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unit 6 The Human touch_图文


The Last Leaf
O. Henry

Teaching Objectives
Students will be able to: 1. understand the main idea (Old Behrman saved Johnsy’s life at the expense of his own) and structure of the text; 2. appreciate how the repeated use of clues helps weave a piece of narration together; 3. grasp the key language points and grammatical structures in the text; 4. conduct a series of reading, listening, speaking and writing activities related to the theme of the unit.

Pre-reading Task
Listen to the tape and then think over the following questions: 1.According to Michael Jackson, among faith, hope and charity, which is the most important? (charity) 2. Is love all we need to solve the world’s problems? Why or why not?

True Friends (1)
People today, in all this new world technology and thinking, have lost sight of what a true friendship is. So, in spite of my best friend Tellie, I thought I would help the world out a little and explain what real, true friends are.

True Friends (2)
1. Friends don't have to be exactly the same. Friends have similarities but they also have their differences. They key to opening up the world of friendship is not only to expand on similarities but to accept each other's faults. Because you can't ever judge your friend.

True Friends (3)
2. Friends have to argue! No one likes to but it is necessary to be healthy. Cause if you agree on everything, either the government has expanded cloning subjects or someone isn't being true and is trying a little too hard.

True Friends (4)
3. You have to be comfortable together or else you just aren't going to click. If you feel edgy around the person then something isn't quite right.

True Friends (5)
4. Friends love unconditionally. They have there little angry moments but what's done is done and all is forgive and forget. Why let something that happened in the past ruin what happiness you could have in the future?

True Friends (6)
5. Believe in love at first sight because there is the equivalent in friendship. Some people think that you have to know someone really well to become good friends. Trust me, it's not true. If the first time you really spend time together you talk for 25 hours straight until 4:30 in the morning about some topic you thought no one else in the world understood, hun, that's real love at first sight.

True Friends (7)
These are only a few of the basics. Just remember, friends are forever. But only if you keep it that way. Don't diss your buds, love them instead. And when they drive you nuts, love them that much more for being just a little bit different and maybe just a little bit quirky!

Text A: The Last Leaf
Listen to the tape script and try to understand the main idea of it. Underline the difficult words and sentences. Pay attention to the structure of the text.

Cultural Notes
Who is he? O. Henry (1862-1910) (1862-

Cultural Notes
O. Henry (1862-1910): pseudonym of William Sydney Porter(1862-1910), American writer of short stories, best known for his ironic plot twists and surprise endings. Born and raised in Greensboro, North Carolina, O. Henry attended school only until age 15, when he dropped out to work in his uncle’s drugstore.

Cultural Notes
During his 20s he moved to Texas, where he worked for more than ten years as a clerk and a bank teller. O. Henry did not write professionally until he reached his mid-30s, when he sold several pieces to the Detroit Free Press and the Houston Daily Post. In 1894 he founded a short-lived weekly humor magazine, The Rolling Stone.

Cultural Notes
In 1896 O. Henry was charged with embezzling funds from the First National Bank of Austin, Texas, where he had worked from 1891 to 1894. The amount of money was small and might have been an accounting error; however, he chose to flee to Honduras rather than stand trial.

Cultural Notes
Learning that his wife was dying, he returned to Texas in 1897 and, after her death, turned himself in to the authorities. He served three years of a five-year sentence a the federal penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio, where he first began to write short stories and use the pseudonym O. Henry.

Cultural Notes
Released from prison, O. Henry moved to New York City in 1901 and began writing full time. In his stories he made substantial use of his knowledge of Texas, Central America, and life in prison. He also became fascinated by New York street life, which provided a setting for many of his later stories.

Cultural Notes
During the last ten years of his life, O. Henry became one of the most popular writers in America, publishing over 500 short stories in dozens of widely read periodicals.

Cultural Notes
O. Henry’s most famous stories, such as “The Gift of the Magi,” “The Furnished Room,” and “The Ransom of Red Chief,” make simple yet effective use of paradoxical coincidences to produce ironic endings.

Cultural Notes
For example, in “The Gift of the Magi” a husband sells his watch to buy his wife a Christmas present of a pair of hair combs; but, she cuts and sells her long hair to buy him a Christmas present of a new chain for his watch. His style of storytelling became a model not only for short fiction, but also for American motion pictures and television programs.

Cultural Notes
Writing at the rate of more than one story per week, O. Henry published ten collections of stories during a career that barely spanned a decade. They are Cabbages and Kings (1904), The Four Million (1906), Heart of the West (1907), The trimmed Lamp (1907), The Gentle Grafte r(1908), The Voice of the City(1908), Options(1909), Roads of Destiny(1909), Whirligigs(1910), and Strictly Business(1910).

Cultural Notes
The collections Sixes and Sevens (1911), Rolling Stones (1912), and for the best American short stories published each year were founded by the Society of Arts and Sciences. The Complete Works of O. Henry was published in 1953.

Pre-questions
Q1: What was, at first, Johnsy determined to do if the last ivy leaf should fall? She made up her mind to die when the last leaf fell. Q2: What did she decide to do when she saw the last leaf still cling to the vine after two nights’ rain and wind? She decided not to give up her life.

Pre-questions
Q3: How was it that the cold fierce wind did not blow away the last leaf? Behrman, a kind neighbor, who was aware of Johnsy’s state of mind, risked death to paint the last leaf and save her. Q4: Why did Sue call the painted leaf Behrman’s masterpiece? Because it was so perfect the girls both mistook it for the real thing.

Text Organization
Scenes Paragraphs 1 2 1Paraa 1-2 3Paras 3-8 Characters Events Sue’s Sue, Johnsy Sue s roommate Johnsy caught pneumonia The doctor, The doctor told Sue that Sue Johnsy needed a strong will to live on. Johnsy, Sue Johnsy decided that she would die when the last ivy leaf fell. Sue told Behrman about Johnsy’s Johnsy s fancy.

3

9Paras 9-17

4

18Paras 18-21 Behrman, Sue

Text Organization
Scenes Paragraphs Characters Events 5 22Paras 2233 Sue, Johnsy As Johnsy was encouraged by wouldn’t the last leaf that wouldn t give in to the weather, her will to live returned.

6

34Paras 3437

The doctor, The doctor told Sue that Sue Johnsy would recover, but Behrman caught pneumonia himself and his case was hopeless Sue, Johnsy Sue told Johnsy that Behrman had performed a kind deed without any thought of self

7

38Paras 3839

Language Study
in tune: harmoniously (often followed by with; the opposite: out of tune)) Examples: His ideas are in tune with the times. The price of gold coins fluctuates in tune with that of commodities. Her character is quite out of tune with her beauty.

Language Study
joint: held or done by two or more persons together Examples: She had taken he money out of the joint account she had with her husband. There are a number of different forms of business ownership, such as partnerships corporations and joint ventures. To attract foreign capital, China issued new economic regulations giving more preferential treatment to joint ventures.

Language Study
stalk: (of and evil force) move through (a place) in a threatening way, move quietly and cautiously in order to get near Example: When night falls, danger stalks the streets of the city.

Language Study
here and there: in various places Example: During the summer vacation he will do a bit of teaching here and there. Toys were scattered here and there on the floor.

Language Study
victim: person, animal, etc. suffering death, injury or loss Example: Police and hospital records indicate that the majority of victims of domestic violence are women. The Red Cross assists victims of natural and man-made disasters.

Language Study
scarcely: not quite; almost not Example: I can scarcely remember when I last ate home-baked bread. The couple has scarcely gone out since the baby was born.

Language Study
Subtract: take (a number, quantity) away from. Example: Passenger cars can be added or subtracted at either end of the subway train. When total taxes are subtracted from personal income, the remainder is called disposable income. Students were given a lot of practice in writing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and reading.

Language Study
merry: happy; cheerful; bright and gay Example: From the other room, we could hear the merry sound of laughter and glasses clinking. Peter and Mary were strolling about among the merry crowd enjoying Christmas Eve in Time Square.

Language Study
backward: with the back or end first Example: The helicopter can travel forward, backward, or sideways. Rader tests indicated Venus was actually rotating backward, compared to our planet.

Language Study
bare: without covering, clothing, or decoration Example: Soil held in place by plant roots is less likely to blow or wash away than bare soil.

Language Study
dreary: dull; gloomy; causing low spirits Example: By the time they had waited five hours for their delayed flight, everyone looked dreary. She had spent a dreary day in the dormitory writing the term paper.

Language Study
in a whisper: in a low voice Example: He bent down and addressed her in a whisper. I was awakened by hearing my own name spoken in a whisper.

Language Study
hear of : be old about or have knowledge of Examples: Three weeks passed, and nothing was heard of the missing boy. She called me as soon as she heard of the trouble I was in.

Language Study
nonsense: foolish talk, ideas, behavior Example: I think the report is nonsense and nothing but a waste of paper. Stop that nonsense, children, and get into bed.

Language Study
turn loose: allow ( sth.) to be free of control Example: The sick whale will be taken care of by the scientists before being turned loose. The soldiers turned the prisoners loose one by one shortly after the city was conquered.

Language Study
look the part: have an appearance for a particular job, role, or position Example: I think he must be a captain---- he certainly looks the part. Despite looking the part, Michael was not an artist at all.

Language Study
masterpiece: a piece of work, esp. art, which is the best of its type or the best a person has done Example: The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn is considered Mark Twain’s masterpiece. Many consider Michelangelo’s sculpture David to be his masterpiece.

Language Study
to excess: to an extreme degree Example: His father never smoked or drank to excess. Red meat, very high in fat and calories, is harmful to health if eaten to excess.

Language Study
for the rest: as regards other matters Example: The book contains some interesting passages about the author’s childhood. For the rest, it is rather dull The working conditions in my new job are excellent, but for the rest, I am not impressed.

Language Study
fierce: 1) violent and angry Example: A fierce police dog was chained to a wall. 2) intense; strong Example: The world is becoming a global market, and the competition is fierce.

Language Study
mock: ridicule; make fun of (used in the pattern: mock at sb./sth.) Example: They mocked at him and called him a coward. Don’t mock at him just because he keeps falling off his bike.

Language Study
fancy: sth. Imagined; unfounded opinion or belief Example: The river streamed past my house. I think the story is a mixture of fact and fancy.

Language Study
stream: move in a continuous flow, pour out Example: The river streamed past my house. The workers came streaming out of the gates, all heading for home at the end of their shift.

Language Study
persistent: continuing; occurring again and again Example: Neither high prices nor high wages could explain persistent depression and mass unemployment. The persistent of the EU countries has been remarkable.

Language Study
mingle: mix (followed by with) Example: The singer’s style mingles jazz and country music. Many traditions have mingled to form modern American Christmas celebrations and folklore. The smell of smoke mingles with the smell of the food.

Language Study
pull up: raise Example: I sat at my desk, knees pulled up to my chin. The old woman pulled the curtain up to see what was going on outside.

Language Study
stand out: be easily seen above or among others Example: The working experience in Microsoft last year still stand out in my mind. On the record I have just played, the first song stands out from all the others.

Language Study
wear away: 1) (of time) pass gradually Example: They didn’t reach an agreement. Instead they wore the afternoon away in arguing. 2) (cause to) become thin or damaged by constant use Example: The steps have been worn away by the feet of thousands of visitors.

Language Study
cling to: hold tight to Example: The child is clinging to his mother’s legs. Another man was rescued as he clung to the riverbank.

Language Study
call to: attract the attention of (sb.) by speaking out Example: The fisherman called to the villagers on the shore. Every morning we can hear various birds calling to one another in the park.

Language Study
sin: offence against God, religion or good morals Example: In Christian theology, the first sin was committed by Adam. The man confessed his sins to the priest.

Language Study
sit up: raise yourself into an upright sitting position after you have been lying down or leaning back Example: The patient is well enough to sit up in bed now. She set up and switched on the bedside light.

Language Study
acute: 1) (of diseases) coming quickly to the critical stage Example: She was taken to the hospital suffering from acute appendicitis. 2) severe Example: The company is said to be suffering from acute financial difficulties.

Language Study
be wet through: be wet all over Example: My mother came home wet through. Their house was flooded: the carpet was wet through and the furniture was ruined.

Language Study
flutter: (cause to) move about in a quick, irregular way Example: The ugly ducking fluttered into the milkpan, and splashed the milk about the room. Birds sang and fluttered in the trees and bushes.

Text Analysis
As discussed in Text Organization Exercise 2, “the last leaf” threads throughout the story to make the latter a coherent piece. In fact, if we look closely enough, we can find some other “threads”.

Text Analysis
For example, the doctor visited three times. It was from him that we learn how sick Johnsy was, how she had a 50-50 chance, and how she was sure to recover. His three visits sum up three stages of Johnsy’s illness. Moreover, he is very convenient when Old Behrman’s sickness needed to be revealed.

Text Analysis
Let’s look at another example. When Johnsy decided to die with the fall of the last leaf, she refused to take any soup. Yet when she was shaken alive again by that undying last leaf, one of her first desires was to drink some soup. Similarly, before she fell ill, she had wished to paint the Bay of Naples. Inspired by the last leaf, she again looked forward to painting it.

Text Analysis
In Paragraphs 18-19, we learn that Old Behrman was a failure career wise. He had always talked about a masterpiece, yet he was unable to deliver it. In Paragraph 20, there went he again, “Some day I will paint a masterpiece, and we shall all go away.” Finally, he painted his masterpiece at the cost of his life.

Translation
Bare cling to fancy here and there in tune look the part masterpiece persistent to excess stand out 我们到处都能看到“抢眼”的青年艺术家。 我们到处都能看到“抢眼”的青年艺术家。他们 要么一年四季穿着破旧的牛在裤; 要么一年四季穿着破旧的牛在裤;要么大冬天也打赤 要么饮酒过度; 脚;要么饮酒过度;要么就是抱着创作一部杰作的幻 实际上并不作任何创作的事。其实, 想,实际上并不作任何创作的事。其实,他们中的很 多人只不过是为了看上去像名艺术家, 多人只不过是为了看上去像名艺术家,或为了同其他 艺术家“保持一致”才这么做的。他们忘了, 艺术家“保持一致”才这么做的。他们忘了,只有通 过不懈的努力才能获得成功。 过不懈的努力才能获得成功。

Translation: Keys
Here and there we see young artists who stand out from other people. They may be in worn out jeans all year round, or walk barefoot/ in bare feet even in winter, or drink to excess, or cling to the fancy of creating a masterpiece without actually doing any creative work. In fact, many of them act like this just to look the part, or to be “in tune with” other artists. They have forgotten that only through persistent effort can one achieve success.

Homework
Deal with the exercises of text A and text B. Writing: The Most Touching Incident In My Life. Preview next unit.

The end ! Thank you for your kind attention!


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