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雅思英语阅读练习题及答案


雅思英语阅读练习题及答案: 雅思英语阅读练习题及答案:第一篇
时间:2010-03-04 16:22:22 编辑:能飞英语网 发布:能飞英语网

标签: 雅思阅读 英语阅读 阅读练习 阅读练习题及答案

内容摘要: 内容摘要: The failure of a high-profile cholesterol drug has thrown a spotlight on the complicated machinery that regulates cholesterol levels.

★Why did a promising heart drug fail?

Doomed

drug

highlights

complications

of

meddling

with

cholesterol.

1.

The failure of a high-profile cholesterol drug has thrown

a spotlight on the complicated machinery that regulates cholesterol levels. But many researchers remain confident that drugs to boost levels of 'good' cholesterol are still one of the most promising means to combat spiralling heart disease. 2. Drug company Pfizer announced on 2 December that it was

cancelling all clinical trials of torcetrapib, a drug designed to raise heart-protective high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). In a trial of 15000 patients, a safety board found that more people died or suffered cardiovascular problems after taking the drug

plus a cholesterol-lowering statin than those in a control group who took the statin alone. 3. The news came as a kick in the teeth to many cardiologists

because earlier tests in animals and people suggested it would lower rates of cardiovascular disease. "There have been no red flags to my knowledge," says John Chapman, a specialist in lipoproteins and atherosclerosis at the National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM) in Paris who has also studied torcetrapib. "This cancellation came as a complete shock." 4. Torcetrapib is one of the most advanced of a new breed of

drugs designed to raise levels of HDLs, which ferry cholesterol out of artery-clogging plaques to the liver for removal from the body. Specifically, torcetrapib blocks a protein called

cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers the cholesterol from high-density lipoproteins to low density, plaque-promoting ones. Statins, in contrast, mainly work by lowering the 'bad' low-density lipoproteins. Under pressure 5. Researchers are now trying to work out why and how the drug

backfired, something that will not become clear until the clinical details are released by Pfizer. One hint lies in evidence from earlier trials that it slightly raises blood pressure in some

patients. It was thought that this mild problem would be offset by the heart benefits of the drug. But it is possible that it actually proved fatal in some patients who already suffered high blood pressure. If blood pressure is the explanation, it would actually be good news for drug developers because it suggests that the problems are specific to this compound. Other prototype drugs that are being developed to block CETP work in a slightly different way and might not suffer the same downfall. 6. But it is also possible that the whole idea of blocking CETP

is flawed, says Moti Kashyap, who directs atherosclerosis research at the VA Medical Center in Long Beach, California. When HDLs excrete cholesterol in the liver, they actually rely on LDLs for part of this process. So inhibiting CETP, which prevents the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL, might actually cause an abnormal and irreversible accumulation of cholesterol in the body. "You're blocking a physiologic mechanism to eliminate cholesterol and effectively constipating the pathway," says Kashyap.

Going up 7. Most researchers remain confident that elevating high

density lipoproteins levels by one means or another is one of the best routes for helping heart disease patients. But HDLs are

complex and not entirely understood. One approved drug, called niacin, is known to both raise HDL and reduce cardiovascular risk but also causes an unpleasant sensation of heat and tingling. Researchers are exploring whether they can bypass this side effect and whether niacin can lower disease risk more than statins alone. Scientists are also working on several other means to bump up high-density lipoproteins by, for example, introducing synthetic HDLs. "The only thing we know is dead in the water is torcetrapib, not the whole idea of raising HDL," says Michael Miller, director of preventive cardiology at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore. (613 words Questions 1-7 This passage has 7 paragraphs 1-7. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-ix in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet. List of Headings i. ii. trial How does torcetrapib work? Contradictory result prior to the current nature)

iii. success iv. confidence v. vi. vii. ideal result viii. ix. Example Paragraph 1 1. Paragraph 2 2. Paragraph 3 3. Paragraph 4 4. Paragraph 5 5. Paragraph 6 6. Paragraph 7 Questions 7-13

One failure may possibly bring about future

The failure doesn’t lead to total loss of

It is the right route to follow Why it’s stopped They may combine and theoretically produce

What’s wrong with the drug It might be wrong at the first place answer iv vi ii vii ix viii iv

Match torcetrapib,HDLs,statin and CETP with their functions (Questions 8-13)..

Write the correct letter A, B, C or D in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. 7.It has been administered to over 10,000 subjects in a clinical trial. 8.It could help rid human body of cholesterol. 9.Researchers are yet to find more about it. 10. It was used to reduce the level of cholesterol. 11. According to Kashyap, it might lead to unwanted result if

it’s blocked. 12. It produced contradictory results in different trials. 13. It could inhibit LDLs. List of choices A. Torcetrapic B. HDLS C. Statin D. CETP (by Zhou Hong)

Suggested Answers and Explanations 1. vi

2. ii 3. vii 本段介绍了 torcetrapib 和 statin 的治病原理,但是同

时短语“in contrast”与之前第二段后半段的内容呼应,暗示了这两 种药在理论上能相辅相成,是理想的搭配。第一个选项无法涵盖整段意 义,故选择 i 是错误的。 4. iii 本段分析了可能导致 torcetrapibl 临床试验失败的原因,

后半段指出如果以上推测正确,那么未来的药物可借鉴这个试验,设法 避免 torcetrapib 的缺陷, 研制出有效的药物。 viii 选项无法涵盖后半 段的意思。 5. ix 6. v 7. A 见第二段。题目中 administer 一词意为“用药”,subject 见首句。

一词为“实验对象”之意。 8. B 见第四段“… to raise levels of HDLs, which ferry

cholesterol out of artery-clogging plaques to the liver for removal from the body.”即 HDLs 的作用最终是将 choleserol 清除出 人体:“… for removal from the body”。 9. B 见第四段“But HDLs are complex and not entirely

understood.” 10.C 见第二段“… plus a cholesterol-lowering statin”,即

statin 是可以降低 cholesterol 的。

11. D

见第六段“So inhibiting CETP, … might actually cause

an abnormal and irreversible accumulation of cholesterol in the body. 12. A 13. C 见第三段。 见第四段“Statins, in contrast, mainly work by

lowering the 'bad' low-density lipoproteins.”



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