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2012届高考英语二轮专题总复习 语法精品时态和语态

2012 届高考英语二轮专题总复习语法精品时态和语态

时态

用法

例句

时态 一般 现在 时 一般 过去 时 现在 进行 时 过去 进行 时 将来 进行 时 现在 完成 时
过去 完成 时
一般 将来 时 过去 将来 时 现在 完成 进行 时

构成(主动) do/does did is doing was doing will be doing have done
had done
will do is going to do would do was going to do have been doing

(被动) is +done was+done is being +done was+being done (will be being +done) (would be being +done)
had been+done
will be+done is going to be+done would be+done was going to be +done 无被动
用心 爱心 专心

常见搭配词 every day, every year, often, usually

last year, last Friday, in the past, two days ago, just now,in1996
now, at present, this week, these days

at 8 yesterday, at this time yesterday, 含 when he came in 等的主句

at 8 tomorrow, at this time tomorrow, 含 when he arrives in sp 等的主句

by now, up to now, up till now, so far.

for+时间段,次数等

in the last/past +时间段

This is the +次数+that 从句;

This is +最高级+that 从句

含 since +过去时间的主句。

5. already,yet(

),recently,

just, this morning, this year,ever,

never 等

1.by+ 过 去 的 时 间 , 时 间 段 +before ,

before+ 过 去 的 时 间 点 , had hardly

done…when;

had no sooner done…than 等。)

2.had hoped, had planned 等表过去没有

实现的计划打算希望等。

next year,2 hours later, When he comes

back, in+时间段

the next day 等

1.含 since +过去时间的主句。 2.in the last/past +时间段 3.all morning ,all night, all these
-1-
days 等

一般现 在时
一般过 去时

现在经常动作/现状/客观 真理 ** 时 间 条 件 状 语 从 句 表 将 来/固定时刻表将要发生的 动作. 过去的经常动作/过去先后 发生的动作/过去的状态。 *先前不知道的,先前没有 估计到的事情或

He gets up early every day. Chen Wei likes English. Time is money. **If you come tomorrow, I’ll tell you . The planes arrives at 2. He went to school on foot when he was young. He stayed there for a month and came back. Oh, it’s you! I didn’t know you were here.

现在进 行时
过去进 行时
将来进 行时

现在正在进行的动作;或者 现阶段一直在进行的动作; 逐渐进行,强烈感情色彩; * 表将来
过去某个时刻点正在进行、 过去某时间段一直在进行 的动作。 *某人正在做某事,另一事 情突然发生 When sb+saw/arrived/came, 另 一人正在做某事 将来某个时刻点正在进行 的动作或将来某个时间段 一直会进行的动作. *含 when he arrives in sp 等的主句

We ‘re having a class now. We are reviewing grammar these days. It’s getting warmer and warmer. He is forever working. He is leaving for Beijing tomorrow. He was watching TV at 8a.m yesterday. They were building a bridge last winter, but I don’t know if it is completed. *When he was riding a bike ,he fell down. When we saw him, he was singing.
He will be having a meeting at this time tomorrow. We’ll climb the mountain all next week. When you arrive there, we will be waiting for you.

一般将 来时

现在之后将要发生的动作 或存在的状态。 **将来时的表示法有几种: is going to will do(各种人称)/shall do(一般仅用于第一人称) be to do be doing :表示近期计划或 一些方向移动的动词 ( come ,go,leave,arrive 等) do/does:按固定时刻表将 要发生的动作。

He will/ is going to visit me tomorrow. The chairman is to visit America next month. The train leaves at 8;let’s hurry. We are spending a holiday in Hainan next week. 注意:will/be going to de 区别 1.含时间条件状语从句的主句,只用________ 2.客观将来,用________ 3.话语前的将来用_________,说话时的将来用_____ 4.迹象表明的将来用____________________ 注意:时间,条件,让步状语从句中用现在时表将来。 I don’t know when he _________(come). But when he _________(come), she ________(call)me.

用心 爱心 专心

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过去将 来时
现在完 成进行 时

过去某个时间或动作之后

将要发生的事情。

注意:was going to 可以

表 示 _________________,







_____________________.

动作从过去开始一直延续

到现在刚刚结束;或是还将

延续下去。

She said she would come the next day. He was about to go out when it began to rain. He was leaving when it began to rain. He was going to help me ,but he was too busy.
You’ve come at last! I’ve been waiting for you for 3 hours. Why are you so tired?---I’ve been cleaning the house all the morning. People have been taking vitamins since last century.

现在完 成时

表示动作到现在为止已经

完成,并对现在仍然有影

响。

也可以表示动作过去开始

一直延续到现在或是状态

一直延续到现在(部分延续

性单词,如:study ,work,

teach, live 用现在完成时

和现在完成进行时没有区

别。)

注意事项:1.短暂性动词的

肯定形式不能与时间段搭

配。如句中有时间段,必须

把句子中的短暂动词改为

延续性动词。如果没有相应

的延续性动词,就将句子时

间段改为时间点,时态改为

过去时。

注意事项:2.某些短暂性动

词要是与时间段搭配要改

成相应的状态动词。

注意事项:

3.has

been

to____________ has gone

to____________

注意事项:

He has come. I have had the camera for 3 years. I haven’t seen him since then. We have studied here for more than one year.=We have been studying here for。 By now ,we have learned 3000 words. He has visited Beijing many times. They have been studying a medicine to cure cancer in the past ten years, maybe they will succeed soon. This is the first time I have come to Beijing. It is the best film I have ever seen. I haven’t seen him since he left here. He has been doing my job since I fell ill. 但是:It is/has been+时间段+since 从句 It is /has been 6 years since I came to Zhuzhou. Has he come back yet? ----Yes ,he has (already come back.) 注意事项:1. Eg: I have received the letter for 2 days.----

He has died for 2 years.---

注意事项:2

die_________

join the

army____________

get up_________

come _________

go/leave ___________ buy_______________

borrow____________

get

married_____________ fall asleep__________

lose work__________

lose touch____________

用心 爱心 专心

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注意事项:3. He___________ Shanghai, I don’t know when he will come back. He __________Shanghai 3times ,so he is very familiar with it.

过 去 完 过去某个时间或动作之前 She said she had never seen a foreign film before.

成时

发生的事情。即过去的过去 By then they had learned 3000 words.

注意:用过去完成时还可以 By the time we arrived he had finished the task.

表示过去未曾实现的愿望、 He had done it 3 years before.

打算或意图。常用动词有: He had done it before last Friday.

hope , think , expect , When we got to the station, the train had left.

intend,mean,suppose, We had hardly received his call when we got down

want 等。

to doing it.。

They had wanted to help but couldn't get here in

*

time.

=They wanted to have helped …

被动语态:

情态动词的语态(以 must 为例)

形式 主动

被动

一般式

进行式

完成式

翻译:这个工作必须马上完成。

_____________________________________________________________

变疑问句_____________________________________________________

变否定句_____________________________________________________

注:

一、被动用法注意事项:

1.带双宾语的主动结构的句子,或含名词的短语后接宾语的句子。

She teaches us English.

We should pay attentiong to spelling.////We must make use of time.

2.主动语态中不带 to 的不定式做宾补时变被动必须带上 to.

We made him work.alone.

3.短语动词用于被动语态应该作为一个整体,不能丢掉其中的副词或介词。

You can put off the meeting.

4. 有 些 及 物 动 词 和 及 物 动 词 短 语 ( 多 表 示 静 态 ) 不 能 用 于 被 动 语 态 。 如

have/own ,cost ,last,lack ,hold ,fit,agree with 等。

5.不及物动词没有被动语态。如:happen,take place,appear 等。

二、必须用主动表被动的情况。

1.need ,want,require,(需要,要求)deserve,(应得,值得)be worth,(值得)not bear(经

不住)+doing/to be done

My hair wants cutting/to be cut.

2 不定式作定语,放在被修饰词的后面,如果句子中出现不定式的逻辑主语,不定式要用主动

用心 爱心 专心

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表被动。

I have nothing to do.

He is looking for a room to live in.

3.形容词后常用不定式的主动表被动。

The job is easy to do.

4.某些单词特殊的固定用法。

You are to blame for the accident.

5.联系动词没有被动语态。

The theory proved true.//The theory was proved by him.

6.can’t/won’t 表 示 由 于 主 语 本 身 出 了 毛 病 而 “ 无 法 ”“ 不 能 ”, 且 后 面 动 词 常 为

lock,shut,open,act,write,cut,wear 等。这些动词常用主动表示被动。

It can’t move.

The door won’t open.

7.一些动词 sell,wash,clean/cook/drive/cut 如果用于表示主语的性质如何,常用主动(后

面+well/easily/perfectly 等副词)

The coat washes easily.

The book sells well.

三.被动语态和系表结构区别。

被动语态表主语是动作的承受着,系表结构表主语的特征或状态。

Our building is surrounded with trees.

Our building is surrounded by enemies.

The book is well written .

The book is written by Lu Xun.

试题汇编

1. So far this year we ________ a fall in house prices by between 5 and 10 percent.

(2008 福建卷)

A. saw B. see C. had seen D. have seen

2. The moment I got home, I found I _______my jacket on the playground. (2008 陕西

卷)

A. had left B. left C. have left D. was leaving

3. —Did you go to the show last night?

—Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area ____invited(2008 陕西卷)

A. were B. have been C. has been D. was

4. Though we don’t know what was discussed, yet we can feel the topic______. (2008

陕西卷)

A. had changed B. will change C. was changed D. has been changed

5. Judy is going to marry the sailor she ____in Rome last year. (2008 重庆卷)

A. meets B. met C. has met D. would meet

6. The telephone ____, but by the time I got indoors, it stopped. (2008 四川卷)

A. had rung B. was ringing C. rings D. has rung

7. If their marketing plans succeed, they _____ their sales by 20 percent. (全国

卷 II )

A. will increase

B. have been increasing

C. have increased D. would be increasing

用心 爱心 专心

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8. —Have you known Dr. Jackson for a long time?

Yes, since she ___ the Chinese Society. (2008 全国卷 1)

A. has joined B. joins C. had joined D. joined

9. We first met on a train in 2000. We both felt immediately that we _____each other

for years. (2008 辽宁卷)

A. knew B. have known C. had known D. know

10. — Have you got any job offers?

—No. I ____.(2008 辽宁卷)

A. waited

B. had been waiting C. have waited D. am waiting

11. —Do you think we should accept that offer?

—Yes, we should, for we ____such bad luck up till now, and time__ out. (08 江西

卷)

A. have had; is running

B. had; is running

C. have; has been run D. have had; has been run

12. I called Hannah many times yesterday evening, but I couldn’t get through. Her

brother ___ on the phone all the time! (2008 湖南卷)

A. was talking

B. has been talking C. has talked

D. talked

13. —Have you read a book called Waiting for Anya?

—Who ___ it? (2008 北京卷)

A. writes B. has written C. wrote D. had written

14.The hotel wasn’t particularly good. But I_ __in many worse hotels.(2008 北京

卷)

A .was staying B. stayed C. would stay D. had stayed

15. Population experts predict that most people ____ cities in the near future. (08

上海春招)

A. live B. would live C. will live D. have lived

16. He ____as a national hero for winning the first gold medal for his country in

the Olympics. (2008 重庆)

A. regarded

B. was regarded C. has regarded D. had been regarded

17. The wet weather will continue tomorrow when a cold front ___to arrive. 08 全

国卷 1)

A. is expected

B. is expecting

C. expects

D. will be expected

18. I hear they’ve promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention _ __when we talked on the

phone. (2008 江西卷)

A. to promote B. having been promoted

C. having promoted D. to be promoted

19.—Do you have any problems if you _ ___ this job?

—Well, I’m thinking about the salary…(2008 湖南卷)

A. offer B. will offerC.are offered D.will be offered

20. In recent years many football clubs ____ as business to make a profit. (2008

年上海卷)

A. have run

B. have been run C. had been run

D. will run

2009 年高考英语试题分类汇编—动词时态和语态

用心 爱心 专心

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(09 湖南)1. Please do me a favor — ______ my friend Mr. Smith to Youth Theater at

7:30 tonight.

A. to invite B. inviting C. invite D. invited

(09 福建)2. -Why does the Lake smell terrible?

-Because large quantities of water

.

A. have polluted

B. is being polluted

C. has been polluted D. have been polluted

(09 福建)3. According to the literary review, Shakespeare

his characters

live through their language in his plays.

A. will make B. had made C. was making D. makes

(09 福建)4.For a moment nothing happened .Then _____ all shouting together .

A. voices had come B. came voices C. voices would come D. did voices come

(09 湖南)5.Would you please keep silent? The weather report_________ and I want

to listen.

A. is broadcast

B. is being broadcast

C. has been broadcast D. had been broadcast

(09 湖南)6.— The food here is nice enough.

— My friend ______ me a right place.

A. introduces

B. introduced

C. had introduced D. was introducing

(09 安徽)7.Daniel’s family ____ their holiday in Huangshan this time next week.

A. are enjoying

B. are to enjoy

C. will enjoy

D. will be enjoying

(09 江西)8. At present, one of the apartments in favor of the new airport ________

that it will going a lot jobs to the area.

A. is B. are C. will be D. were

(09 江西)9. What is the price of petrol these days?

-------Oh, it ______ sharply since last month.

A. is raised B. has risen C. has arisen D. is increased

(09 江西)10. ---Do you want a lift home?

---It’s very kind of you, but I have to work late in the office. I overslept this

morning because my morning clock _______.

A. doesn’t go off

B. won’t go off

C. wasn’t going off D. didn’t go off

(09 海南)11. His sister left home in 1998, and

_____

since.

A. had not been heard of B. has not been heard of

C. had not heard of

D. has not heard of

(09 山东)12. The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities ________

rising steadily since1990.

A. is B. are C. has been D. have been

(09 山东)13. I was out of town at the time, so I don’t know exactly how it _______.

A. was happening

B. happened

C. happens

D. has happened

用心 爱心 专心

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(09 陕西)14. Dr. Smith, together with his wife and daughters, visit Beijing this

summer.

A. is going to

B. are going to

C. was going to D. were going to

(09 陕西)15. This is the first time we a film in the cinema together as a family.

A. see B. had seen C. saw

D. have seen

(09 上海)16. Mary went to the box office at lunch time, but all the tickets ____out.

A. would sell B. had sold C. have sold D. was selling

(09 四川)17. —Why don’t we choose that road to save time?

—The bridge to it __________.

A. has repaired

B. is repaired

C. is being repaired

D. will be repaired

(09 四川)18. —You speak very good French!

—Thanks. I __________ French in Sichuan University for four years.

A. studied B. study C. was studying D. had studied

(09 浙江)19.- What do you think of the movie?

- It’s fantastic. The only pity is that I __________ the beginning of it.

A missed B. had missed C. miss D. would miss

(09 浙江)Over the past decades , sea ice __ in the Arctic as a result of global

warming .

A. had decreased

B. decreased

C. has been decreasing D. is decreasing

(09 重庆)20 . She stared at the painting, wondering where she _ _____it.

A. saw B. has seen C. sees D. had seen

(09 重庆)21. —I’ve got to go now.

—Must you? I______you could stay for dinner with us.

A. think B. thought C. have thought D. am thinking

(09 重庆)22.Professor Williams keeps telling his students that the future ____ to

the well-educated.

A. belongs

B. is belonged

C. is belonging D. will be belonged

(09 全国 2 )23. Progress

so far very good and we are sure that the work

will be finished on time.

A. was B. had been C. has been D. will be

(09 江苏)24. The population of Jiangsu __ to more than twice what it was in 1949.

The figure is now approaching 74 million.

A. has grownB. have grown C. grew D. are growing

(09 江苏)25.--- Hi, Terry, can I use your computer for a while this afternoon?

--- Sorry.

.

A. It' s repaired

B.It has been repaired

C. It's being repaired D. It had been repaired

(09 江苏)26. -- Ann is in hospital.

-- Oh, really? I __ know. I __ go and visit her.

A. didn’t; am going to B. don’t; would

用心 爱心 专心

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C. don’t; will

D. didn't; will

(天津 09)27. My parents _____ in Hong Kong . They were born there and have never lived

anywhere else.

A. live B . Lived C. were living D. will live

(辽宁 09)28. My parents have promised to come to see me before I _____ for Africa.

A. have left B. leave C. left D .will leave

(辽宁 09 )29.Excuse me ,Marcia ,a reporter from Vanity Fair ____ all day .Could you

speak to her now?

A. phones

B. has phoned

C. has been phoning

D. phoned

(09 北京)30. The way the guests _____ in the hotel influenced their evaluation of

the service

A. treated

B. were treated

C. would treat

D. would be treated

31.(09 北京)When I talked with my grandma on the phone ,she sounded weak, but by the

time we ____ up , her voice had been full of life.

A. were hangingB. had hungC. hung D. would hung

(09 湖南)32.When he

the door, he found his keys were nowhere.

A. would openB. openedC. had openedD. was to open

(09 全国 I )33. Edward ,you play so well .But I _____ you played the piano.

A. didn’t know

B. hadn’t known

C. don’t know

D. haven’t known

(上海 09 )34. During the period of recent terrorist activities, people ________ not

to touch any unattended bag.

A.had always been warned B.were always being warned

C.are always warning

D. always warned

(10 上海)28. Every few years, the coal workers_____their lungs X-rayed to ensure their

health.

A. are having

B. have

C. have had

D. had had

31. The church tower which

will be open to tourists soon. The work is almost

finished.

A. has restored

B. has been restored C. is restoring

D. is being

restored

(10 福建)28. Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the money-making

jobs they____before leaving their hometowns.

A. promised

B. were promised C. have promised D. have been

promised

31. –Guess what, we’ve got our visas for a short-term visit to the UK this summer.

--How nice! You_____a different culture then.

A. will be experiencing B. have experienced

C. have been experiencing D. will have experienced

(10 安徽)28. ----Were you surprised by the ending of the film?

----No, I _______the book, so I already knew the story?

用心 爱心 专心

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A. was reading

B. had read

C. am reading

D. have read

34. ----We’ve spent too much money recently.

----well, it isn’t surprising. Our friend and relatives _______around all the

time

A. are coming

B. had come C. were coming D. have been coming

(10 湖南)24. This coastal area____a national wildlife reserve last year.

A. was named

B. named

C. is named

D. names

27. I was just going to cut my rose bushes but someone____ it. Was it you?

A. has done

B. had done

C. would do

D. will do

31. I walked slowly through the market, where people___all kinds of fruits and

vegetables. I

studied the prices carefully and bought what I needed.

A. sell

B. were selling

C. had sold

D. have

sold

34. I'm tired out. . I____all afternoon and I don't seem to have finished anything.

A. shopped

B. have shopped

C. had shopped

D. have been shopping

(10 江西)30 Mother wanted to be a good provider, a role she ______ since her marriage

to Father.

A shoulders

B shouldered C is shouldering D has been shouldering

(10 山东) 29. The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already ______

for a meal to be cooked.

A. laid

B. laying C. to lay

D. being laid

30. Up to now, the program ________ thousands of children who would otherwise have

died.

A. would save

B. saves C. had saved

D. has saved

(10 天津)4. We______on this project for four hours. Let’s have a rest.

A. are working B. have been working C. worked

D. had worked

10. Traditional folk arts of Tianjin like paper cutting ____at the culture show of

the 2010 Shanghai World Expo.

A. are exhibiting

B. is exhibiting C. are being exhibited D. is being

exhibited

(10 四川)11.In many people’s opinion,that company,though relatively small,is

pleasant_____ .

A.to deal with

B.dealing with C.to be dealt with D.dealt with

16.一 When shall we restart our business?

一 Not until we___ our plan.

A.will finish

B.are finishing C.are to finish

D.have finished

18.You’ve failed to do what you _____to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you.

A.will expect

B.will be expected C.expected

D.were expected

15. Linda make sure the table ________before the guests arrive

A. be set

B. set C. are set D. are setting

19. Excuse me. I________I was blocking your way.

A. didn’t realize B. don’t realize C. haven’t realized D. wasn’t realizing

用心 爱心 专心

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(10 湖北)18. Last night’s TV news said that by then the death of the missing people

________(未证实)yet. (prove)

(10 辽宁)24. Joseph ______to evening classes since last month, but he still can’

t say“What’s your name?” in Russian.

A.has been going B.went

C.goes D.has gone

30. I _______ all the cooking for my family, but recently I’ve been too busy to do

it.

A.will do

B.do C.am doing D.had done

(10 北京)22. In the spoken English of some areas in the US, the "r" sounds at the

end of the words____.

A. are dropped

B. drop C. are being dropped

D. have dropped

24. --I'm not finished with my dinner yet.

--But our friends_____for us.

A. will wait

B. wait C. have waited D. are waiting

26. --I'm sorry, but I don't quite follow you. Did you say you wanted to return on

September 20?

--Sorry, I ____myself clear. We want to return on October 20.

A. hadn't made B. wouldn't make C. don't make

D. haven't made

28. It took me a long time before I was able to fully appreciate what they __ for

me.

A. had done B. did

C. would do

D. were doing

(10 重庆)24. The book has been translated into thirty languages since it____ on the

market in

1973.

A. had come B. has come C. came

D. comes

29. The palace caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original

building _______now.

A. remains

B. is remained C. is remaining D. has been remained

31. -----Why do you want to work for our company?

-----This is the job that I ____ for.

A. looked B. am to look C. had looked D. have been looking

(10 浙江)5.If you plant watermelon seeds in the spring, you______ fresh watermelon

in the fall.

A.eat B.would eat

C.have eaten D.will be eating

15.For many years, people ____ electric cars. However, making them has been more

difficult than predicted.

A.had dreamed of B.have dreamed of C.dreamed of D.dream of

参考答案

BDDAB DABBD DADBC ADDAB CDCAD BCA hadn’t proved A BADDA CADDB

1—5 DADDB 6—10 BADCD 11—15 AACDC 16—20 BABCB

1-5 CDDBB,6-10 BDABD11-15 BCBAD 16-20 BCAA

D21-25 BACAC 26-30 DABCB 31-34 CBAB

用心 爱心 专心

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