 a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self-seeking:CLIQUE consensus:factionalism=clarity:confusion factional←→disinterested faint a. 微弱的,无力的,模糊的 lacking strength or vigor:performed, offered, or accomplished
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weakly or languidly stentorian←→faint fainthearted a. 懦弱的,无精神的,胆小的 lacking courage or resolution:TIMID fallacy n. 错误的观念或信念,谬见,谬论 a:a false or mistaken idea b:erroneous character:ERRONEOUSNESS disabuse:fallacy=cure:disease falsehood n. 谎言,虚假 absence of truth or accuracy corroborate:evidence=calumniate:falsehood falter vt. 支吾地说,迟疑 a:to hesitate in purpose or action:WAVER b:to lose drive or effectiveness falter:act=stammer:speak fantasy n. 幻想,白日梦 imaginative fiction featuring especially strange settings and grotesque characters nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy farce n. 闹剧,胡闹 ridiculous or empty show farce:performance=limerick:poem fascinate vt. 令人入神,使着迷 to be irresistibly attractive fascination:interest=adoration:fondness fast n. 绝食,斋戒 the act to eat sparingly or abstain from some foods fast:eat=respite:labor fast:eat=moratorium:act fast ad. 很快地,紧紧地,彻底地 in a firm or fixed manner fast←→loosely attach fasten vt. 拴紧,使固定,强加于,集中于 to attach especially by pinning, tying, or nailing
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lathe:shape=clasp:fasten fastidious adj.难取悦的,挑剔的 showing or demanding excessive delicacy or care devoted:zealous=careful:fastidious dapper:fastidious=?? fastidious←→coarse fastidious←→easygoing/cursory/uncritical fathom n. 英寻(=1 ? 829 米),v. 领会,理解 to penetrate and come to understand erudite:fathom=oblivious:neglect measurable←→unfathomable occult←→bare/patent/readily fathomable measurable←→unfathomed fatigue n. 疲乏,劳累? weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress fatigue:rest=dehydration:water guilt:expiation=fatigue:repose indefatigable←→soon tired fatuous adj. 愚昧而不自知的 complacently or inanely foolish:SILLY fawn n.未满周岁的小鹿,v.巴结,奉承 to court favor by a cringing or flattering manner adulate:fawn=woo:adorn condescending:patronize=obsequious:fawn imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion obsequious:fawn=compliant:yield parsimonious:spend:peremptory:fawn reprobate:misbehave=sycophant:fawn equivocate:directness=fawn:imperiousness faze vt. 打扰,折磨,使狼狈 to disturb the composure of:DISCONCERT, DAUNT embolden←→abash/faze/cow fazed←→undisturbed feckless a. 没精神的,软弱的,无用的
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WEAK, INEFFECTIVE feckless←→responsible fecund a. 多产的,丰饶的,肥沃的 fruitful in offspring or vegetation:PROLIFIC deprivation←→fecundity feeble a. 微弱的,衰弱的,无效的 a:markedly lacking in strength b:indicating weakness fender n.挡泥板,护舷的垫子等 a device in front of locomotives and streetcars to lessen injury to animals or pedestrians in case of collision fender:collision feral a. 野生的,凶猛的 not domesticated or cultivated:WILD feral←→cultivated fertilize vt. 施肥,使丰饶,使受精 to make fertile fertilize:grow=immunize:resist

fervid a. 热的,热心的 marked by often extreme fervor fervid←→restrained fervor n. 热诚,热心 intensity of feeling or expression ennui:enthusiastic=fervor:apathetic fervor:zealot=improvidence:spendthrift zealotry←→lack of fervor fetid a. 有恶臭的 having a heavy offensive smell grating;sound=fetid:smell fetter n. 脚镣,束缚 to restrain from motion, action, or progress enfranchise←→enfetter liberalistic←→enfetterist

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fiasco n. 大失败,惨败 a complete failure fiasco←→a notable success fictitious adj. 假的、虚构的 of, relating to, or characteristic of fiction:IMAGINARY fictitious←→factual fidelity n. 忠实,诚实,忠诚,保真度 the quality or state of being faithful apostasy←→fidelity figurative a. 比喻的,形容多的,修饰丰富的 a:representing by a figure or resemblance:EMBLEMATIC b:of or relating to representation of form or figure in art filibuster n./v. 妨碍议事,阻挠 the use of extreme dilatory tactics in an attempt to delay or prevent action especially in a legislative assembly filigree n. 金银丝做的工艺品 ornamental openwork of delicate or intricate design chiaroscuro:contrast=tapestry:intricacy [filigree:delicacy ] filly n. 小雌马,小姑娘 a young female horse usually of less than four years filly:horse=pullet:chicken filter vt.过滤 n.滤纸 a porous article or mass (as of paper or sand) through which a gas or liquid is passed to separate out matter in suspension winnow:chaff=filter:impurities finesse n. 技巧、计谋、手段 skillful handling of a situation:adroit maneuvering finesse←→ineptitude finicky a. 过分注意的,过分周到的,过分讲究的 extremely or excessively nice, exacting, or meticulous in taste or standards fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky flaccid n. 软弱,没气力 not firm or stiff; also :
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lacking normal or youthful firmness flaccidity←→firmness flagging a. 下垂的,衰弱的,委顿的 LANGUID, WEAK flagging←→thriving flagging←→vibrant flag←→wax flamboyant a. 辉耀的,华丽的,火焰似的 marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior flamboyant←→subdued flamboyant←→understate flamboyant adj. 艳丽的,炫耀的 marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display or behavior flamboyant←→subdued flange n. 边缘,轮缘,凸缘,法兰 a projecting edge of cloth used for decoration on clothing flannel n.法兰绒;法兰绒衣服 outer garments of flannel; especially :men's trousers flannel:cloth=linen:fabric{ limerick:poem } flatter vt. 过分夸赞,奉承,阿谀,使高兴 to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest flatter:praise=loquacious:talkative sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore sycophant:flattery=extortionist:intimidation toady:flatter=?? flaw n. 瑕疵,v. 生裂缝 a defect in physical structure or form glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile flax n. 亚麻,麻布,亚麻织品 any of a genus (Linum of the family Linaceae, the flax family) of herbs; especially :a slender erect annual (L. usitatissimum) with blue flowers commonly cultivated for its bast fiber and seed
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clay:porcelain=flax:linen fledge vi. 长羽毛 to acquire the feathers necessary for flight or independent activity fledging←→molt flexible a. 易曲的,灵活的,可通融的,能变形的,柔软的 capable of being flexed:PLIANT adamant:flexibility=refractory:control limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty static:move=pliable:inflexible calcification←→flexibility flexible←→mulish flinch v.畏缩,退缩 to withdraw or shrink from or as if from pain:WINCE; also :to tense the muscles involuntarily in anticipation of discomfort grisly:flinch=droll:laugh stoic:flinch=?? flint n. 打火石,燧石,极硬的东西 a massive hard quartz that produces a spark when struck by steel pestle:grind=flint stone:sharpen flippancy n.无礼,言语尖刻 unbecoming levity or pertness especially in respect to grave or sacred matters flippancy←→seriousness flirt vi. 调情,玩弄,摆动,轻率地对待 to behave amorously without serious intent flirt:decency=?? supplicant:beseeching=coquette=flirtatious flock n. 群,一群人,大量 a group of birds or mammals assembled or herded together clique:intimates=flock:sheep flounder vi. 挣扎,折腾,挣扎着前进 to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually flounder:process=?? flounder←→slide flourish vi.繁荣,茂盛,兴旺
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to grow luxuriantly:THRIVE flourish←→waste away flout v\n.嘲弄,愚弄,轻视 to treat with contemptuous disregard:SCORN flout:disregard=taunt:challenge fluctuate vi. 变动,上下,动摇 to shift back and forth uncertainly pristine:decay=stable:fluctuation fluent a. 流利的,流畅的 a:ready or facile in speech b:effortlessly smooth and rapid:POLISHED fluent:glib=humorous:wry fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky fluent←→halting flush a. 丰足的,齐平的,,泛滥的,满盈的 to pour liquid over or through; especially :to cleanse or wash out with or as if with a rush of liquid galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush fluster a. 慌乱,狼狈,混乱,激动 to put into a state of agitated confusion:UPSET flustered←→calm foible n.小缺点,小毛病 a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior:WEAKNESS squabble:dispute=foible:failing tiff:squabble=foible:failing foil v. 阻挠,n. ①花剑,②金属薄片 a thin piece of material (as metal) put under an inferior or paste stone to add color or brilliance foil:metal=veneer:wood folly n.愚笨,愚蠢;傻念头 a foolish act or idea folly←→sagacious foment vt.引发 to promote the growth or development of:ROUSE, INCITE conducive:foment=tonic:invigorate
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disseminate:information=foment:discontentment defuse←→foment foment←→inhibit quell←→foment/instigate/rouse squelch←→foment fondness n. (U)慈爱; 溺爱 tender affection fascination:interest=adoration:fondness foolhardy adj. 鲁莽的,有勇无谋的 foolishly adventurous and bold:RASH footloose adj. 自由自在的,无拘束的 having no ties:free to move about dauntless:trepidation=footloose:attachment footloose←→attached forbears n. 列祖列宗 forbears←→descendants forbidding a.令人生畏的 such as to make approach or passage difficult or impossible forestry n. 林产,森林地 the management of growing timber tree:forestry=flower:horticulture forgery n. 伪造,伪造罪,伪造物 an act of forging; especially :the crime of falsely and fraudulently making or altering a document (as a check) plagiarism:ideas=forgery:documents formidable adj. 可怕的,困难的 causing fear, dread, or apprehension formidable←→comforting formidable←→simple/reassure forthright adj.直接的;立即的 free from ambiguity or evasiveness:going straight to the point acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile furtive←→open/forthright/brassy fortify vt. 增强
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to make strong:as a:to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to b:to add mental or moral strength to:ENCOURAGE debilitated←→fortified vitiate←→fortify enervate←→fortify/strengthen foster vt. 养育,抚育,抱(希望),鼓励,培养 to promote the growth or development of:ENCOURAGE foster←→retract founder n.创立者,奠基者 one that founds or establishes founder vt. 弄摔倒,弄跛,浸水,破坏 to become submerged:SINK founder←→stay aloft foundry n. 铸造,铸造场,铸造类 the act, process, or art of casting metals fracture n. 破碎,骨折 RUPTURE, TEAR cement←→fracture fragile a. 易碎的,脆的 a:easily broken or destroyed b:constitutionally delicate:lacking in physical vigor fragile:break=porous:penetrate limber:flexibility=spindly:frailty fraudulent a. 欺诈的,不正的,不诚实的 characterized by, based on, or done by fraud:DECEITFUL authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical freewheel vi. 轻松快活地行动,凭惯性前进 to move, live, or play freely or irresponsibly frenzy n.狂热 a violent mental or emotional agitation convulsion:contraction=frenzy:emotion energetic:frenetic=firm:obdurate fresco n.壁画
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the art of painting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments fresco:wall=parquetry:floor friable a.易碎的 easily crumbled or pulverized friable:crumble=malleable:alter impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible friable←→not easily crumbled/resistance to be pulverized friction n. 摩擦,医疗摩擦,不和 the rubbing of one body against another abraded:friction=desiccated:dehydration frieze n. (在墙顶与天花板间起装饰作用的)横条,饰带 a heavy durable coarse wool and shoddy fabric with a rough surface frieze:building=illumination:manuscript frigid a. 死板的;呆板的,寒冷的 sweltering←→frigid frivolous a. 轻佻的,妄动的,琐碎的 intensely cold frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion frowsy a. 不整洁的,有臭味的,很闷的 (frowzy) having a slovenly or uncared-for appearance dapper←→frowsy frugal a.节约的,节俭的 characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride frugal:penurious=deference:sycophant frugality←→extravagancy frustrate v.挫败,使沮丧 a:to balk or defeat in an endeavor b:to induce feelings of discouragement in frustrate←→abet full-bodied adj. 味道浓郁的 imparting to the palate the general impression of substantial weight and rich texture full-bodied:flavor=resonant:sound
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fungi n. 菌类,蘑菇 any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms usually classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts fungi:ecologist=motivation:psychologist furnace n. 火炉,熔炉,磨练 an enclosed structure in which heat is produced furnace:heat=generator:electricity furtive adj. 偷偷的,秘密的 a:done by stealth:SURREPTITIOUS b:expressive of stealth:SLY caprice:whimsical=stealth:furtive=discontent:unsatisfied furtive←→open/forthright/brassy furtively←→candidly futility n. 无用,无益,无价值 the quality or state of being futile:USELESSNESS bootless:futility=effulgent:resplendence interesting:intriguing=bootless:futile gadfly n. 虻,牛虻 a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse gaffe n. (社交上令人不快的)失言,失态 a social or diplomatic blunder gaffe:tactless=?? miscalculation:judgment=gaffe:decorum gainsay v. 否认 to declare to be untrue or invalid gainsay←→affirm gait n.步态 a manner of walking or moving on foot gait:walk=parlance:speak galaxy n. 银河,星系,一群显赫的人物 an assemblage of brilliant or notable persons or things

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galling a. 使烦恼的,使焦躁的,难堪的 markedly irritating:VEXING gall←→lull gall←→calm/assuage galling←→placating galvanize v. 电镀,通电,激励 to stimulate or excite as if by an electric shock galvanize:stimulate=irrigate:flush galvanize←→lull gamble vi.vt. 赌博,孤注一掷 to stake something on a contingency:take a chance adamant:yield=cautious:gamble gangling adj.瘦长得难看的 loosely and awkwardly built:LANKY garble←→elucidate garble v. 曲解,窜改 to so alter or distort as to create a wrong impression or change the meaning correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible ramshackle:soundness=garbled:clarity garish a. 炫耀的,过分装饰的 clothed in vivid colors garish:color=?? garment n.衣服;服装,衣着 an article of clothing hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet garner n. 谷仓,积蓄 a:GRANARY b:a grain bin garrulous adj.唠叨的,多话的 given to prosy, rambling, or tedious annoyingly talkative garrulous:talkative=cloying:sweet gash n. 砍得很深的伤口,很深的裂缝 a deep long cut in flesh
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loquacity:pointlessly

or

cleft:chasm=cut:gash gasification n. 气化 conversion into gas; especially :conversion of coal into natural gas gasification/vaporization←→solidification gauche a. 笨拙的,粗鲁的,无礼的 lacking social experience or grace; also :not tactful:CRUDE gaucheness←→polish gaudy adj. 俗丽的 ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak gauge n.标准尺寸,标准规格;量针;容量.范围 vt. 精确计量,估计 a measurement (as of linear dimension) according to some standard or system gauge:pressure=scale:weight measure:dimensions:calibrate:diameter=gauge:pressure=plumb:de pth gear n. 齿轮,工具 a toothed wheel gear:tooth=screw:thread(螺线) genealogy n. 系谱,宗谱,家系 an account of the descent of a person, family, or group from an ancestor or from older forms generality n. 概论,概说,大要 the quality or state of being general ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity genial a. 和蔼的,亲切的,友善的 marked by or diffusing sympathy or friendliness resourceful:inventiveness=philanthropic:geniality genial←→dyspeptic caustic←→palliating/genial dour←→congenial/genial mordant←→genial genteel adj.有教养的;文雅的 free from vulgarity or rudeness:POLITE
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genteel:vulgarity=intrepid:fear truculent:gentleness=unregenerate:remorse genteel←→loutish genuine a. 真正的,真实的,诚恳的 ACTUAL, TRUE genuine:authenticity=honest:trust spurious←→genuine germane adj.密切有关的 being at once relevant and appropriate:FITTING germane←→irrelevant gesture n.姿势,手势;姿态 a movement usually of the body or limbs that expresses or emphasizes an idea, sentiment, or attitude parody:style=mime:gesture ghastly a. 可怕的,惊人的,惨白的 intensely unpleasant, disagreeable, or objectionable ghastly:unpleasant=?? giddy a. 眼花的,头晕的 ,轻率 lightheartedly silly:FRIVOLOUS giddiness←→grave giddy←→serious ginger n. 姜,精力,淡赤黄色 vt. 使活泼,使有生气 a thickened pungent aromatic rhizome that is used as a spice and sometimes medicinally ginger:spice=?? glacier n.冰河 a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley or spreading outward on a land surface glacial:slow=?? glacier:ice=sea:water glamorize vt.使<人、 东西>有魅力 [显眼] ,浪漫地处理 [美化] <事 情> to look upon or depict as glamorous:ROMANTICIZE glance n. 一瞥,闪光,一滑,辉矿类 a quick or cursory look peck:kiss=glance:look
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glaze n. 釉,,上光,光滑面 to give a smooth glossy surface to glaze:porcelain=varnish:wood glib adj. 流利圆滑的,善辩的? marked by ease and fluency in speaking or writing often to the point of being insincere or deceitful fluent:glib=humorous:wry fluent:glib=meticulous:nitpick/finicky glib←→labored glimmer v. & n. (发出)微弱的光 a:to shine faintly or unsteadily b:to give off a subdued unsteady reflection glisten v. 闪烁,闪耀. to give off a sparkling or lustrous reflection of or as if of a moist or polished surface dingy:glisten=slippery:adhere glitch n. 干扰;误操作,小故障 a usually minor malfunction glitch:flaw=peccadillo:error/sin/offense gloat vi. 满足地看,独自暗笑,贪婪地盯 to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious satisfaction, gratification, or delight primp:vain=gloat:smug gloomy a. 阴沉的,昏暗的,忧郁的 low in spirits:MELANCHOLY glorify vt. 赞美,美化,赞扬,使辉煌 to make glorious by bestowing honor, praise, or admiration castigation:reproof=denunciation:denial {glorification:merit} gloss n. 光彩,假象,注释 a brief explanation (as in the margin or between the lines of a text) of a difficult or obscure word or expression blurb:notice=gloss:explanation glossary n. 字典,辞典,词汇表 a collection of textual glosses or of specialized terms with their
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meanings glossary:text=legend:map glossy a. 平滑的,有光泽的 having a surface luster or brightness varnish:glossy=sand:smooth glut n. 大量,充斥,吃饱 an excessive quantity:OVERSUPPLY glut←→dearth glutinous adj. 粘的,胶状的 having the quality of glue:GUMMY etch:corrosive=glue:adhesive glutinous←→non viscous glutton n. 贪吃者 one given habitually to greedy and voracious eating and drinking avarice:money=gluttony:food glutton:overindulge=ascetic:self denial goad vt. 用刺棒驱赶,激励,煽动,唆使 something that urges or stimulates into action:SPUR command:entreaty=goad:enticement gadfly:goad=humorist:amuse gobble vt. 狼吞虎咽 to swallow or eat greedily quaff:sip=gobble:nibble swill:sip=gobble:nibble goggle n. 眼睛睁视,护目镜 to stare with wide or protuberant eyes goggles:eyes=gloves:hands=earmuff:ear goldbrick vi. 称病,欺诈,偷懒 to shirk duty or responsibility evade:answer=goldbrick:work gorge vi. 狼吞虎咽 reticent:talk=abstemious:gorge gossamer n.蛛丝,薄纱,adj.轻而薄的 something light, delicate, or insubstantial
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gossamer←→substance gossamer←→ponderous gossamer←→substance gourmet n. 美食家? a connoisseur of food and drink; broadly :CONNOISSEUR bibliophile:books=gourmet:food {calligrapher:handwriting} connoisseur:art=gourmet:cuisine grandeur n. 庄严,伟大 the quality or state of being grand:MAGNIFICENCE grandeur=mean=?? grandiloquent adj(语言等)夸张的,夸大的 a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality especially in language gaudy:apparel=grandiloquent:speak grandiloquent←→secretive grandiose a. 宏伟的,宏大的,堂皇的,铺张的 characterized by affectation of grandeur or splendor or by absurd exaggeration ephemeral:longevity=grandiose:humility grandstand v. 哗众取宠的表演 to play or act so as to impress onlookers grandstand:impress=equivocate:deceive grant vt. 允许,承认,授与 to bestow or transfer formally specifically :to give the possession or title of by a deed concede←→refuse to grant withhold←→grant gratify vt. 使满足 to be a source of or give pleasure or satisfaction to gratify:desire=slake:thirsty aggrieve←→gratify irk←→gratify grating adj. (声音)刺耳的,恼人的 noisily,rasping,harsh grating:sound=acrid:odor==fetid:smell

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gratis adj.免费的 without charge or recompense:FREE gratuitous a. 无缘无故的;免费的 not involving a return benefit, compensation, or consideration gratuitous←→merited/warranted having a serious and dignified quality or demeanor frivolous:gravity=brash:discretion droll←→grave giddiness←→grave grave←→insignificant gregarious adj. 群居的,爱社交的 tending to associate with others of one's kind:SOCIAL poseur:sincerity=recluse:gregariousness gregarious←→aloof grievous adj.严重伤害的,引起痛苦的 causing or characterized by severe pain, suffering, or sorrow smart:pain=grieve:sorrow solace:grief=pacification:anger grievous←→slight grin vi.咧着嘴笑 to draw back the lips so as to show the teeth especially in amusement or laughter; broadly :SMILE pout←→grin gripe v. ①腹部绞痛,②抱怨,诉苦

to complain with grumbling gripe:discontent=praise:admiration grisly adj. 恐怖的,可怕的 inspiring horror or intense fear grisly:flinch=droll:laugh groove a. 开槽的 a long narrow channel or depression grooved:striated=braided:strand striated:groove=dappled:spot grotesque a. 奇怪的,可笑的 FANCIFUL, BIZARRE
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imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy grovel vi. 趴,匍匐,卑躬屈膝 to lie or creep with the body prostrate in token of subservience or abasement minion:dependent=groveler:petitioner grumble n. 怨言,满腹牢骚 to mutter in discontent guarantee vt. 保证,担保 to engage for the existence, permanence, or nature of:undertake to do or secure vouch←→refuse to guarantee guffaw vi.vt. 哄笑,狂笑 a loud or boisterous burst of laughter guile n. 狡猾,狡计 deceitful cunning:DUPLICITY acrid:gentleness=forthright:guile blemish:impeccable=guile:artless impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile guile:artless=blemish:flawless gullible:chicanery=servile:domination guile:naif=?? artless←→cunning/guile manipulate←→guileless guilt n. 罪行,内疚 feelings of culpability especially for imagined offenses or from a sense of inadequacy:SELF-REPROACH narcissism:love=guilt:blame gullible a.易受骗的 easily duped or cheated compliant:servile=trusting:gullible gullible:artless gullible:chicanery=servile:domination vigilant:entrapped=exacting:satisfied=wary:gulled gully n. 小峡谷,排水沟 a trench which was orig. worn in the earth by running water and through which water often runs after rains gully:erosion=callus:friction
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gum n. 树胶,橡皮,上帝,牙床 any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances of plant origin that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying and are salts of complex organic acids resin:tree=gum:rubber plant gush n. 涌出,滔滔不绝的讲话 a sudden outpouring blast:whiff=gush:trickle gush:effusive=rage:irate gust n. 突然一阵,风味 a sudden brief rush of wind gust:wind=cloudburst=rainfall {flare:light} guzzle vi.vt. 狂饮,暴食,喝酒化掉(钱) to drink especially liquor greedily, continually, or habitually complain:carp=drink:guzzle habitable a. 可居住的 capable of being lived in:suitable for habitation potable:beverage=habitable:dwelling hack n. 雇佣文人 a writer who aims solely for commercial success mercenary:soldier=hack:writer hackneyed adj.平凡的;陈腐的 lacking in freshness or originality windy:concise=hackneyed:original equivocation:misleading=bromide:hackneyed halcyon a. 宁静的,平稳的,翠鸟的 halcyon←→tempestuous CALM, PEACEFUL

hale a. 强壮的,健壮的 free from defect, disease, or infirmity:SOUND; exceptional health and vigor effete←→hale hale←→infirm blighted←→hale hallucination n. 幻觉,幻想
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also :retaining

perception of objects with no reality usually arising from disorder of the nervous system or in response to drugs (as LSD) halting a. 跛的,蹒跚的,犹豫的 marked by a lack of sureness or effectiveness fluent←→halting hamper vt.阻碍,使困累,妨碍 to restrict the movement of by bonds or obstacles:IMPEDE seminal←→hampering further development hamper←→facilitate hamstring vt. 切断腿筋使成跛腿,使残废 to make ineffective or powerless:CRIPPLE hamstring←→fectiveness handle vt. 触摸,运用,操作,处理,买卖 to act, behave, or feel in a certain way when handled or directed cumbersome←→easy to handle hangdog a. 忧愁的,悲哀的,沮丧的,灰心的 鬼鬼祟祟的,卑躬屈膝的,低贱 的 SAD, DEJECTED hangdog←→buoyant hankering n. 渴望 to have a strong or persistent desire:YEARN hankering←→odium haphazard n.,adj.&adv.偶然的 marked by lack of plan, order, or direction methodical←→haphazard systematic←→haphazard harangue n. 长篇演说 to address in a ranting way harangue←→speak temperately harass v.烦扰 to annoy persistently haunt:familiar=harass:irritating harbinger n. 先驱,预兆 one that presages or foreshadows what is to come
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harbinger:presage=archetype:exemplify harbor n. 港,避难所 v. 包庇,隐匿 to give shelter or refuge to harbor←→evict hardheaded a. 冷静的,脚踏实地的,无懈可击的 STUBBORN, WILLFUL harebrained FOOLISH a. 轻率的,欠考虑的,粗心的

harmonious a. 和睦的,调和的,和谐的,协调的 marked by accord in sentiment or action acrimonious←→harmonious harmony←→discord harp n. 竖琴 a plucked stringed instrument consisting of a resonator, an arched or angled neck that may be supported by a post, and strings of graded length that are perpendicular to the soundboard horn:blow=harp:pluck harry v. 掠夺,骚扰 to make a pillaging or destructive raid on:ASSAULT harry←→comfort harsh a. 粗糙的,刺耳的,严厉的 a:causing a disagreeable or painful sensory reaction:IRRITATING b:physically discomforting:PAINFUL barb:caustic=pan:harsh encomium←→harsh criticism mollycoddle←→treat harshly paean←→harshly lampoon hasten vt.催促 vi.赶紧 to move or act quickly hasten←→slow the progress of hasten←→check hasty a. 匆匆的,轻率的,急忙的 done or made in a hurry hasty←→characterized by deliberation hasty←→well considered
129

haunt vt. 常到,常去,(思想)萦扰,(鬼魅等)常出没于 地方 to visit often:FREQUENT haunt:familiar=harass:irritating persecute:injure=haunt:remember hauteur n.傲慢,高傲,自大 ARROGANCE, HAUGHTINESS fawn:hauteur=self depreciate:swagger hauteur←→humility havoc n.大破坏,浩劫;大混乱,大杂乱 great confusion and disorder havoc←→serenity heart vt. 鼓起勇气,激励 to give heart to:CHEER:HEARTEN mollify:anger=heart:dejection dismay←→hearted hedge n.修剪过的树篱,限制 vt. 用树篱围,妨碍 a means of protection or defense (as against financial loss) hedge:loss=quarantine:contamination=safeguard:accident safeguard:accident=hedge:loss heinous adj.可憎的,十恶不赦的 hatefully or shockingly evil:ABOMINABLE heinous←→commendable

n. 常到的

heirloom n. 传家宝,相传动产 something of special value handed on from one generation to another heirloom:ancestor=bequest:testator hem n. (衣服或裙子的)褶边 a border of a cloth article doubled back and stitched down hem:garment=ruffle:shirt=molding:cabinet hermit n. 隐士,隐居者 one that retires from society and lives in solitude especially for religious reasons:RECLUSE vegetarian:meat=hermit:society

130

herald vt. 预报,宣布,传达,欢呼 to give notice of:ANNOUNCE unabashed:embarrassment=unheralded:announcement unherald←→proclaim herbicide n. 除草剂 an agent used to destroy or inhibit plant growth insect:pesticide=plant:herbicide hereditary a. 世袭的,遗传的 a:genetically transmitted or transmittable from parent to offspring b:characteristic of or fostered by one's predecessors heresy n. 异端邪说 an opinion or doctrine contrary to church dogma apostasy:faith=recantation:heresy dogma←→heresy heretical a. 异教的,异端的 of, relating to, or characterized by departure from accepted beliefs or standards:UNORTHODOX doctrine:heretical=course:errant herpetologist n. 爬虫学家 one that a branch of zoology dealing with reptiles and amphibians salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist hesitance n. 踌躇,犹豫 the quality or state of being b:RELUCTANCE alacrity←→dilatoriness/hesitance impetuosity←→hesitance/vacillation

hesitant:as

a:INDECISION

hidebound a. 营养不良的,死板的,量小的 having an inflexible or ultraconservative character contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:chang e/innovation/novelty hideous a. 丑恶的,可憎的,可怕的 offensive to the senses and especially to sight:exceedingly ugly pulchritude←→ugliness/hideous affinity←→aversion/hideous

131

hie vt. 急忙,疾走,催促 to go quickly:HASTEN hie←→dawdle hierarchy n. 阶级组织,教士政治,僧侣政治 the classification of a group of people according to ability or to economic, social, or professional standing echelon:hierarchy= hike vt. 使高涨,拉起 to rise up; especially :to work upward out of place backset←→hike hinge n. 铰链,关键,枢纽 a jointed or flexible device on which a door, lid, or other swinging part turn hint n. 暗示,提示 a slight indication of the existence, approach, or nature of something:CLUE nuance:distinction=hint:suggestion histrionic a. 演员的,演剧的,有如演戏的 of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater histrionic:actor=?? hitch v. 搭便车,套住? to catch or fasten by or as if by a hook or knot hive n. 蜂房,闹区,蜜蜂群 a place swarming with activity tumultuous:bedlam=active:hive hoard n./v. 贮藏,秘藏 a supply or fund stored up and often hidden away miser:hoard=dandy:preen=sycophant:fawn=pundit:opinion hoary a. 灰白的 extremely old:ANCIENT hoary:old=?? hodgepodge n. 混煮,杂菜,混淆 a heterogeneous mixture:JUMBLE hodgepodge:uniformity=cliche:original
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items:hodgepodge=people:rabble homage n. 尊崇,尊敬,效忠 expression of high regard:RESPECT counsel:advice=laud:homage homage←→disrespect homily n. 说教,训诫 a lecture or discourse on or of a moral theme parable:story=homily:lecture homogenize vt. 使均匀 to blend (diverse elements) into a uniform mixture stratify←→homogenize hone vt. 用磨刀石磨 n. 磨刀石,抱怨,想念 to make more acute, intense, or effective:WHET hone←→blunt honorarium n.酬劳金,谢礼 a payment for a service (as making a speech) on which custom or propriety forbids a price to be set amenity:comfortable=honorarium:grateful horn n. 角,角质,喇叭 a wind instrument used in a jazz band; horn:blow=harp:pluck

especially :TRUMPET

hortative adj. 激励的 giving exhortation:ADVISORY didactic:teach=hortatory:urge hortative:encourage=exculpatory:absolve horticulture n. 园艺学 the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants tree:forestry=flower:horticulture hovel n. 小屋,杂物间,家畜小屋 a small, wretched, and often dirty house:HUT palatial:hovel=city:bucolic hub n.车轴,,中心 the central part of a circular object (as a wheel or propeller)
133

spoke:hub=radius:center hubris n. 傲慢,骄傲 exaggerated pride or self-confidence parsimony:frugal=hubris:pride humanitarian n. 人道主义者,博爱者,基督凡人论者 a person promoting human welfare and reform:PHILANTHROPIST

social

humble a. 卑下的,谦逊的,粗陋的 a:ranking low in a hierarchy or scale:INSIGNIFICANT, UNPRETENTIOUS b:not costly or luxurious dour:geniality=bumptious:humbleness impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness supercilious←→humble bumptious←→(humble) hauteur←→humility panache←→humility humor vt. 迎合,牵就,顺应 to soothe or content by indulgence chide:pillory=humor:mollycoddle hurdle n. 障碍,跳栏,临时活动篱笆 OVERCOME, SURMOUNT vt. 用篱笆围,越过,克服

hurl vt. 用力投掷,愤慨地说出,丢下 to throw down with violence scowl:displeasure=kiss:affection{hurl:disgust} hurricane n.飓风 a tropical cyclone with winds of 74 miles (118 kilometers) per hour or greater that occurs especially in the western Atlantic, that is usually accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning, and that sometimes moves into temperate latitudes tablefire:inferno=storm:hurricane rain:deluge=wind:hurricane snow:precipitation=hurricane:cyclone husbandry n.耕种;节用,家政 the control or judicious use of resources:CONSERVATION husbandry:dissipate=alacrity:procrastinate
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husband←→squander husbandry←→prodigality husky adj. 声音沙哑的 hoarse with or as if with emotion husky←→delicate hybrid a. 混合的,杂种的,混合语的 something heterogeneous in origin or composition:COMPOSITE hybrid←→of unmixed extraction hymn n.赞美诗,圣歌;赞歌 a song of praise or joy hypnotic a. 催眠的,催眠术的,易于催眠的 tending to produce sleep:SOPORIFIC hypnotic←→conscious hypnotic←→stimulant hyperbole n. 夸张法 extravagant exaggeration anger tirade=exaggeration:hyperbole malicious:ill will=exaggerating:hyperbole hypercritical adj.苛求的,吹毛求疵的 meticulously or excessively critical authenticity:fraudulent=sincerity:hypocritical hypercritical←→ingenuous/honest ichthyologist n. 鱼类学者,鱼类研究者 one that study a branch of zoology that deals with fishes salmon:ichthyologist=chameleon:herpetologist idiosyncratic a. 特质的,异质的,特殊的 a:a peculiarity of constitution or temperament:an individualizing characteristic or quality b:individual hypersensitiveness (as to a drug or food) idolater n. 偶像崇拜者,崇拜者,皈依者 a person that admires intensely and often blindly one that is not usually a subject of worship reverent:idolater=trusting:dupe ignite vt. 点燃,使灼热,使兴奋
135

to set afire; also :KINDLE ignite←→extinguish ignominy n. 羞耻,屈辱 deep personal humiliation and disgrace ignominious←→lofty ignominies←→glory, honor; esteem, respect ignorant a. 无知识的,不知道的,幼稚的 destitute of knowledge or education scorn:reject=adulate:flatter=disparage:ignore subtle:ignore=salient:observe erudite←→smattering of knowledge/ignorant/unlettered illiteracy n. 文盲 the quality or state of being illiterate; especially :inability to read or write illiteracy:education=inequity:redistribution illuminati 先觉者; 智者 persons who are or who claim to be unusually enlightened interpreter:translate=illuminati:instruct illumination n. 照明,阐明,启发 one of the decorative features used in the art of illuminating or in decorative lighting frieze:building=illumination:manuscript stylus:mark=lamp:illumination therapeutic:hospital=illuminating:school obfuscate←→elucidate/illuminate/explain clearly illusory a. 产生幻觉的,幻影的,错觉的 based on or producing illusion:DECEPTIVE maelstrom:turbulent=mirage:illusory nicety:precision=illusion:fantasy squall:commotion=flash:illumination illustrate vt. 举例说明,作图解,阐明 to provide with visual features intended to explain or decorate illustrate:pictures=particularize:details imbroglio n. 纷乱,纠葛,纷扰,一团糟 an intricate or complicated situation
136

imitation n. 模仿,效法,冒充,赝品 the quality of an object in possessing some of the nature or attributes of a transcendent idea exemplary:imitation=culpable:blame immanent adj. 普遍存在的,内在的 remaining or operating within a domain of reality or realm of discourse:INHERENT; specifically :having existence or effect only within the mind or consciousness immanent←→explicit immaterial a. 非物质的,无形的,精神的,不相关的 of no substantial consequence:UNIMPORTANT immaterial:relevance=peripheral:center immaterial:relevance=circuitous:directness relevant←→immaterial immemorial adj. 太古的,极古的 extending or existing since beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition immemorial←→recent imminent a. 即将来临的,逼近的 ready to take place; especially :hanging threateningly over one's head immune a. 免疫的,免除的,不受影响的 not susceptible or responsive; especially :having a high degree of resistance to a disease fertilize:grow=immunize:resist overexposure:jaded=vaccination:immune soporific:sleep=vaccinating:immunity vaccination:immune=overexposure:jaded immure vt. 监禁,禁闭 a:to enclose within or as if within walls b:IMPRISON immure←→release (?liberate) immutable a. 不可变的,不变的,不能变的 not capable of or susceptible to change immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated transitory:endure=immutable:change
137

immutable←→variable imp n. 顽童 a mischievous child:URCHIN insensitive:boor=mischievous:imp impair vt. 损害,减少,削弱 to damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect impassive a. 无感情的,冷淡的,不动的,平静的 unsusceptible to or destitute of emotion impassive:perturb=voracious:satisfy impassive←→emotional impeccable adj.无瑕疵的 free from fault or blame:FLAWLESS blemish:impeccable=guile:artless impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir} impeccable←→faulty impecunious adj. 不名一文的,贫困的 having very little or no money usually habitually:PENNILESS foolish:discretion=impecunious:money impecunious←→wealthy/prosperous/affluent impede v.妨碍,阻碍 to interfere with or slow the progress of blandishment:cajole=obstacle:impede abet←→thwart/impede facilitate←→impeding impenetrable a. 不能穿过的,不可理喻的,费解的,顽固的 incapable of being penetrated or pierced pierce:impenetrable=profane:inviolable porous←→impenetrable impenitent adj. 不悔悟的 not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses rueful←→impenitent imperative a. 命令式的,急需的,势在必行的,强制的
138

expressive of a command, entreaty, or exhortation question:interrogative=order:imperative imperceptible a. 不能感知的,不知不觉的,微细的 not perceptible by a sense or by the mind:extremely slight, gradual, or subtle appreciable←→imperceptible imperial a. 帝王的,至尊的,壮丽的 of, relating to, befitting, or suggestive of an empire or an emperor imperial:significant=grotesque:fantasy imperious adj. 傲慢的,专横的 marked by arrogant assurance:DOMINEERING fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness imperious:fawn:swagger:self depreciat imperious:servile=bellicose:peaceable fawn:imperiousness=equivocate:directness=elaborate:sketchy imperiousness:fawn=self depreciatory:swagger imperious←→humble impertinent a. 鲁莽的,无礼的,粗鲁的,不恰当的 (1) not pertinent:IRRELEVANT (2) not restrained within due or proper bounds especially of propriety or good taste impertinence←→respect/relevance obeisant←→impertinent imperturbable a. 沉着的,泰然自若的,镇静的 marked by extreme calm, impassivity, and steadiness:SERENE restive←→calm/imperturbable ticklish←→imperturbable impervious adj. 不能渗透的,不为所动的 not capable of being damaged or harmed impervious:damaged=indomitable:subdued impervious:friable=nonflammable:combustible impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid impervious:damaged=indefensible:excused impetuous a. 冲动的,猛烈的,轻率的,急躁的 marked by impulsive vehemence or passion impetuous:vacillation/hesitation=bumptious:humbleness impetuosity←→hesitance/vacillation impetuous←→deliberate
139

impiety n. 无信仰,无信心,不虔诚,不孝 the quality or state of being impious:IRREVERENCE impiety←→devoutness implacable a. 难宽恕的,难和解的,执拗的 not placable:not capable of being appeased, significantly changed, or mitigated immutable:altered=implacable:propitiated implacable:compromise=honest:swindle implement n. 工具,器具 vt. 实现,使生效,执行 CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH; especially :to give practical effect to and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures implicate vt. 含意,暗示,牵连 to involve as a consequence, corollary, or natural inference:IMPLY implode v. 内爆,剧减 to collapse inward as if from external pressure; greatly reduced as if from collapsing collapse:implode=divide:sunder impromptu adj. 即席的,即兴的 made, done, or formed on or as moment:IMPROVISED ad-lib:impromptu=aside:divergent

also :to become

if

on

the

spur

of

the

improvident a. 无远见的,浪费的 not provident:not foreseeing and providing for the future improvised adj. 即席而作的,即兴的 to compose, recite, play, or sing extemporaneously rite←→improvised act imprudent a. 轻率的,鲁莽的 not prudent:lacking discretion impudent a. 鲁莽的,卑鄙的,厚颜无耻的 marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or disregard of others:INSOLENT impudence:brazen=deadpan:impassive impudent←→deferential/respectful

140

impugn v. 指责,对…表示怀疑 to assail by words or arguments:oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity extol←→condemn/impugn/detract impugn←→champion impugn←→endorse impugn←→vindicate impuissance n. 无能; 无力; 虚弱 WEAKNESS, POWERLESSNESS clout←→impuissance impulsive adj. 易冲动的,感情用事的 having the power of or actually driving or impelling impute a. 可归罪的,使负责的,可嫁祸的 to lay the responsibility or blame for often falsely or unjustly imputable:nettle inadvertent adj. 不注意的,疏忽的 not focusing the mind on a matter:INATTENTIVE inalienable a. 不能让与的,不能转售的,不能夺取的,不可分割的 incapable of being alienated, surrendered, or transferred inalienable:surrendered=implacable:propitiated inane a. 空虚的,愚蠢的,空洞的 lacking significance, meaning, or point:SILLY obsessed:attracted=rash:adventurous {inane:clumsy} inane←→expressive, meaningful, pregnant, significant, weighty inanimate adj. 无生命的 not endowed with life or spirit ephemeral:enduring=inanimate:living inaugurate v. 举行就职典礼,开创 to induct into an office with suitable ceremonies inaugurate:president=install:official=crown:king inauguration:official=matriculation:student cease←→inaugurate/commencement incendiary a. 放火的,煽动的,教唆的 of, relating to, or involving a deliberate burning of property

141

incense vt. 用香焚,使发怒 to arouse the extreme anger or indignation of propitiate←→incense inception n.开端,开始,取得学位 an act, process, or instance of beginning:COMMENCEMENT inception:termination=matriculation:graduation incessant a. 不断的,不绝的,无尽的 continuing or following without interruption:UNCEASING inch vi. 慢慢前进,慢慢移动 to move by small degrees:progress slowly inch:move=drawl:speak inchoate adj.刚开始的,未发展的

being only partly in existence or operation; especially :imperfectly formed or formulated:FORMLESS immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized incipient a. 起初的,发端的,初期的 beginning to come into being or to become apparent immature:developed=incipient/inchoate:realized incisive a. 敏锐的,机敏的,锋利的,切入的 impressively direct and decisive (as in manner or presentation) incite v 激发,刺激 to move to action:stir up:spur on:urge on exhortation:motivate=persiflage:incite instigator:incite=bully:browbeat inclement adj. (天气)严酷的,严厉的 lacking mildness:as physically severe:STORMY inclemency:evade=?? inclement←→balmy incogitant adj. 『罕』无思想的; 粗心的; 不体谅的 THOUGHTLESS, INCONSIDERATE incogitant:thoughtful=restive:calm incongruent adj. 不协调的,不和谐的; 不合适的 not superposable so as to be coincident throughout
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incongruent:conform=recalcitrant:obey inconsequential a. 不合逻辑的,不合理的,不重要的 of no significance:UNIMPORTANT crucial←→inconsequential incontrovertible a. 无争论余地的,无疑的,明白的 not open to question:INDISPUTABLE incontrovertible:disputed=untenable:defended{ravenous:satisfied} {intrepid:feared} controvert←→substantiate incorrigible a. 无药可救的,积习难改的,固执的 incapable of being corrected or amended INVETERATE tractability←→incorrigibility tractable←→incorrigible

UNALTERABLE,

incriminate vt. 归罪,使负罪,控告 to charge with or show evidence or proof of involvement in a crime or fault incrimination←→exoneration inculcate vt. 教授,谆谆教诲,教育 to teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions inculpate vt. 使负罪,控告,使连累 exonerate←→inculpate absolve←→inculpate exculpate←→inculpate incursion n.侵犯,入侵 a hostile entrance into a territory:RAID incursion←→retreat indecorous a. 无体的,不合礼节的 not decorous:conflicting with accepted standards of good conduct or good taste indefatigable a. 不知疲倦的,有耐性的,不屈不挠的 incapable of being fatigued:UNTIRING indelible adj. 擦试不掉的,不可磨灭的 UNFORGETTABLE, MEMORABLE
143

INCRIMINATE

indelible:forget=astounding:expect indelibility←→erasability indelicate a. 下流的,无教养的,卑鄙的,不雅的 not delicate: a (1):lacking in or offending against propriety:IMPROPER (2):verging on the indecent:COARSE b:marked by a lack of feeling for the sensibilities others:TACTLESS indemnity n. 赔偿,补偿,保护 security against hurt, loss, or damage mollification:soothe=indemnity:secure indict vt. 起诉,控告,指控 to charge with a crime by the finding or presentment of a jury (as a grand jury) in due form of law indict:accused=?? indifferent a. 漠不关心的,无重要性的,中立的 marked by a lack of interest, enthusiasm, something:APATHETIC embrace:affection=shrug:indifference avid←→indifferent

of

or

concern

for

indigenous adj.土产的,本地的 having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment exotic←→indigenous indigenous←→ nonnative indigent a. 贫乏的,穷困的 suffering from indigence:IMPOVERISHED indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability indigent←→affluent indigestible a. 不消化的,难消化的,难理解的 not digestible:not easily digested indispensability n. 不可缺少 absolutely necessary:ESSENTIAL indigent:wealth=redundant:indispensability indoctrinate v.灌输思想
144

to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments:TEACH stickler:exacting=pedagogue:indoctrinate indolent adj. 懒惰的,懒洋洋的 (n. indolence) a:averse to activity, effort, or movement:habitually lazy b:conducing to or encouraging laziness rectitude:transgress=keen:obtuse{impeccable:flaw=indolent:stir} inducement n.引诱物 a motive or consideration that leads one to action or to additional or more effective actions inducement←→deterrent indulgent a. 纵容的,任性的,放纵的 indulging or characterized by indulgence; especially :LENIENT abstemious:indulge=austere:decorate glutton:overindulgence=ascetic:self denial spartan←→sybaritic/indulgent/voluptuous/luxurious draconian←→indulgent/mild martinet←→indulgent person indulgent←→ascetic indurate vt. 使坚固,变坚固,使硬化 to make hard indurate←→soften inedible a. 不适于食用的,不能吃的 not fit to be eaten ineluctable adj.难免的,不能逃避的 not to be avoided, changed, or resisted:INEVITABLE impervious:penetrate=ineluctable:avoid ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend serendipitous:effort=ineluctable:chance ineptitude n. 不适当,愚笨,愚昧的言行 the quality or state of being inept; especially :INCOMPETENCE finesse←→ineptitude inert adj. 惰性的,行动迟钝的 deficient in active properties; especially :lacking a usual or anticipated chemical or biological action inertia←→activity reactant←→inert material inert←→active
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inert←→dynamic inestimable a. 无价的,无法估计的 too valuable or excellent to be measured or appreciated inevitable a. 不可避免的,必然的 incapable of being avoided or evaded ineluctable/inevitable:avoid=untenable:defend inexorable a. 无情的,冷酷的,不屈不挠的 not to be persuaded or moved by entreaty:RELENTLESS inexorable:dissuasion=indomitable:conquest inexorable←→relenting infamy n. 声名狼藉,出丑 evil reputation brought about by something grossly criminal, shocking, or brutal infamy←→good repute infatuate vt. 使迷恋,使糊涂 to cause to be foolish:deprive of sound judgment sabbatical:leave=flattering:infatuation odium←→infatuation infer vt. 推论出,推断 GUESS, SURMISE tacit:infer=encoded:decode inferno n.火海,地狱般的场所 a place or a state that resembles or suggests hell fire:inferno=storm:hurricane infinite a.无穷的 immeasurably or inconceivably great or extensive:INEXHAUSTIBLE infinite:exhaust=discrete:overlap unique:precedent=infinite:end infirm a. 弱的,虚弱的,柔弱的 of poor or deteriorated vitality; especially :feeble from age hale←→infirm inflame v. 使燃烧,激怒(某人) to excite to excessive or uncontrollable action or feeling assuage←→inflame subdue←→inflame
146

infelicitous a. 不幸的,不吉的,不适当的 not appropriate in application or expression happy←→infelicitous influx n. 涌入 exodus←→influx a coming in

infuse v. 灌输,使…充满 INSPIRE, ANIMATE inspire:infuse=obliterate:remove infuse←→drain away/refuse/extract ingenious adj. 聪明的,有发明天才的 marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception or execution ingenuous adj.纯朴的,单纯的 showing innocent or childlike simplicity and candidness impeccable:flaw=ingenuous:guile ingenuous:dissemble=raffish:preen=polite:snub ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive pernicious:injure=disingenuous:mislead ingenue:sophistication=cynic:trustfulness hypercritical←→ingenuous/honest ingenuous←→cunning ingrained adj. 根深蒂固的 to work indelibly into the natural texture or mental or moral constitution ingrained←→easily to change ingratiating a. 逢迎的,迷人的 capable of winning favor:PLEASING ingratiating:win favor=disingenuous:deceive inimical adj.为敌的,不友善的 a:having the disposition of an enemy:HOSTILE b:reflecting or indicating hostility:UNFRIENDLY inimical←→friendly/amiable/amicable amenable←→inimical inimitable adj. 无法仿效的,不可比拟的 not capable of being imitated:MATCHLESS inimitable←→commonplace
147

inimitable←→ordinary iniquity n. 邪恶,不公正 gross injustice:WICKEDNESS iniquity←→rectitude/disinterestedness initial a. 开始的,最初的,字首的 placed at the beginning:FIRST eccentric:conventional=doyen:uninitiated initial←→follow initiate←→follow up inveterate←→uninitiated {youthful} innocent n. 天真的人,笨蛋 free from guilt or sin especially through lack of knowledge of evil:BLAMELESS culpable←→innocent innocuous adj. (行为,言论等)无害的 not likely to give offense or to arouse hostility:INOFFENSIVE, INSIPID placebo:innocuous=salve:unctuous placebo:innocuous=venom:toxious noxious←→wholesome/sanitary/innocuous

strong

feelings

or

innovation n. 改革,创新 the introduction of something new contumacious:authority=reactionary/hidebound/conservative:chang e/ innovation/novelty inquiry n. 质询,调查 examination into facts or principles:RESEARCH confidence:arrogant=inquiry:interrogatory insatiable a. 不知足的,贪求无厌的 incapable of being satisfied:QUENCHLESS insipid a. 没有味道的,清淡的,难吃的 lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge:DULL, FLAT insolent adj. 粗野的,无礼的 exhibiting boldness or effrontery:IMPUDENT perfunctorily:inspiration=insolently:veneration insolent←→polite/courteous {elegant}

148

insouciant adj. 漫不经心的; 无忧无虑的 lighthearted unconcern:NONCHALANCE inspired adj. 有创见的,有灵感的 outstanding or brilliant in a way or to a degree suggestive of divine inspiration instigate vt. 教唆,怂恿,煽动 to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE quell←→foment/instigate/rouse instigator n. 煽动者 to goad or urge forward:PROVOKE instigator:incite=bully:browbeat instill v.滴注,逐渐灌输 to impart gradually institute n. 学会,学院 vt. 创立,开始,制定,任命 to originate and get established:ORGANIZE rescind←→institute abrogate←→embrace/institute/uphold insubordinate adj.不服从的,反抗的 disobedient to authority tractable←→insubordinate/intransigent/incorrigible/obstinate insular a. 岛的,岛民的,保守的,孤立的,岛特有的 characteristic of an isolated people; especially :being, having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint insular←→cosmopolitan insulate v. 使绝缘,使隔离 to place in a detached situation:ISOLATE; especially :to separate from conducting bodies by means of nonconductors so as to prevent transfer of electricity, heat, or sound insularity←→cosmopolitanism insulate←→expose insurgent adj. 叛乱的,起事的 n. 叛乱分子 a person who revolts against civil authority or an established government; especially :a rebel not recognized as a belligerent parsimony:miser=rebelliousness:insurgent

149

intangible a. 难以明了的,无形的 not tangible:IMPALPABLE corporeal←→intangible integral a.组成的;整的 essential to completeness:CONSTITUENT integral←→superfluous integrity n. 正直,诚实,完整 the quality or state of being complete or undivided:COMPLETENESS ecumenical:generality=entire:integrity taint:integrity intelligible a. 可理解的,易理解的,明了的 capable of being understood or comprehended correct:accurate=garble:unintelligible intemperate adj. 无节制的,放纵的 not temperate especially :given to excessive use of intoxicating liquors equable←→intemperate intemperate←→constrained intensify vi. 强化 to make intense or more intensive:STRENGTHEN moderate:intensity=extenuate:seriousness abate←→intensify/promote assuage←→intensify inter vt. 埋葬,葬,埋 to deposit


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