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湖南省2012届高考英语二轮复习 第20讲 事实细节题学案

第 20 讲 事实细节题

(2011·湖南卷 A 篇)When first entered, Vanak Restaurant does not look like much of

a restaurant, but once the pleasant smells of kabob(烤肉串)hit the senses, you are

incapable of calling it anything less.

Owned by a local couple, this Persian restaurant has an inviting, homelike

atmosphere that many restaurants lack.

The space is small with only a few dining tables and nearly no decoration,

but the environment is truly charming.

Lying in a hardly noticeable street corner,the restaurant still attracts

all customers, especially those experienced in the delights of Middle Eastern

cooking.

A common sight is that of old Persian men sitting in the corner talking loudly about

world topics,watching news events on TV,drinking a black tea known as Persian chai,

and reading local Persian newspapers all the while trying to finish off their plates

piled with food.

The variety of food at the restaurant is limited,but the amount of each

dish is fairly large.Most of the meals can serve two people and are under $10, so

not only is it affordable but practical as well.

The food especially appeals to health?conscious eaters because each dish is very

healthy,made with limited fat and oil and served straight off the grill (烤肉架).

The main dish that the restaurant is popular for is its kabobs,which are

different styles of grilled meat.

One delicious and extremely healthy dish is the Joojeh Kabob,which is made

of grilled chicken pieces served with either rice or bread.Another great kabob is

the Chelo Kabob, a kabob consisting of grilled beef.

Although the restaurant is small,the atmosphere and the food is delicious.It

is a place that should not be overlooked.

57. What activity is also mentioned apart from dining in the restaurant?

A. Watching news events on TV.

B. Drinking a kind of black coffee.

C. Reading local English newspapers.

D. Discussing world topics in low voices.

58. The food of the restaurant ______.

A. is served in small amounts

B. is rather expensive

C. is rich in variety

D. is very healthy

59. What is the dish Joojeh Kabob mainly made of?

A. Rice.

B.Chicken.

C. Bread.

D.Beef.

一篇文章在确定主题之后,通常要通过大量的事实和细节对主题进行解释和说明。因此有很

多的题干是根据短文的细节而设计的。文章的细节题有可能是直接理解题,如事物的起因、 过程、结果及发生的时间、地点等。也有些是间接理解题,要求你在理解的基础上,通过自 己的思维将理解的内容系统化,条理化。选项的表述通常不是用文章的原话,而是使用同义 的词语来表达。考生一定要回到短文中找出与答题内容相关的词语和句子,在理解原文的基 础上选择答案。 一、所谓细节题的表现形式多种多样,大致可总结如下:
1. 是非题 出题形式: 三正一误(三项正确,只有一项不符合原文内容): Which of the following is true except…? Which of the following is mentioned except…? 三误一正(三项错误,只有一项符合原文内容): Which of the following is true? 2. 例证题 例子为高考阅读理解的常见考点之一,这类题的基本结构为 The author provides in Line…(或 Paragraph…)an example in order to…意思是问文中举出某现象或例子的目的。 如果文章是说明文和议论文,文章中举出一些例子无非是为了说明一定的道理。关键在于这 个例子在原文出现的位置,但不管如何,这个例子之前或之后不远处通常都有一句总结说明 性的话,这句话就是答案,即举例的目的。如果例子与全文主题有关,则例证主题,答案为 主题句。如果例子与段落主题有关,就例证段落主题,则答案为段落主题句;否则,答案为 例子前后总结说明性的话。 3. 其他形式的细节题 (1)定义 ①与主题有关的篇章定义,理解它有助于做主旨题。 ②具体对某个现象或术语加以定义,有时成为词义题的考试内容。 (2)年代与数字 这个考点有几种出题方式,但不管以何种形式出现,只要题干问年代与数字,答案 就对应于文章中的年代与数字。 (3)比较 比较考点的表现形式主要有:①比较级与含有比较意义的词汇手段和句型结构;② 表示绝对意义的字眼:first(第一),least(最不),uttermost(最)等;③表示唯一性的词 汇:only,unique 等。 阅读最好能圈出表示最高级、唯一性和绝对意义的词汇,便于做题时对回原文定位。 (4)原因 这种题的答案在原文中通常有一些表示因果关系的词汇手段提示: ①表示因果关系的名词:result,reason; ②表示因果关系的动词:result in(结果),result from(由于),base…on…(以…… 为基础),be due to(由于); ③表示因果关系的连词或介词:because,for,why; ④表示因果关系的副词:as a result,consequently 等,阅读时对这些提示词应 该予以注意。 除了上述原文有因果关系提示词的显性原因考点之外,隐性原因(两个句子之间为因果关系, 但无有关提示词)也是常见考点。不管是显性原因考点,还是隐性原因考点,原文相关句出 现的格式都是先说原因,后说结果,而在题干中通常给出结果,就其原因提问。

二、解题方法: 1. 直接理解题 多数细节理解题是直接考查考生对具体信息的近义或反义理解能力。寻找相关的近
义或反义表述,是一种有效的解题方式。 代词复指题也属于一种直接理解题。一般是在人物或事物关系比较复杂的情况下使
用这种题型,所以理清人物及事物之间的逻辑关系是关键所在。可采用“逻辑关系梳理法”, 使人物或事件关系条理化、简明化、明朗化。 二、解题方法:
2. 转换理解题 转换理解题要求考生在理解具体事实的基础上,通过自己的思维将理解的内容系统 化,条理化,形象化,具体化。 一是“首尾定位法”。比如计算、排序、选图等题。排序题要求考生根据事件发生的 先后顺序和句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生的正确顺序,即先找出第 一个动作和最 后一个动作,迅速缩小选择范围,从而快速选出正确答案。 二是利用同义词、近义词和反义词:即命题者常常会利用近义词或反义词来考查学 生对细节的捕捉与理解能力。


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