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211 工程 211 Project 安居工程 housing project for low-income families 安居小区 a neighborhood for low-income families 保障妇女就业权利 to guarantee women’s right to employment 补发拖欠的离退休人员统筹项目内的养 老金 All back pension entitlements have been paid for the retired covered by the overall government plan. 裁定保险赔偿 adjudication of benefits 城 镇 居 民 最 低 生 活 保 障 guarantee of subsistence allowances for urban residents 在城镇强制推行以养老、失业、医疗为重 点的社会保险 Social welfare insurance, particularly old-age, unemployment and medical insurance, must be made mandatory in urban areas. 城 镇 社 会 保 障 体 系 the social security system in urban areas 城 镇 职 工 基 本 医 疗 保 险 制 度 the basic medical insurance system for urban employees 创新精神 be innovation-minded; to have a creative mind 促进学生德、智、体、美全面发展 ensure that students improve in terms of their moral, intellectual and fitness level as well as in their appreciation of aesthetics 大家庭 extended family 大力推行个人助学信贷 Personal loans to finance education should be vigorously promoted. 大专文凭 associate degree (conferred to junior college students)

代培 training-on-contract program 代培生 trainee on contract 带薪分流 assign redundant civil servants to other jobs while allowing them to retain their original rank and benefits 待业人员 job seekers 待遇优厚的工作 a well-paid job 单亲家庭 single parent family 定向培训 training for specific posts 独生子女 the only child 对 保 障 方 案 进 行 精 算 评 估 Security programs should undergo actuarial review. 对口扶贫 provide poverty alleviation aid to the designated sister regions 恶性犯罪 major crimes 反对迷信 be against superstition 福利分房 buy a benefit-oriented apartment from the organization one works with 复式住宅 compound apartment 干部年轻化 rejuvenation of cadres 岗位培训 on-job training 高 度 重 视 精 神 文 明 建 设 pay close attention to cultural and ethical progress 搞好优生优育 promote good prenatal and postnatal care 个人自愿计划 voluntary private plans 工伤保险制度 the on-job injury insurance system 工资收入分配制度 the wage and income distribution system 关 系 国 计 民 生 的 大 事 matters vital to national well-being and the people’s livelihood 关心和支持残疾人事业 Programs to help the physically and mentally challenged deserve our care and support.

关心老龄人 care for senior citizens. 贵族学校 exclusive school(美); select school(英) 国企下岗职工基本生活保障 guarantee of basic cost of living allowances for workers laid off from state-owned enterprises 过紧日子 tighten one’s belt 过温饱生活 live a life at a subsistent level 合理调整就业结构 to rationally readjust the employment structure 后 勤 服 务 社 会化 make logistic services independent in their operation 积极发展民办教育 Efforts should be made to develop schools not operated by government education departments. 基本养老金 basic pensions 计划生育责任制 responsibility system of family planning 继 续 开展 “扫 黄打 非 ”斗 争 The fight against pornography, illegal publications and piracy shall be continued. 加快住房分配货币化进程 capitalization process of housing distribution/allocation 加强计划生育工作 further improve family planning 加 强 舆 论 监 督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 家庭美德 family virtues 坚持 “两手抓、 两手都要硬” 的方针 adhere to the principle of “doing two jobs at once and attaching equal importance to each‖ 坚持正确的舆论导向 maintain the correct orientation for public opinion 建立集体合同制度 to establish a group contract system 建立市场导向的就业机制 to establish a market-oriented employment mechanism 建立新型的劳动关系 to establish a new type of labor relations

建设廉洁、勤政、务实、高效政府 build a clean and diligent, pragmatic and efficient government 建设一个富强、民主、文明的国家 build a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced country 教 育 程 度 educational status; education received 教育程度比率 educational attainment ratio 戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center 精算界 actuarial profession 精算师 actuaries 扩大就业和再就业 to expand employment and reemployment 劳 动 保 障 监 察 制 度 the labor security supervision system 劳动标准体系 labor standard system 劳动争议处理体制 the system of handling labor disputes 面临困境 face adverse conditions 努力稳定低生育水平 work to stabilize the low birth rate 培 养 创 新 精 神 和 实 践 能 力 help them develop practical abilities and a spirit of innovation 破案率 rate of solved criminal cases 强制性普及方案 universally compulsory program 切实减轻中小学生过重的课业负担 effectively reduce too heavy homework assignments for primary and secondary school students 确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和离 退 休 人 员 基 本 养 老 金 按时 足 额 发 放 to ensure that subsistence allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for retirees are paid on time and in full 人口出生率 birth rate

人口老龄化 aging of population 人口增长的高峰期 baby boom 人口增长与社会经济发展相协调 try to keep population growth in line with social and economic development 人民生活水平 quality of life; the living standards 认真贯彻实施中国妇女、儿童发展纲要 The programs for the development of work concerning women and children should be earnestly implemented. 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups 扫 除 青 壮 年 文 盲 eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people 伤残保险 disability insurance 社会保障 social security 社 会 保 障 “ 三 条 保 障 线 ” 制 度 social security system of “three guarantees” 社会福利制度 the social welfare system 社会公德 social morality 社 会 互 助 制 度 the social mutual help system 社 会 治 安 状 况 好 转 see an improved law-and-order situation 深入扎实地开展群众性精神文明创建活 动 Extensive public participation activities are launched to promote cultural and ethical progress. 生活待遇 material amenities 生活费收入 income available for cost of living 生 活 费 用 cost of living; income maintenance; subsistence cost 生 育 保 险 制 度 the childbirth insurance system 失学儿童 dropouts 失 业 保 险 guarantee of unemployment insurance benefits 失业保险 unemployment insurance

失业保险制度 the unemployment insurance system 失业率 rate of unemployment 实施积极促进就业的政策 to implement the policy of vigorously increasing employment 实现基本普及九年义务教育 The goal in the effort to make nine-year compulsory education basically universal has been attained. 实现小康目标 attain the goal of ensuring our people a relatively comfortable life 实行弹性大、灵活性强、多样化的就业形 式 to adopt elastic, flexible, diversified forms of employment 实行计划生育、控制人口数量、提高人口 素质 promote family planning and control the population size and improve the health of the people 实 行 劳 动 合 同 制 度 to institute a labor contract system 树立正确的价值观、世界观、人生观 help foster in the young the morally sound values and outlook on the world and life 思想道德建设(思想政治工作) moral education among people 提高部分优抚对象抚恤标准 Allowances for certain disabled service men and women and family members of revolutionary martyrs and service men and women have been increased. 提 高 劳 动 者 素 质 to enhance workers ’ quality 统筹兼顾城乡就业 to make overall plans for urban and rural system 推动就业服务向社区延伸,形成多层次的 就业服务网络 to encourage the formation of community-run agencies as a part of the multi-level employment service network

推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development 推 行 职 业 资 格 证 书 制 度 to introduce a vocational qualification credentials system 退休基金 pension fund 脱贫 lift off poverty; cast off poverty 完善和落实再就业优惠政策 to improve and implement preferential reemployment 完 善 失 业 保 险 制 度 to improve the unemployment insurance system 文明城市 model city; culturally advanced city; city cited for high moral and cultural standards 物 业 管 理 estate management, property management 消费价格总水平 the general price level 小家庭 nuclear family 小康生活 enjoy a fairly comfortable life; be moderately better off 新 生 儿 死 亡 率 infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate 行行出状元 Every profession produces its own leading authority. 研 究 生 毕 业 证 / 学 位 证 graduate diploma/graduate degree's diploma 养老保险 retirement insurance 养老保险制度 the old-age insurance system 医疗保险 medical insurance 医疗保险制度 the medical insurance system 应试教育 examination-oriented education system 优 抚 安 置 制 度 the special care and placement system 优 化 就 业 结 构 to optimize employment structure

有公德心 be civic-minded 舆论导向 direction of public opinion 舆论监督 supervision by public opinion 预期寿命 life expectancy 灾害救助制度 the natural disaster relief system 在职博士生 on-job doctorate 招 生 就 业 指 导 enrolment and vocation guidance 争取实现高等教育大众化 work to make regular higher education accessible to the majority of young people 政 府 主 导 计 划 government-sponsored programs 职业道德 ethics of profession 中华人民共和国劳动法 the Labor Law of the People’s Republic of China 中专生 secondary specialized or technical school student 重视发展具有比较优势和市场潜力的劳 动密集型企业 to stress the development of labor-intensive enterprises with comparative advantages and market potential 抓好农村和流动人口计划生育管理与服 务 devote efforts to the management of family planning and related services in rural areas and among the floating population 自然增长率 natural growth rate 自学成才 self-taught and self-made person; become a qualified professional through self-taught way 最低生活保障制度 the minimum living standard security system


汉英口译分类词汇(02)-澳新紧密经济关系协定 ANZCERTA: Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement 摆脱亚洲金融危机的影响 shake off the impact of the financial crisis 帮助人才脱颖而出 help excellent talents find way to distinction 备件 spare parts 部长级会议 ministerial meeting 采取积极财政政策 proactive fiscal policy 出口创汇型/外向型产业 export-oriented industry 垂直兼并 vertical merger 倒爷 profiteer 抵免 offset 东盟自由贸易区 AFTA:ASEAN Free Trade Area 东南亚国家联盟 ASEAN:Association of South-East Asian Nations 对外项目承包 foreign project contracting 反倾销措施 anti-dumping measures against …… 防伪标志 anti-fake label 放松银根 ease monetary policy 非配额产品 quota-free products 非生产性投资 investment in non-productive projects 风险管理/评估 risk management/ assessment 风险基金 venture capital 风险准备金 loan loss provision/ provisions of risk 岗位培训 on-the-job training 港元的联系汇率制 the linkage system between the US dollar and the HK dollar 搞活国有大中型企业 revitalize large and

medium-sized state owned enterprises 工程项目 engineering project 工业增加值 industrial added value 公正合理 equitable and rational 固定资产投资 investment in the fixed assets 广开就业门路 increase employment opportunities; create jobs in every possible way; open up more channels of employment 规模经济 scale economy/ economies of scale 国合企业(即国有合作社)state-owned cooperatives 国际清算 international settlement 国际收支平衡 balance of international payments/ balance of payment 国际收支不平衡 disequilibrium of balance of payment 国家补贴 public subsidies 国家鼓励项目 projects listed as encouraged by the state 国家科技创新体系 State Scientific and Technological Innovation System 国家现汇结存 state foreign exchange reserves 合理引导消费 guide rational consumption 横向兼并 horizontal merger 坏帐、呆帐、死帐 bad account/ dead account/ uncollectible account/bad debt/ bad loan 货币市场 money market 机构臃肿 overstaffing in (government) organizations 机构重叠 organizational overlapping 技工贸结合的科技型企业 scientific and technological enterprises that integrate

scientific and technological development with industrial and trade development 季节性调价 seasonal price adjustments 既成事实 established/accomplished facts 减免债务 reduce and cancel debts 建材 building materials 进口环节税 import linkage tax 经常项目 current account 经常性的财政收入 regular revenues 竟价投标 competitive bidding 就业前培训 pre-job training 控股公司 holding company 垃圾融资 junk financing 劳动密集性企业 labor-intensive enterprises 劳务合作 labor service cooperation 累计实现顺差 143.4 美元 accumulatively realizing trade surplus 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery 流动人口 floating population 龙头产品 lagship product 乱集资、乱摊派、乱收费 unwarranted pooling of funds, arbitrary requisition of donations and exaction of fees from enterprises/ unauthorized pooling of funds, compulsory donations and random levies on enterprises 慢性萧条 chronic depression 农业技术合作 ATC:Agricultural Technical Cooperation 盘活存量资产 revitalize stock assets 配件 accessories 皮包公司 flying-by-night company; bogus company 平等互利、讲求实效、形式多样、共同发 展的方针 pursuing practical results, adopting various waysand seeking common development/ the principle of equality, mutual benefit, efficiency, diversity and

mutual development 瓶颈制约 ―bottleneck‖ restrictions 企业的自我约束机制 self-regulating mechanism of enterprises 企业技术改造 technological updating of enterprises 企业亏损补贴 subsidies to cover enterprise losses 企业所得税 corporate income tax 千年问题、千年虫 millennium bug 抢得先机 take the preemptive opportunities 清理、修订 screen and modify 求同存异 overcome differences and seek common ground 商住和公益设施建设 commercial, residential and public utility construction 申报制度 reporting system; income declaration system 实行股份制 enforce stockholding system 实行国民待遇 grant the national treatment to, treat foreign investors as quals to the Chinese counterparts 市场准人的行政管理措施 AAMA Administrative Aspects of Market Access 适销对路的产品 readily marketable products 双重轨制 two-tier system / double-track system 水利 water conservation 所有制形式 forms of ownership 贪图安逸 crave comfort and pleasure 通货紧缩 deflation 通货膨胀 inflation 同步增长 increase in the same pace 外援方式 modality of foreign aid 无氟冰箱 freon-free refrigerator 无纸交易 paperless transaction 现代企业制度 modern corporate system 消费膨胀 inflated consumption

协议投标 negotiated bidding 信息化 informationize 形成统一、开放和竞争有序的市场 establish an unified, open market with orderly competition 亚欧会议 ASEM:Asia-Europe Meeting 亚太法定计量论坛 APLMF:Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum 亚太工商咨询理事会 ABAC:APEC Business Advisory Council 亚太计量程序 APMP:Asia Pacific Metrology Program 亚太经合组织部长级会议 AMM:APEC MinisteriaI Meeting 亚太经合组织经济领导人会议 AELM: APEC Economic Leaders Meeting 亚太经济合作组织 APEC:Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 亚太能源研究中心 APERC:Asia Pacific Energy Research Center 亚太商业论坛 ABF:APEC Business Forum 亚太商业网络 APB-Net:Asia-Pacific Business Network 亚太实验室认可合作 APLAC: Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation 亚太通讯与数据系统 ACDS:APEC Communications and Database System 亚太信息基础设施 APII:Asia-Pacific Information Infrastructure 亚太中小企业技术交流与培训中心 ACTETSME: APEC Center for Technology Exchange and Training for Small and Medium Enterprises 亚洲开发银行 ADB: Asian Development Bank 以试点的形式实行外贸权自动登记制度 implement an automatic registration system of foreign trading rights on a trial basis

营业税 turnover tax 在巩固公有制主体地位的同时,促进多种 所有制经济共同发展 alongside fortifying the status of the public ownership as the mainstay, it is also encouraged to witness common development of different systems of ownership 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 中华人民共和国保护台湾同胞投资实施 条例 Implementation Rules of the P.R.C. on the Protection of Investments by Compatriots from Taiwan 中介服务组织 intermediary service organization 注入新的生机与活力 bring new vigor and vitality into 转化经营机制 change the method of operation 资本项目 capital account 自 1999 年 1 月 1 日起实行 come into official enforcement as of January 1, 1999 自由浮动汇率 free floating exchange rate; variable exchange rate 自驻经营,自负盈亏 responsible for their own management decisions, profits and losses 走上良性发展的轨道 going on the track of sound progress shipping service company 船务公司 generic products 非商标(非专利)产品 prudent monetary policy 稳健的货币政策 deficit spending 超前消费 run on banks(到银行)挤兑 domestic support to agriculture 对农业的 国内支持 special bonds 特种债券 economy of abundance 富裕经济 Animal-based protein 动物源性蛋白

dual purpose exports 军民两用品出口 dual-use goods and technology 军民两用产 品和技术 NAFTA North American Free Trade Area 北 美自由贸易区 global quota 全球配额 grandfather clause 祖父条款

Animal-derived food 动物源食品 EVSL (Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization)部门提前自愿自由化 TILF (Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation)贸易和投资自由化和便利 化

C&F(cost & freight)成本加运费价 T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交 单 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普 惠制 CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱 PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等 DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元 DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打 PKG(package)一包,一捆,一扎,一件等 WT(weight)重量 G.W.(gross weight)毛重 N.W.(net weight)净重 (customs declaration)报关单 EA(each)每个,各 W (with)具有 w/o(without)没有 FAC(facsimile)传真 IMP(import)进口 EXP(export)出口 MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的 MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度

M 或 MED (medium)中等,中级的 M/V(merchant vessel)商船 S.S(steamship)船运 MT 或 M/T(metric ton)公吨 DOC (document)文件、单据 INT(international)国际的 P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表 INV (invoice)发票 PCT (percent)百分比 REF (reference)参考、查价 EMS (express mail special)特快传递 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 T 或 LTX 或 TX(telex)电传 RMB(renminbi)人民币 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 PR 或 PRC(price) 价格 PUR (purchase)购买、购货 S/C(sales contract)销售确认书 L/C (letter of credit)信用证 B/L (bill of lading)提单 FOB (free on board)离岸价 CIF (cost, insurance & freight)成本、保 险加运费价 GMO (genetically modified organism)转基 因组织 CAGA (compound annual growth average) 年复合增长率



保险业 The insurance industry 保证重点支出 Ensure funding for priority areas 被兼并或挤掉 annexed or forced out of business 补 发 拖 欠 的 养 老 金 Clear up pension payments in arrears 不良贷款 Non—performing loan 层 层 转 包 和 违 法 分 保 Multi-level contracting and illegal subcontracting 产值 output value 城 乡 信 用 社 Credit Cooperative in both urban and rural areas 城 镇 居 民 最 低 生 活 保 障 A minimum standard of living for city residents 城镇职工医疗保险制度 The system of medical insurance for urban workers 抽样调查 data from the sample survey 出口信贷 Export credit 初步建立社会主义计划商品经济新体制。 to establish at a preliminary level a new system of socialist planned commodity economy. 贷款质量 Loan quality 贷款质量五级分类办法 The five-category assets classification for bank loans 第二产业 secondary industry 第三产业 tertiary industry 第一产业 primary industry 独 资 企 业 wholly foreign owned/funded enterprise 发电量 electric energy production 发挥市场的调节作用 to give play to the regulatory role of the market 发展过快 excessive growth 防 范和 化解 金融风 险 Take precautions against and reduce financial risks 防洪工程 Flood-prevention project 非 法 外 汇 交 易 Illegal foreign exchange

transaction 非公有成分 non-public sectors 非 贸 易 收 汇 Foreign exchange earnings through non trade channels 非 银 行 金 融 机 构 Non-bank financial institutions 费改税 Transform administrative fees into taxes 分配形式 forms of distribution 风险资金 risk funds 副业 sideline production 改革是"社会主义制度的自我完善和自我 发展"。 Reform is "the self-perfection and self-development of the socialist system." 改革重点转移到城市 the focus of reform is shifted to the cities 改 善 经 济 环 境 improve economic environment 搞活企业 invigorate/ revitalize/ rejuvenate enterprises 各 尽 所 能 , 按 劳 / 需 分 配 。 from each according to his ability, to each according to his work/needs. 跟踪审计 Follow-up auditing 工程监理制度 The monitoring system for projects 公有制 public ownership 鼓励 give incentive to 管理不善 poor management 国际收支 international balance of payments 国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展。 The state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state economy. 国家的根本任务是,集中力量进行社会主 义现代化建设 The basic task of the nation is to concentrate its efforts on socialist modernization. 国民生产总值 GNP (Gross National

Product) 国 内 生 产 总 值 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) 国有经济,即社会主义全民所有制经济, 是 国 民 经 济 中 的 主 导 力量 。 The state economy is the sector of socialist economy under ownership by the whole people; it is the leading force in the national economy. 国有资产安全 The safety of state-owned assets 过度开垦 Excess reclamation 合 同 管 理 制 度 The contract system for governing projects 合资企业 joint venture 合作企业 cooperative enterprise 和平演变 peaceful evolution 宏观控制 exercise macro-control 机电产品 Electromechanical products 积极的财政政策 Pro-active fiscal policy 基本生活费 Basic allowances 基石 cornerstone 计划经济和市场调节相结合的机制 a mechanism that combines planned economy and market regulation 家 庭 联 产 责 任 承 包 制 family-contract responsibility system 结 售 汇 制 度 The system of exchange settlement and sales 解除劳动关系 Sever labor relations 解放生产力 liberate/unshackle/release the productive forces 金融监管责任制 The responsibility system for financial supervision 经济安全 Economic security 经 济和 法律的 杠杆 economic and legal leverages 经济计划和市场调节相结合 to combine economic planning with market regulation 经 济 结 构 改 革 。 reform in economic

structure 经营机制 operative mechanism 精华、精粹、实质 quintessence 举措 move 靠扩大财政赤字搞建设 To increase the deficit to spend more on development 扣 除 物 价 上 涨 部 分 price increase are deducted (excluded) 扩大国内需求 The expansion of domestic demand 拉动经济增长 Fuel economic growth 厉 行 节 约 , 反 对 浪 费 to practice strict economy and combat waste 粮食仓库 Grain depot 粮 食 收 储 企 业 Grain Collection and storage enterprise 粮 食 收 购 资 金 实 行 封 闭 运 行 Closed operation of grain purchase funds 粮食销售市场 Grain sales market 劣质工程 Shoddy engineering 林业 forestry 零售 retail 流通制度 circulation system 乱收费、 乱摊派、 乱罚款 Arbitrary charges, fund-raising, quotas and fines 农业 farming 骗汇、逃汇、套汇 Obtain foreign currency under false pretenses, not turn over foreign currency owed to the government and illegal arbitrage 取消国家对农产品的统购统销 to cancel the state's monopoly on the purchase and marketing of agricultural products 全民所有制 ownership by the entire/whole people 全体会议 plenary session 人均国民生产总值 per capita GNP 人均收入 per capita income 融资渠道 Financing channels

善于接受的 receptive 商品经济 commodity economy 商 业 信 贷 原 则 The principles for commercial credit 社会保险机构 Social security institution 社会主义的最终目标是解放生产力,消灭 剥削,消除贫富两极分化,最终达到共同 富裕。 The main goals of socialism are the liberation and development of productive forces, the elimination of exploitation and polarization between the rich and the poor and the final achievement of common prosperity. 社会主义集体所有制 socialist collective ownership 社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的 社会主义公有制,即全民所有制和劳动群 众集体所有制。 The basis of the socialist economic system is socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely, ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people. 生产关系 relations of production 生产力 productive forces 生产资料 means of production 生活资料 means of livelihood/subsistence 剩余劳动力。 surplus labor 失 业 保 险 金 Unemployment insurance benefits 实际增长率 actual growth rate 实事求是 seek truth from facts 实在的 tangible 使负担 be saddled with 试一下 have a go (at sth.) 输入活力 bring vigor into 私有制 private ownership 随着改革的深化,国家指令性计划的范围 将会缩小,而市场调节的范围将会扩大。 As the reform further develops, the scope

for mandatory state plans will be narrowed, while the scope for market forces will be enlarged. 偷税、骗税、逃税、抗税 Tax evasion, tax fraud and refusal pay taxes 投入 input 外汇收支 Foreign exchange revenue and spending 外资企业 foreign-funded enterprise 我们辨别的标准是看这样做是否有利于 发展社会主义的生产力,是否有利于增强 社会主义国家的综合国力,是否有利于提 高人民的生活水平。 The criterion for our judgment is whether the move facilitates the development of socialist productive forces, whether it helps increase the overall national strength of a socialist country, and whether it brings about better living standards. 畜牧业 animal husbandry 要人们警惕右和"左"的影响,特别是"左" 的根深蒂固的影响。 to warn people of the influence of both the Right and the "Left" deviations, particularly of the deep-rooted "Left" influence. 一个中心、 两个基本点 one central task and two basic points 以经济建设为中心,坚持 四项基本原则(1)社会主义道路(2)党 的领导(3)人民民主专政(4)马列主义 毛泽东思想、坚持改革开放 the central task refers to economic construction and two basic points are the four cardinal principles - adherence to the socialist road, to Communist Party leadership, to the people's democratic dictatorship and to Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought - and persisting in reform and opening. 引进、输入 importation 引入歧途 lead one to a blind alley

营业发达的公司 going concerns 优 化 经 济 结 构 optimize the economic structure 有色金属 nonferrous metals 有效地控制通货膨胀 effectively control inflation 渔业 fishing 增额、增值、增长 increment 整顿经济秩序 rectify economic order 中国要警惕右,但更要防"左"。 China needs to be vigilant against the Right deviation, but primarily, it should guard against the "Left" deviation. 逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的 现代化,把我国建设成为富强、民主、文

明的社会主义国家。 to modernize the country's industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology step by step to turn China into a strong and prosperous socialist country with a high level of culture and democracy. 主要成分 dominant sector 资本主义和社会主义并不是以计划经济 和市场的多少来划分的。 Socialism and capitalism are not distinguished by the proportion of planned and market economy. 总工资 total wages



按 保 护 价 敞 开 收 购 粮 食 的 政 策 a policy of purchasing grain without limitations at protective prices 把处理事与处理人结合起来 integrate the handling of cases with the handling of violators 把有限的资金用在 “刀刃上” use our limited funds where they can be put to best use 保持经济适度快速增长 maintain an appropriate rapid economic growth 保监会 the China Insurance Regulatory Commission 保证国家的长治久安 guarantee China’s long-term stability 保证社会公共需要 guarantee social needs 保证这些项目如期建成并发挥效益 ensure that these projects are completed according to schedule and yield economic returns 避免形成倒逼机制、欲罢不能 The uncompleted projects cannot drag on and on and require excessive investment. 不 合 法 、 不 合 理 基 金 和 收 费 项 目 illegal and unjustifiable funds and charges 不会导致货币过量发行 without causing overissue of currency 不进则退 no progress simply means regression 不良贷款 non- performing loans 不能搞赤字预算 cannot leave a deficit in their budgets 不再经商 no longer engage in trade 财政偿还能力 our ability to service debt 财政的承受能力 financial capacity 财 政 监 督 条 例 the Regulations on Financial Supervision 财政日子将更加难过 We will be in financial straits. 财 政 收 入 占 国 内 生 产 总 值 的 比 重 the ratio of revenue to GDP 财 政 收 支 基 本 平 衡 的 原 则 a principle of maintaining a basic balance between revenue and expenditures 财政资金申请、立项、拨付、使用效果等各个环 节的监督 supervision over the whole process of fund allocation from application, project determination and actual allocation to returns on investment 拆迁补偿费 compensation for demolition 产权划转和产权变动 the transfer of and changes in property rights of enterprises

产销衔接状况 the ratio of sales to production 产业升级 upgrade industries 长江流域的生态掩体 an ecological shelter along the Yangtze River Valley 长江三峡和黄河小浪底水利枢纽工程 the key water projects at the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River and at Xiaolangdi on the Yellow River 长期国债 long-term government bonds 常务委员 Standing Committee member 车辆购置税暂行条例 the Interim Regulations on the Tax on Vehicle Purchases 成长型企业市场 (指二板市场) growing enterprise market (GEM) 城乡电网改造 projects for upgrading urban and rural power grids 城镇登记失业率 registered unemployment rate in cities and towns 城镇社会保障体系 urban social security system 城镇职工医疗保险制度改革 medical insurance for urban workers 城镇住房制度改革 reform of the urban housing system 出 口 经 营 权 由 审 批 制 向 登 记 备 案 制 过 渡 the transition from an examination and approval system to a registration and recording system for the right to engage in export 出口配额 export quotas 传统产业 conventional industries 创新体系 an innovation system 垂直管理 vertical management 从源头上、制度上堵塞漏洞 plug up loopholes in terms of their sources and systems 促进公平分配 promote fair distribution of social wealth 村村通广播电视工程 project“extend radio and TV coverage to every village” 存款准备金 reserves against deposit 大部分科技力量游离于企业和市场之外 a majority of scientific personnel being divorced from enterprises and the market 大力推进粮食流通体制改革 step up our efforts to promote the reform of the grain distribution system 大面积多光区光纤光谱天文望远镜 a large sky area multi-object fiber-spectroscopy telescope 贷 款 质 量 5 级 分 类 办 法 five-category assets classification for bank loans

邓小平理论 Deng Xiaoping Theory 低水平重复建设 low-level redundant development 滴灌、喷灌 drip irrigation and spray irrigation 抵抗全球经济衰退 to combat the global economic slump 地 方 性 中 小 金 融 机 构 存 款 保 险 制 度 a deposit insurance system for local small and medium-sized financial institutions 电视会议 televised meeting 调 控 宏 观 经 济 运 行 regulate operation of the macroeconomy 调整出口退税 adjustments in the level of export tax rebates 调 整 投 资 结 构 和 经 济 结 构 the restructuring of investment and the economy 堵塞漏洞 plug up loopholes 对卷烟全面推行核定计税价格征收消费税办法 fully levy a sales tax on cigarettes on the basis of an authorized tax valuation 对人民高度负责的态度 maintain a high sense of responsibility 对中西部地区适当倾斜 appropriately directed to the central and western areas of the country 夺取了抗洪抢险的伟大胜利 achieve great victory in the fight against floods 发挥出最大的效益 produce the best possible results 发挥最大的使用效益 yield the greatest returns on investment 反对铺张浪费 combat extravagance and waste 防范和化解金融风险 guard against and defuse financial risks 防范金融风险能力 ability to guard against financial risks 防止 “重点支出重点浪费” prevent ―more waste in more expenditures‖ 非办不可的大事 important tasks which must be accomplished 非国有工业企业 non-state industrial enterprises 非银行金融机构 non-bank financial institutions 费改税改革 tax-for-fees reform 分配货币化 distribution of money 分税制度财政体制 the revenue-sharing system 风险防范机制 a risk prevention mechanism 服从全局、服务全局 be subordinated to and serve the overall interests of the country 复杂多变的国内经济环境 complicated and volatile

economic environment both at home and abroad 改 革 价 格 形 成 机 制 reform the price formation mechanism 干堤的修复加固任务 the task of repairing and reinforcing the main dikes 干法旋窑水泥 dry-process rotary kilns 敢抓敢管、不讲情面 have the courage to bear their responsibilities and exercise management no matter what others might think 高等教育 “211 工程” the “211” Project for higher education 高技术产业发展规划 plans for the development of high-tech industries 高技术产业化 apply high technology to production 高技术产业化示范工程 high-tech model projects to demonstrate their commercial viability 高举邓小平理论伟大旗帜,全面贯彻'三个代表' 重要思想 hold high the banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and carry out the important thoughts of 'Three Represents' 高清晰度电视功能样机 functional prototype of high definition TV 个人所得税法 the Law on Personal Income Tax 个体经济、私营经济 self-employed and private businesses 各 地 区 经 济 发 展 的客 观需 要 the needs of the economic development of different regions 各级各类教育 all forms of education at all levels 各 种 “ 小 金 库 ” 屡 禁 不 止 failures to prohibit unauthorized departmental coffers repeatedly 各种偷税、骗税和逃税行为 all acts of tax evasion and tax fraud 工程监理制 project supervision system 工 程 质 量 事 故 accidents resulting from poor quality of projects 工业增加值 industrial added value 公开市场操作 open-market operations 共 建 、 调 整 、 合 作 、 合 并 a program of joint development, adjustment, cooperation and mergers 购买力 purchasing power 鼓励兼并 encourage mergers 关心群众疾苦 help alleviate their hardships 规范管理 standardized administration 规 范 化 的 财 政 管 理 standardized financial management 规范破产 standardize bankruptcy procedures

规范税制 standardize the tax system 国际公认 internationally recognized 国际通行的吸引外资方式 internationally accepted methods of absorbing foreign investment 国家财政包揽过多 The state finance takes on too much financial burden. 国 家 发 展 计 划 委 员 会 the State Development Planning Commission 国家确定的重点领域投资 investment in the key areas designated by the state 国家税源的大量流失 great loss of state revenue 国家重点科研项目 national key scientific research projects 国库券 treasury bonds 国 民 经 济 各 方 面 all sectors of the national economy 国民生产总值 gross national product (GNP) 国 内 短 缺 原 材 料 和 资 源 性 产 品 raw and semi-finished materials and resource products which are in short supply in China 国 有 独 资 商 业 银 行 wholly state-funded commercial bank 国有企业改革 reform of state-owned enterprises 国有企业和集体企业资本金统计报告制度 a system for reporting statistics on the capital funds of state-owned and collectively-owned enterprises 国有企业重组 regroup SOEs 国有商业银行一级法人管理 management of the state-owned commercial banks with only their head offices as their legal persons 国有资产管理、监督和营运机制 management, supervision and operation of state-owned assets 国 有 资 源 有 偿 使 用 paid use of state-owned resources 国债资金 the capital obtained from issuance of government bonds 过剩的生产能力 excessive production capacity 海峡两岸关系 cross-Strait relations 合同管理制 contract management system 黑 市 交 易 black market transaction in foreign exchanges 很多上海企业涌向西部, 掀起了去西部的淘金热。 Many enterprises of Shanghai go on a 'gold-rush' spree in the western parts of China. 宏观调控目标 macro-control targets 宏观经济预期目标 macroeconomic targets

会计法 the Accounting Law 会 计 信 息 质 量 抽 查 公 告 制 度 the system for publicizing the results of random inspections for the quality of accounting information 积极的财政政策 a proactive fiscal policy 基 本 养 老 保 险 省 级 统 筹 unified basic old-age insurance at the provincial level 基层监督 grass-roots supervision 基 础 设 施 建 设 construction of infrastructural facilities 缉私 suppress smuggling 稽察特派员 special inspectors 及时、足额发放 timely and full funding of pension 急 需 安 排 的 重 点 支 出 urgently needed expenditures for key construction projects 挤占、挪用财政投资 misappropriation or diversion of financial investment 技术密集型产业 technology-intensive industries 加大处罚力度 severely punish those who violate the law and discipline 加大宏观调控力度 tighten macro-control 加大转移支付力度 increase transfer payments 加 工 贸 易 trade involving the processing of supplied raw materials 加 快 经 济 结 构 调 整 accelerate economic restructuring 加强军队和政权建设 strengthen army building and the organs of political power 加强征管、堵塞漏洞、惩治腐败、清缴欠税”的 方针 the principle of “tightening collection and management, plugging up loopholes, punishing corruption and clearing up overdue taxes” 价格法 the Price Law 价格歧视 price discrimination 坚持解放思想、实事求是的思想路线,弘扬与时 俱进的精神 adhere to the ideological guideline of emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts, and upholds the spirit of advancing with time. 坚定信心 proceed with confidence 坚决不搞重复建设 prohibit redundant projects 坚决杜绝劣质工程 prohibit inferior projects 艰苦奋斗、勤俭建国 hard work, plain living and building up the country through thrift 减轻企业负担 lighten the burden on enterprises 减 人 增 效 increase efficiency by downsizing payrolls

减 少 福 利 型 、 供 给 型 、 实 物 型 分 配 reduce distribution in the form of welfare, supply and kind 减员增效 downsize staffs and improve efficiency 剪彩仪式 ribbon-cutting ceremonies 建 立 公 共 财 政 的 基 本 框 架 establish the basic framework for a system of public finance 建设文明幸福家庭 the development of civilized and happy families 健全项目法人责任制 the system of holding the legal person responsible for projects 讲排场、 摆阔气、 比享受 ostentatious behavior and pleasure-seeking 降低银行存贷款利率 lower bank interest rates for savings deposits and loans, 节能、节水、节地和低污染新型材料 new building materials that help to save energy, water and land resources and cause less environmental pollution 金融体制改革 reform of the financial system 金 融 资 产 管 理 公 司 financial asset management companies 进出口商品结构 pattern of imports and exports 经 济 不 发 达 地 区 economically underdeveloped areas 经济发展后劲 future economic growth 经济房 low-cost housing 经营收费 operating charges 精打细算 meticulous plan all expenditures 精心设计 meticulous design 九届全国人大四次会议 the Fourth Session of the Ninth National People's Congress 九届全国政协常委递补委员 by-elect members to the Standing Committee of the Ninth CPPCC National Committee 就业问题 the problem of employment 具有税收性质的政府性基金或专项性收费 government funds and special charges of a tax nature 绝 不 能 花 钱 大 手 大 脚 absolutely cannot spend money lavishly 军队、武警部队、政法机关与企业脱钩 the army, armed police and procuratorial, judicial and public security organs have severed their ties with enterprises 开拓城乡市场 develop urban and rural markets 开拓农村消费市场 develop consumer markets in rural areas

抗洪救灾 fight floods and provide disaster relief 科技成果转化 the commercialization of research findings 科 技 发 展 基 金 a science and technology development fund 科教兴国战略 the strategy of invigorating China through the development of science and education 科学技术进步 scientific and technological progress 科学论证 scientific verification 科 学 有 效 的 收 入 组 织 机 制 a scientific and effective mechanism for collecting revenue 可 持 续 发 展 战 略 the strategy of sustainable development 可支配收入 disposable income 肯定成绩 affirm our achievements 控制在国民经济可以承受的范围之内 keep within the limits of the national economic strength 跨 省 区 分 行 trans-provincial or trans-regional branches 亏损企业 loss-generating enterprises 扩大内需,刺激消费 expand/ increase domestic demand and stimulate consumption 扩大住房贷款,助学贷款和大件消费品贷款 expand housing loans, student loans and major commodity loans 拉动经济增长 stimulate economic growth 来之不易 hard-won achievements 浪费资源 resource-wasting 劳动力市场 the labor market 劳动者素质的提高 improve the quality of laborers 老工业基地 old industrial bases 离退休人员基本养老金 basic pensions for retirees 离退休人员养老金 pensions to retired employees 理 顺 税 、 费 、 价 三 者 关 系 straighten out the relationships among taxes, charges and prices 厉行节约 practice economy 粮食流通体制改革 reform of the grain distribution system 粮食市场的宏观调控能力 the state’s capacity for macro-control of the grain market 粮食政策性补贴 policy-related grain subsidies 两大历史性课题 (提高党的执政能力和领导水平、 提高拒腐防变和抵御风险能力)the two major historic subjects of enhancing the abilities of administration and art of leadership and resisting corruption, guarding against degeneration and

warding off risks. 林区 forested areas 零基预算制度 a zero-base budgeting system 漏征漏管户 tax dodgers 面对严峻挑战 meet the serious challenge 民族地区 regions inhabited by ethnic groups 名优产品 famous brand high-quality products 牟取暴利 price hikes for exorbitant profits 年度国家预算 annual State budge 农村电网改造 projects to upgrade rural power grids 农村剩余劳动力 surplus rural workers 起草社会治安法 drafting a social security law 全 国 人 大 常 务 委 员 会 the NPC Standing Committee 全 国 人 大 代 表 deputy to the National People's Congress 全国人民代表大会 (简称 全国人大) National People's Congress (NPC) 全国人民代表大会常务委员会 the NPC Standing Committee 全国人民代表大会常务委员会办公厅 the general offices of the NPC Standing Committee 全国人民代表大会主席团 the NPC Presidium 全国政协委员 member of the national committee of CPPCC 全面推进党的建设的新的伟大工程 forge ahead with the new great project of Party building 全体会议 plenary meeting 权贵资本主义'(又译裙带资本主义或亲朋好友资 本主义) crony capitalism 人 均 国 内 生 产 总 值 per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups (对弱势群体给予 特殊的就业援助。--Special employment assistance should be given to members of disadvantaged groups.) 三个代表 three represents theory (the Party must always represent the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China.) 三讲教育: 讲学习, 讲政治, 讲正气 three emphases education (to stress theoretical study, political awareness and good conduct) 三峡工程 Three-Gorges Project

三峡移民 Migrants from Three Gorges area 生计问题 bread-and butter issue 生态建筑 ecological construction 使大多数亏损企业扭亏为盈 bring the majority of money-losing firms into the black 试点项目 pilot project 特困行业和企业 industries and enterprises in dire straits 退耕还林、还草工程 Grain for Green Project 网络公司 a web-based economy 西部大开发 the strategy of developing the western region 西 电 东 送 transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region 下岗工人基本生活津贴 the basic living allowance for laid-off workers 下岗职工基本生活费 subsistence allowances for laid-off workers 现代远程教育 modern distance education 宪法修正案 amendments to the Constitution 乡镇企业 township enterprises 小组讨论 panel discussions/group discussions 新闻发布会 press conference 医保制度改革 Reform of medical insurance system 医疗改革 health care reform 隐形就业 hidden employment 有 中 国 特 色 的 社 会 主 义 民 主 政 治 socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics 与时俱进 advance with the times 再就业下岗人员 re-employment of laid-off workers 增 收 节 支 increase revenue and cut government expenditure 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 政府工作报告 government's work report 政府机构改革 Reform of government institutions 制定反贪法规 anti-corruption legislation 中共中央委员会 CPC Central Committee 中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会 16th National Congress of Communist Party of China (16th NCCPC) 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会 (简称 全国 政协) National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会常务委员会 Standing committee of the National Committee of the CPPCC

中国政协委员 member of the National Committee of CPPCC 中 央 纪 律 检 查 委 员 会 Central Commission for Discipline Inspection 重庆(直辖)市 China's Chongqing Municipality 诸国议会同盟 Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) 资 源 丰 富 的 内 陆 地 区 ( 指 中 国 西 部 ) the resource-rich hinterland 综合国力 overall national strength


Chinese Governmental Sections after the Adminitrative Transformation 1 、 外 交 部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2 、 国 防 部 Ministry of National Defence 3 、 国 家 发 展 计 划 委 员 会 State Development Planning Commission 4 、 国 家 经 济 计 划 委 员 会 State Economy and Trade Commission 5、 教育部 Ministry of Education 全国高考 the National College Entrance Examination 6、 科学技术部 Ministry of Science and Technology 7、 国防科学技术工业委员会 Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence 8 、 国 家 民 族 事 务 委 员 会 State Ethnic Affairs Commission 9 、 公 安 部 Ministry of Public Security 10、国家安全部 Ministry of State Security 11、监察部 Ministry of Supervision 12、民政部 Ministry of Civil Affairs 13、司法部 Ministry of Justice 14、财政部 Ministry of Finance
(大学)代理校长 Acting President (大学)副校长 Vice President (大学)校长 President/Chancellor (大学)专科 Major Types of Education in China short 2- to 3- year higher education programs (大学的)研究小组;讨论会 seminar

15、人事部 Ministry of Personnel 16、劳动和社会保障部 Ministry of Labour and Social Security 17、 国土资源部 Ministry of Land and Resources 18、建设部 Ministry of Construction 19、铁道部 Ministry of Railways 20 、 交 通 部 Ministry of Communications 21 、 信 息 产 业 部 Ministry of Information Industry 22 、 水 利 部 Ministry of Water Resources 23、农业部 Ministry of Agricultry 24、 对外贸易经济合作部 Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation 25、文化部 Ministry of Culture 26、卫生部 Ministry of Health 27 、 国 家 计 划 生 育 委 员 会 State Family Planning Commission 28、 中国人民银行 The People's Bank of China 29 、 审 计 署 National Auditing Administration


(国家)助学金 (state)stipend/subsidy (戏剧学院)表演系 Acting Department (系)主任 chairman; chairperson (小学)校长 Head /Master (职工)子弟学校 school for children of workers & staff members (中学)校长 Principal

爱国人士 patriotic personage 爱国主义教育 education in patriotism 百分制 100-mark system 班 主 任 Class Discipline Adviser/Head Teacher 办学效益 efficiency in school management 半 工 半 读 学校 part-work and part-study school 半文盲 semiliterate; functional illiterate 包分配 guarantee job assignments 被授权 be authorized to do 必修课 required/compulsory course 毕业典礼 graduation ceremony; commencement 毕业鉴定 graduation appraisal 毕业论文 thesis; dissertation 毕业设计 graduation ceremony 毕业生 graduate 毕业实习 graduation field work 毕业证书 diploma; graduation certificate 博士 doctor (Ph.D) 博士后 post doctorate 博士后科研流动站 center for post-doctoral studies 补考 make-up examination 补习学校 continuation school 不及格 fail 材 料 工 程 系 Department of Materials Engineering 材 料 科 学 系 Department of Materials Science 财贸学校 finance and trade school 财政拨款 financial allocation 测量系 Department of Survey 成 绩 单 school report; report card; transcript 成人教育 adult education 成人学校 adult school 成人夜校 night school for adults

成为有理想,有道德,有文化,守纪律的 劳动者 to become working people with lofty ideals, moral integrity, education and a sense of discipline 初等教育 elementary education 初中 junior middle school 辍/失学青少年 school dropout/leaver 大学肆业生 undergraduate 德才兼备 to combine ability with character; equal stress on integrity and ability 低 年 级 学 生 lower grade pupil/student; pupil/student in junior grades 地理系 Department of Geography 地球物理系 Department of Geophysics 地质系 Department of Geology 电 机 工 程 系 Department of Electrical Engineering 电机制造学校 electrical machinery school 电力学校 electric power school 电视大学 T.V. university 电子系 Department of Electronics 雕塑系 Department of Sculpture 定 向 招 生 students are admitted to be trained for pre-determined employers 东 方 语 言 学 系 Department of Oriental Languages & Literature 动物学系 Department of Zoology 动员 mobilize 短训班 short-term training course 多学科的 multi-disciplinary 俄语系 Department of Russian 发挥学生主动性、创造性 to give scope to the students' initiative and creativeness 法律系 Department of Law 法语系 French Language Department 反复灌输 inculcate 纺 织 工 程 系 Department of Textile Engineering 纺织航海学校 textile machinery school

分数 mark; grade 分校 branch school 服务性行业 service trade 辅 导 员 assistant for political and ideological work 附中 attached middle school 附属中学 attached middle school 副教授 associate professor 副修 minor 副主任 vice-chairman 岗位培训 undergo job-specific training 高等教育 higher/tertiary education 高等学校 institution of higher education 高 年 级 学 生 upper/higher grade pupil/student; pupil/student in senior grades 高中 senior middle school 工 程 物 理 系 Department of Engineering Physics 工业大学 polytechnic university 工 业 工 程 系 Department of Industrial Engineering 工 业 管 理 系 Department of Industrial Management 工 业 设 计 系 Department of Industrial Design 工业学院 engineering institute 公费生 government-supported student 公开课 open class 共产主义道德品质 communist ethics 共产主义教育 education in communism 管理科学系 Department of Management Science 广 播 电 视 大 学 television and radio broadcasting university 国画系 Department of Tradition Chinese Painting 国际关系系 Department of International Relations 国际经济系 Department of International

Economics 国 际 劳 工 组 织 International Labor Organization 国际贸易系 Department of International Trade 国际文化交流 intercultural communication 国际政治系 Department of International Politics 国 际 主 义 教 育 education in internationalism 国家发明奖 National Invention Prize 国 家 教 育 经 费 national expenditure on education 国 家 科 技 进 步 奖 National Prize for Progress in Science and Technology 国家统计局 the State Statistical Bureau 国 家 自 然 科 学 奖 National Prize for Natural Sciences 海洋学系 Department of Oceanography 函授大学 correspondence college 航海系 Department of Navigation 河流港湾工程系 Department of River & Harbor Engineering 护理系 Department of Nursing 护士学校 nurses' school 化工学校 chemical engineering school 化学系 Department of Chemistry 环 境 工 程 学 系 Department of Environmental Engineering 会计系 Department of Accounting 会计学校 accountant school 伙食补助 food allowance 伙食费 board expenses 机 械 工 程 系 Department of Mechanical Engineering 基本框架 basic framework 基础科学 the fundamentals 基础课 basic course 基金会 foundation

及格 pass 集体主义教育 education in collectivism 计 算 机 学 系 Department of Computer Science 记者招待会 press conference 技工学校 school of technology 寄宿生 boarder 家 业 经 济 系 Department of Agricultural Economics 假期工作 vacation jobs 坚持社会主义方向 to keep to the socialist orientation 兼职教授 Part-time Professor 建筑工程系 Department of Architectural Engineering 建筑工程学校 building engineering school 建筑学 Department of Architecture 讲师 Lecturer/Instructor 奖励 rewards 奖学金 scholarship 奖学金生 prize fellow 教 材 编 写 组 Teaching Materials Writing Group 教导主任 Director of Teaching and 教 师 进 修 学 校 teachers' college for vocational studies 教授 professor 教书育人 to educate the person as well as impart book knowledge 教务长 Dean/Director of Teaching Affairs, dean of studies 教 学 、 科 研 、 生 产 的 " 三 结 合 " "3-in-1 combination" involving teaching, research, and production 教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus 教学内容 content of courses 教学人员 the faculty; teaching staff 教学组 teaching group 教 研 室 / 组 teaching and research

section/group 教 研 室 主 任 Head of the Teaching and Research Section 教育必须为社会主义现代化服务,必须同 生产劳动相结合,培养德智体全面发展的 建设者和接班人。 Education must serve the needs of socialist modernization, be integrated with productive labor, and train builders and successors who are well developed morally, intellectually and physically. 教育部 Ministry of Education 教育程度 educational background 教育方针 guideline(s)/guiding principle(s) for education 教育投入 input in education 教育系 Department of Education 教育要面向现代化,面向世界,面向未来 Gear education to the needs of modernization, the world and the future 教员休息室 staff room; common room 教职员 teaching and administrative staff 结合、使加入 incorporate 解剖学 Department of Anatomy 进修班 class for advanced studies 进修课程 refresher course 经济(学)系 Department of Economics 经 济 管 理 系 Department of Economic Management 考古学系 Department of Archaeology 考试 examination 客 座 教 授 visiting professor; guest professor 课程 course; curriculum 课程包括 curriculum included 课程表 school timetable 课程重点部分 educational highlights 课堂讨论 class discussion 课外辅导 instruction after class

课外活动 extracurricular activities 课外阅读 outside reading 矿 冶 系 Department of Mining and Metallurgy 昆虫学系 Department of Entomology 理工科大学 college/university of science and engineering 理科大学 university of science 历史系 Department of History 燎原计划 the Prairie Fire Program 林学系 Department of Forestry 领取助学金的学生 a grant-aided student 留 级 to repeat the year's work; to stay down 留学生 international student 聋哑学校 school of deaf-mutes 旅 游 管 理 系 Department of Tourist Management 论文导师 supervisor 盲人学校 school for the blind/ blind men’s school 美术学院 academy of fine arts 民办学校 private school 名誉教授 Honorary Professor 母校 Alma Mater 年龄段(层)age bracket 农学系 Department of Agriculture 农学院 agricultural college 农业大学 agricultural university 农业中学 agricultural middle school 旁听生(美)auditor 旁听生(英)guest student 培养独立分析问题和解决问题的能力 to cultivate the ability to analyze and solve concrete problems independently 培养学生自学能力 to foster the students' ability to study on their own 普遍教育 general education 普及教育 universal education

企 业 管 理 系 Department of Business Administration 启 发 式 elicitation method (of teaching); heuristic method 启发学生独立思考的能力 to help develop the ability of the students to think things out for themselves 气象学系 Department of Meteorology 汽 车 工 程 系 Department of Automobile Engineering 人才枯竭 exhaustion of human resources 三结合联合体 tripartite complex 三学期制 the trimester system 扫盲班 literacy class 商业学校 commercial school 社会参与 communal participation 社会活动 social activities 社会实践 social practice 社会学系 Department of Sociology 身体好,学习好,工作好。Keep fit, study hard and work well. 升级 to be promoted to a higher grade 升学 t o go to a school of a higher grade; to enter a higher school 升 学 率 proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade 生理学系 Department of Physiology 生物(学)系 Department of Biology 师 范 大 学 normal university; teachers' university 师范学校 school for kindergarten teachers 师范学院 teachers' college 石油地质学校 petroleum geological school 石油学系 Department of Petroleum 实习生 intern 实行分区规划 practice regional planning 实验室主任 Laboratory Chief 实验员 Laboratory Technician 实验中学 experimental middle school

食 品 工 程 系 Department of Food Engineering 示范试点 demonstration pilot project 适应社会主义现代化建设需要,面向二十 一世纪,具有中国特色的社会主义教育体 系 。 a socialist education system with distinct Chinese characteristics that meets the needs of socialist modernization and is oriented to the 21st century 授予(学士)confer 授予某人学位 to confer a degree on sb. 暑期工作 summer jobs 数学系 Department of Mathematics 双学士制 a double BA degree system 水产技术学校 marine products technical school 水利系 Department of Water Conservancy 水利学校 water conservancy school 税收 tax revenue 硕士 master 所学课程 courses taken 特别训练 special training 提高......的思想品德 enhance the moral awareness of ... 体育活动 physical activities 体育系 Department of Physical Education 体育学院 physical culture institute 天文学 Department of Astronomy 填 鸭 式 教 学 法 cramming/forced-feeding method of teaching 铁路机械学校 railway machinery school 铁路技术学校 railway engineering school 听课 to visit a class; to sit in on a class; to attend a lecture 通讯工程系 Department of Communication Engineering 图 书 馆 学 系 Department of Library Science 图书馆员 Librarian

土 木 工 程 系 Department of Civil Engineering 土壤系 Department of Soil 托儿所 nursery/ creche 脱产培训 off-job training 外籍教授 Foreign Professor 外交系 Department of Diplomacy 外语系 Foreign Languages Department 外语学校 foreign languages school 卫生学校 health school 文科大学 university of liberal arts 文学系 Department of Literature 无 线 电 工 程 系 Department of Radio Engineering 五爱(爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、 爱 护 公 物 ) "Five Love": love the motherland, the people, labor, and science and take good care of public property. 五分制 the 5-grade marking system 舞蹈系 Department of Dance 舞蹈学校 dancing school 物理系 Department of Physics 西班牙语系 Department of Spanish 西 方 语 言 系 Department of Western Languages 希望工程 Project Hope 戏剧系 Department of Theatricals 系主任 Department Chairman /Department Head 系主任办公室 Office of the Department Head 小学 primary(elementary)school 校友 alumnus; alumna 协 调 发 展 coordinated and balanced program of development 心理学系 Department of Psychology 新闻系 Department of Journalism 新增劳动力 incoming labor force 畜牧系 Department of Animal Husbandry

选修课 elective/optional course 学费 tuition (fee) 学分 credit 学分制 the credit system 学力 educational level 学历 education, educational history, record of formal schooling 学龄儿童 school-ager 学年 school/academic year 学期 (school)term; semester 学前教育 preschool education 学生会 students' union/association 学士 bachelor 学术报告会,专题讨论会 symposium 学术活动 academic activities 学位 degree 学习成绩 academic record; school record 学习年限 period of schooling 学院院长 Dean of College/Head of College 学制 educational system 研 究 生 graduate student; post-graduate (student) 研 究 生 指 导 教 师 Graduate Teacher/Research Supervisor; faculty adviser 药学系 Department of Pharmacy 药科大学 pharmaceutical university 冶 金 机 械 学 校 metallurgical machinery school 冶金系 Department of Metallurgy 业余工作 part-time jobs 业余学校 spare-time school 业余艺术/体育学校 amateur arts/athletic school 业余职工大学 spare-time college for staff and workers 夜校 evening (night) school 医科大学 medical university 医 学 工 程 系 Department of Medical

Engineering 医学系 Department of Medicine 医学院 medical college/school 遗 传 工 程 系 Department of Genetics Engineering 义 务 教 育 compulsory education; free education 艺术系 Arts Department 艺术学校 art school 音乐系 Department of Music 音乐学院 conservatory of music 银行系 Department of Banking 印刷系 Department of Printing 应届毕业生 graduating student/pupil; this year's graduates 英语系 English Language Department 优化教师队伍 optimize the teaching staff 优秀干部 excellent leader 优秀团员 excellent League member 邮 电 学 校 posts &.telecommunications school 幼儿园 kindergarten 娱乐活动 recreational activities 渔 业 航 海 学 校 fishery and navigation school 园艺系 Department of Horticulture 原子能系 Department of Atomic Energy 运输管理系 Department of Transportation Management 在职进修班 in-service training course 在职培训 on-the-job/in-service training 造 船 学 系 Department of Naval Architecture 占百分比 account for ...% 哲学系 Department of Philosophy 政 治 思 想 教 育 political and ideological education 政治系 Department of Political Science 职 工 大 学 college for workers &. Staff

members 职前教育 pre-service education 职业道德 professional ethics 职 业 技 术 教 育 vocational and technical education 职业学校 vocational school 职业中学 vocational middle school 植物(学)系 Department of Botany 中 、 小 学 校 长 headmaster/headmistress; principal 中等技术学校 secondary technical school; technical secondary school 中等教育 secondary education 中 等 专 业 学 校 secondary specialized school; polytechnic school 中文系 Department of Chinese Language and Literature 中学 middle(secondary)school 中医药大学 university of TCM 中 医 院 institute of traditional Chinese medicine 终身教授 Lifetime Professor 重点大学 key university 重点学科 key disciplinary areas or priority fields of study 重点学校 key school 主副修制 a system of a major field of specialization plus a minor field 主修 major 住宿生 boarder 助教 Teaching Assistant (T.A.) 注册人数 enrollment 专门课程 specialized courses 专任教师 full-time teacher 专修科 special (training) course 专业 speciality; major 专业课 specialized course 专职教师 full-time teacher 资料中心 data center

自动化系 Department of Automation 自费生 commoner 自 学 成 才 to become educated through independent study 自学考试 self-taught examination 综合性大学 comprehensive university 总 务 长 Director in Charge of General Affairs 走读生 day student; non-resident student, extern

二十四节气 The 24 Solar Terms: 立春 Spring begins. 雨水 The rains. 惊蛰 Insects awaken. 春分 Vernal Equinox 清明 Clear and bright. 谷雨 Grain rain. 立夏 Summer begins. 小满 Grain buds. 芒种 Grain in ear. 夏至 Summer solstice. 小暑 Slight heat. 大暑 Great heat. 立秋 Autumn begins. 处暑 Stopping the heat. 白露 White dews. 秋分 Autumn Equinox. 寒露 Cold dews. 霜降 Hoar-frost falls. 立冬 Winter begins. 小雪 Light snow. 大雪 Heavy snow. 冬至 Winter Solstice. 小寒 Slight cold. 大寒 Great cold


元旦(1 月 1 日) NEW YEAR'S DAY 成人节(日本,1 月 15 日) ADULTS DAY 情人节(2 月 14 日) ST.VALENTINE'S DAY (VALENTINE'S DAY) 元宵节(阴历 1 月 15 日) LANTERN FESTIVAL 狂欢节 (巴西, 二月中、 下旬) CARNIVAL 桃花节(日本女孩节,3 月 3 日) PEACH FLOWER FESTIVAL (DOLL'S FESTIVAL) 国际妇女节(3 月 8 日) INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY 圣帕特里克节(爱尔兰,3 月 17 日) ST. PATRICK'S DAY 枫糖节(加拿大,3-4 月) MAPLE SUGAR FESTIVAL 愚人节(4 月 1 日) FOOL'S DAY 复活节(春分月圆后第一个星期日) EASTER 宋干节(泰国新年 4 月 13 日) SONGKRAN FESTIVAL DAY 食品节(新加坡,4 月 17 日) FOOD FESTIVAL 国际劳动节(5 月 1 日) INTERNATIONAL LABOUR DAY 男孩节(日本,5 月 5 日) BOY'S DAY 母亲节(5 月的第二个星期日) MOTHER'S DAY 把斋节 BAMADAN 开斋节(4 月或 5 月,回历十月一日) LESSER BAIRAM 银行休假日(英国, 5 月 31 日) BANK HOLIDAY 国际儿童节(6 月 1 日) INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN'S DAY 父亲节(6 月的第三个星期日) FATHER'S DAY 端午节(阴历 5 月 5 日) DRAGON BOAT FESTIVAL

仲夏节(北欧 6 月) MID-SUMMER DAY 古尔邦节(伊斯兰节,7 月下旬) CORBAN 筷子节(日本, 月 4 日) CHOPSTICS DAY 8 中秋节(阴历 8 月 15 日) MOON FESTIVAL 教师节(中国,9 月 10 日) TEACHER'S DAY 敬老节(日本,9 月 15 日) OLD PEOPLE'S DAY 啤酒节(德国十月节,10 月 10 日) OKTOBERFEST 南瓜节(北美 10 月 31 日) PUMPKIN DAY 鬼节(万圣节除夕,10 月 31 日夜) HALLOWEEN 万圣节(11 月 1 日) HALLOWMAS 感恩节(美国,11 月最后一个星期 4) THANKSGIVING 护士节(12 月 12 日) NRUSE DAY 圣诞除夕(12 月 24 日) CHRISTMAS EVE 圣诞节(12 月 25 日) CHRISTMAS DAD 节礼日(12 月 26 日) BOXING DAY 新年除夕(12 月 31 日) NEW YEAR'S EVE(a bank holiday in many countries) 春节(阴历一月一日) SPRING FESTIVAL (CHINESE NEW YEAR) 其它活动节日 世界消费者权益日(3 月 15 日) WORLD CONSUMER RIGHT DAY 世界水日(3 月 22 日) WORLD WATER DAY 世界卫生日(4 月 7 日) WORLD HEALTH DAY 世界地球日(4 月 22 日) WORLD EARTH DAY 世界住房日(十月第一个星期一) WORLD HOUSING DAY 国际秘书节(4 月 25 日)

INTERNATIONAL SECRETARY DAY 国际红十字日(5 月 8 日) INTERNATIONAL RED-CROSS DAY 国际护士节(5 月 12 日) INTERNATIONAL NURSE DAY 世界电信日(5 月 17 日) WORLD TELECOMMUNICATIONS DAY 世界无烟日(5 月 31 日) WORLD NO-SMOKING DAY 世界环境日(6 月 5 日) WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY 世界人口日(7 月 11 日) WORLD POPULATION DAY 世界旅游日(9 月 27 日) WORLD TOURISM DAY 世界邮政日(10 月 9 日) WORLD POST DAY 世界粮食日(10 月 16 日) WORLD GRAIN DAY 世界爱滋病日(12 月 1 日) WORLD AIDS DAY 世界残疾日(12 月 3 日) WORLD DISABLED DAY 世界各国的国庆与独立日 1 月 1 日 古巴解放日 Liberation Day (CUBA) 苏丹独立日 Independence Day (SUDAN) 4 日 缅甸独立日 Independence Day (MYANMAR) 18 日 突尼斯革命日 Revolution Day (TUNIDIA) 26 日 澳大利亚日 Australia Day 印度共和国日 Republic Day (INDIA) 28 日 卢旺达民主日 Democracy Day (RWANDA)

2 月 4 日 斯里兰卡国庆日 National Day (SRILANKA) 5 日 墨西哥宪法日 Constitution Day (MEXICO) 7 日 格林纳达独立日 Independence Day (GRENADA) 11 日 日本建国日 National Founding Day (JAPAN) 伊朗伊斯兰革命胜利日 Anniversary of the Victory of the Islamic Revolution (IRAN) 16 日 美国华盛顿诞辰 Washington's Birthday (USA) 18 日 冈比亚独立日 Independence Day (GAMBIA) 23 日 文莱国庆日 National Day (BRUNEI DARUSSALAM) 圭亚那共和国日 Republic Day (GUIYANA) 25 日 科威特国庆日 National Day (KUWAIT) 3 月 3 日 摩洛哥登基日 Enthronement Day (MOROCCO) 6 日 加纳独立日 Independence Day (CHANA) 12 日 毛里求斯独立日 Independence Day (MAURITHUS) 17 日 爱尔兰国庆日 National Day (IRELAND) 23 日 巴基斯坦日 Pakistan Day 25 日 希腊国庆日 National Day (GREECE) 26 日 孟加拉独立及国庆日 Independence & National Day (BANGLADESH) 31 日 马耳他国庆日 National Day (MALTA)

4 月 4 日 匈牙利国庆日 Liberation Day (HUNGARY) 塞内加尔独立日 Independence Day (SENEGAL) 11 日 乌干达解放日 Liberation Day (UGANDA) 16 日 丹麦女王日 Birthday of Her majesty Queen Margaret Ⅱ (DENMARK) 17 日 叙利亚国庆日 National Day (SYRIA) 18 日 津巴布韦独立日 Independence Day (ZIMBABWE) 19 日 委内瑞拉独立节 Independence Day (Venezuela) 26 日 塞拉里昂共和国日 Republic Day (SIFRRA LEONE) 坦桑尼亚联合日 Union Day (TANZANIA) 27 日 多哥独立日 Independence Day (TOGO) 29 日 日本天皇诞辰 Birthday of His Majesty the Emperor (JAPAN) 30 日 荷兰女王日 Queen's Day (THE NETHERLANDS) 5 月 9 日 捷克与斯洛伐克国庆日 National Day (CZECH & SLOYAKIA) 17 日 挪威宪法日 Constitution Day (NORWAY) 20 日 喀麦隆国庆日 National Day (CAMEROON) 25 日 阿根廷 5 月革命纪念日 May 25,1810 Revolution Day (ARGENTINA) 约旦独立日 Independence Day (JORDAN)

6 月 1 日 突尼斯胜利日 Victory Day (TUNISIA) 西萨摩亚独立日 Independence Day (WESTERN SAMOA) 2 日 意大利共和国日 Foundation of Republic (ITALY) 5 日 丹麦宪法日 Constitution Day (DEMARK) 塞舌尔解放日 Liberation Day (SEYCHELLES) 6 日 瑞典国庆日 National Day (SWEDEN) 7 日 乍得国庆日 National Day (CHAD) 10 日 葡萄牙国庆日 National/Portugal Day (PORTUGAL) 12 日 菲律宾独立日 Independence Day (THE PHILIPPINES) 14 日 英国女王官方生日 Official Birthday of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ (UK) 17 日 冰岛共和国日 Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic (ICELAND) 23 日 卢森堡国庆日 National Day (LUXEMBOURG) 24 日 西班牙国王陛下日 His Majesty the King's Day (SPAIN) 26 日 马达加斯加独立日 Independence Day (MADAGASCAR) 27 日 吉布提独立日 Independence Day (DJIBOUTI) 7 月 1 日 布隆迪国庆日 National Day (BURUNDI) 加拿大日 Canada Day 卢望达独立日 Independence Day (RWANDA) 4 日 美国独立日 Independence Day (USA) 5 日 佛得角独立日 Independence Day

(CAPE VERDE) 委内瑞纳独立日 Independence Day (VENEZUELA) 6 日 科摩罗独立日 Independence Day (COMOROS) 11 日 蒙古人民革命纪念日 Anniversary of the People's Revolution (MONGOLIA) 14 日 法国国庆日 National/Bastille Day (FRANCE) 17 日 伊拉克国庆日 National Day (IRAQ) 20 日 哥伦比亚国庆日 National Day (COLOMBIA) 21 日 比利时国庆日 National Day (BELGIUM) 22 日 法兰国家复兴节 Rebirth of Poland 23 日 埃及国庆日 National Day (EGYPT) 26 日 利比利亚独立日 Independence Day (LIBERIA) 马尔代夫独立日 Independence Day (MALDIVES) 28 日 秘鲁独立日 Independence Day (PERU) 30 日 瓦努阿图独立日 Independence Day (VANUATU) 8 月 1 日 瑞士联邦成立日 Foundation of the Confederation (SWITZERLAND) 4 日 布基纳法索国庆日 National Day (BURKINA-FASO) 5 日 牙买加独立日 Independence Day (JAMAICA) 6 日 玻利维亚独立日 Independence Day (BOLIVIA) 10 日 厄瓜多尔独立日 Independence Day (EQUADOR) 15 日 刚国国庆日 National Day (THE GONGO) 17 日 加蓬独立日 Independence Day

(GABON) 19 日 阿富汗独立日 Independence Day (AFCHANISTAN) 23 日 罗马尼亚国庆日 National Day (ROMANIA) 31 日 马来西亚国庆日 National Day (MALAYSIA) 9月 1 日 利比亚九月革命节 The Great 1st of September Revolution (LIBYA) 2 日 越南国庆日 National Day (VIET NAM) 3 日 圣马力诺国庆日 National Day (SAN MARINO) 7 日 巴西独立日 Independence Day (BRAZIL) 9 日 朝鲜共和国日 Day of the Founding of DPPK 12 日 佛得角国庆日 National Day (CAPE VERDE) 埃塞俄比亚人民革命日 The people's Revolution Day (ETHIOPIA) 16 日 墨西哥独立节 Independence Day (Mexico) 18 日 智利独立日 Independence Day (CHILE) 22 日 马里宣布独立日 Proclamation of Independence (MALI) 30 日 博茨瓦纳独立日 Independence Day (BOTSWANA) 10 月 1 日 塞浦路斯国庆日 National Day (CYPRUS) 尼日利亚国庆日 National Day (NIGERIA) 2 日 几内亚宣布独立日 Proclamation of the Republic (GUINEA)

9 日 乌干达独立日 Independence Day (UGANDA) 10 日 斐济国庆日 National Day (FIJI) 12 日 西班牙国庆日 National Day (SPAIN) 赤道几内牙国庆节 National Day (Equatorial Guinea) 21 日 索马里十月革命节 21st October Revolution (SOMALIA) 24 日 联合国日 UN Day 赞比来独立日 Independence Day (ZAMBIA) 26 日 奥地利国庆日 National Day (AUSTRIA) 28 日 希腊国庆节 National Day (Greece) 29 日 土耳其共和国日 Proclamation of the Republic (TURKEY) 11 月 1 日 阿尔及里亚 11 月革命节 The Revolution Day of 1st November, 1954 (ALGERIA) 11 日 安哥拉独立节 Independence Day (Angola) 15 日 比利时国王日 King's Day (BELGIUM) 18 日 阿曼国庆日 National Day (OMAN) 19 日 摩纳哥国庆节 National Day (Monaco) 22 日 黎巴嫩独立日 Independence Day (LEBANON) 24 日 扎伊尔第二共和国日 Anniversary of the Second Republic (ZAIRE) 28 日 毛里塔尼亚独立日 Independence Day (MARITANIA) 29 日 南斯拉夫共和国日 Republic Day (YUGOSLAVIA)

12 月 1 日 中非国庆日 National Day (CENTRAL AFRICA) 2 日 老挝国庆日 National Day (LAOS) 阿拉伯酋长国国庆日 National Day (UAE) 5 日 泰国国王日 Birthday Anniversary of His Majesty King Adolyadej (THAILAND) 6 日 芬兰独立日 Independence Day (FINLAND) 7 日 象牙海岸国庆日 National Day (IVORY COAST) 12 日 肯尼亚独立日 Independence Day (KENYA) 17 日 不丹国庆节 National Day (Bhutan) 18 日 尼日尔国庆日 National Day (NIGER) 28 日 尼泊尔国王生日 Birthday of H.M. King Birendara

元旦 New Year' s Day Jan.1 国际劳动妇女节 International Working women' s Day (Women's Day) Mar.8 国际劳动节 International Labor Day (May. Day) May.1 中国青年节 Chinese Youth Day May.4 国际儿童节 International Children's Day(Children's Day) June .1 中国共产党诞生纪念日 (党的生日) Anniversary of the Founding of the Chinese Communist Party (the Party' s Birthday) July .1 建军节 Army Day August .1 教师节 Teachers’ Day Sept.1 国庆节 National Day October.1

中国传统节日 春节 the Spring Festival (New Year’s Day of the Chinese lunar calendar) 农历正月初一 元宵节 (灯节)the Lantern Festival 农 历正月十五 清明节 the Qingming Festival 四月五 日前后 端午节 the Dragon-Boat Festival 农历 五月初五 中秋节 the Mid-Autumn Festival(the Moon Festival)农历八月十五 重阳节 the Double-Ninth Day 农历九月初 九 情人节 the Double-Seventh Day 农历七月 初七 中菜的烹调方法 煮 boiling 煲/炖 stewing 烧/焖/烩 braising 煎 frying 炒 stir-frying 爆 quick-frying 炸 deep-frying 扒 frying and simmering 煸 sauteing 煨 simmering 熏 smoking 烤 roasting/barbecuing 烘 baking 蒸 steaming 白灼 scalding

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

18. 19. 20.

三十六计(Thirty-Six Stratagems)
1. 瞒天过海 crossing the sea under camouflage 2. 围魏救赵 relieving the state of Zhao by


besieging the state of Wei 借刀杀人 killing someone with a borrowed knife 以逸待劳 waiting at one’s ease for the exhausted enemy 趁火打劫 plundering a burning house 声东击西 making a feint to the east and attacking in the west 无中生有 creating something out of nothing 暗 渡 陈 仓 advancing secretly by an unknown path 隔岸观火 watching a fire from the other side of the river 笑里藏刀 covering the dagger with a smile 李代桃僵 palming off substitute for the real thing 顺 手 牵 羊 picking up something in passing 打草惊蛇 beating the grass to frighten the snake 借尸还魂 resurrecting a dead soul by borrowing a corpse 调虎离山 luring the tiger out of his den 欲擒故纵 letting the enemy off in order to catch him 抛砖引玉 giving the enemy something to induce him to lose more valuable things 擒贼擒王 capturing the ringleader first in order to capture all the followers 釜底抽薪 extracting the firewood from under the cauldron 混水摸鱼 muddling the water to catch the fish; fishing in troubled waters 金蝉脱壳 slipping away by casting off a cloak; getting away like the cicada sloughing its skin

22. 关门捉贼 catching the thief by closing / blocking his escape route 23. 远交近攻 befriending the distant enemy while attacking a nearby enemy 24. 假 途 伐 虢 attacking the enemy by passing through a common neighbor 25. 偷梁换柱 stealing the beams and pillars and replacing them with rotten timbers 26. 指桑骂槐 reviling/ abusing the locust tree while pointing to the mulberry 27. 假痴不癫 feigning madness without becoming insane 28. 上屋抽梯 removing the ladder after the enemy has climbed up the roof 29. 树上开花 putting artificial flowers on

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

trees 反客为主 turning from the guest into the host 美 人 计 using seductive women to corrupt the enemy 空 城 计 presenting a bold front to conceal unpreparedness 反 间 计 sowing discord among the enemy 苦 肉 计 deceiving the enemy by torturing one’s own man 连环计 coordinating one stratagem with another 走 为 上 decamping being the best; running away as the best choice

汉英口译分类词汇(05)-21 世纪议程 Agenda 21 (the international plan of action adopted by governments in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro Brazil ( 巴西里 约) , — provides the global consensus on the road map towards sustainable development) 世界环境日 World Environment Day (June 5th each year) 世 界 环 境 日 主 题 World Environment Day Themes 环 境 千 年 — 行 动 起 来 吧 ! 2000 ) The ( Environment Millennium - Time to Act! 拯救地球就是拯救未来! (1999) Our Earth Our Future - Just Save It! 为了地球上的生命—拯救我们的海洋! 1998) ( For Life on Earth - Save Our Seas! 为了地球上的生命(1997) For Life on Earth 我们的地球、 居住地、 (1996) Our Earth, 家园 Our Habitat, Our Home 国际生物多样性日 International Biodiversity Day (29 December) 世界水日 World Water Day (22 March)

世 界 气 象 日 World Meteorological Day(23 March) 世界海洋日 World Oceans Day (8 June ) 联合国环境与发展大会(环发大会) United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 环 发 大 会 首 脑 会 议 Summit Session of UNCED 联 合 国 环 境 规 划 署 United Nations Environment Programs (UNEP) 2000 年全球环境展望报告 GEO-2000; Global Environmental Outlook 2000 入选―全球 500 佳奖‖ be elected to the rank of Global 500 Roll of Honor 联合国人类居住中心 UN Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS) 改善人类居住环境最佳范例奖 Best Practices in Human Settlements Improvement 人与生物圈方案 Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme (UNESCO) 中国 21 世纪议程 China’s Agenda 21

中 国 生 物 多 样 性 保 护 行 动 计 划 China Biological Diversity Protection Action Plan 中 国 跨 世 纪 绿 色 工 程 规 划 China Trans-Century Green Project Plan 国 家 环 境 保 护 总 局 State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) 中国环保基本方针 China’s guiding principles for environmental protection 坚持环境保护基本国策 adhere to the basic state policy of environmental protection 推行可持续发展战略 pursue the strategy of sustainable development 贯彻经济建设、城乡建设、环境建设同步规 划、同步实施、同步发展(三同步)的方针 carry out a strategy of synchronized planning, implementation and development in terms of economic and urban and rural development and environmental protection (the ―three synchronizes‖ principle) 促进经济体制和经济增长方式的转变 promote fundamental shifts in the economic system and mode of economic growth 实现经济效益、社会效益和环境效益的统一 bring about harmony of economic returns and contribution to society and environmental protection 中 国 环 保 基 本 政 策 the basic policies of China’s environmental protection 预 防 为 主 、 防 治 结 合 的 政 策 policy of prevention in the first place and integrating prevention with control 污染者负担的政策 ―the-polluters-pay‖ policy 强化环境管理的政策 policy of tightening up environmental management 一控双达标政策 policy of ―One Order, Two Goals‖: ―一控‖:12 种工业污染物的排放量控 制在国家规定的排放总量 The total discharge of 12 industrial pollutants in China by the end of 2000 shall not exceed the total amount

mandated by the central government.; ―双达 标‖: 1. 到 2000 年底,全国所有的工业污染 源要达到国家或地方规定的污染物排放标准 The discharge of industrial pollutants should meet both national and local standards by the end of 2000. 2. 到 2000 年底,47 个重点城市 的空气和地面水达到国家规定的环境质量标 准 2. Air and surface water quality in all urban districts in 47 major cities should meet related national standards by the end of 2000. 对 新 项 目 实 行 环 境 影 响 评 估 conduct environmental impact assessments (EIA) on start-up projects 提 高 全 民 环 保 意 识 raise environmental awareness amongst the general public 查处违反环保法规案件 investigate and punish acts of violating laws and regulations on environmental protection 环保执法检查 environmental protection law enforcement inspection 限 期 治 理 undertake treatment within a prescribed limit of time 中 国 已 加 入 的 国 际 公 约 international conventions into which China has accessed 控制危险废物越境转移及其处置的巴塞尔公 约 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal 关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 生 物 多 样 性 公 约 Convention on Biological Diversity 防治荒漠化国际公约 Convention to Combat Desertification 气候变化框架公约 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 生 态 示 范 区 eco-demonstration region; environment-friendly region

国 家 级 生 态 示 范 区 ( 珠 海 ) Nationally Designated Eco-Demonstration Region 国 家 级 园 林 城 市 Nationally Designated Garden City 对 水 质 和 空 气 质 量 的 影 响 impact on the quality of the water and the air 治理环境污染 curb environmental pollution; bring the pollution under control 海藻 mostly in polluted waters) 工业固体废物 industrial solid wastes 白 色 污 染 white pollution (by using and littering of non-degradable white plastics) 可 降 解 一 次 性 塑 料 袋 throwaway bio-degradable plastic bags 放射性废料积存 accumulation of radioactive waste 有机污染物 organic pollutants 氰化物、 砷、 汞排放 cyanide, arsenic, mercury discharged 铅 、镉 、六 价铬 lead, cadmium, sexivalent chromium 城市垃圾无害化处理率 decontamination rate of urban refuse 降低资源消耗率 slow down the rate of resource degradation 开 发 可 再 生 资 源 develop renewable resources 环保产品 environment-friendly products 自然保护区 nature reserve 野生动植物 wild fauna and flora 保护生存环境 conserve natural habitats 濒危野生动物 endangered wildlife 珍 稀 濒 危 物 种 繁 育 基 地 rare and endangered species breeding center 自然生态系统 natural ecosystems 防止沙漠化(治沙、抗沙) desertification 环境负荷 carrying capacity of environment 三废综合利用 multipurpose use of three types of wastes

垃圾填埋场 refuse landfill 垃圾焚化厂 refuse incinerator 防 止 过 度 利 用 森 林 protect forests from overexploitation 森林砍伐率 rate of deforestation 水土流失 water and soil erosion 土壤盐碱化 soil alkalization 农药残留 pesticide residue 水土保持 conservation of water and soil 生 态 农 业 environment-friendly agriculture; eco-agriculture 水 资 源 保 护 区 water resource conservation zone 海水淡化 sea water desalinization 保护珊瑚礁、红树林和渔业资源 protect coral reefs, mangrove and fishing resource 绿化祖国 turn the country green 全民义务植树日 National Tree-Planting Day 造林工程 afforestation project 绿化面积 afforested areas; greening space 森林覆盖率 forest coverage 防风林 wind breaks (防沙林 sand breaks) 速生林 fast-growing trees 先天与后天,遗传与环境 nature-nurture 美 化 环 境 landscaping design for environmental purposes 防 止 沿 海 地 带 不 可 逆 转 恶 化 protect coastal zones from irreversible degradation 环境恶化 environmental degradation 城市化失控 uncontrolled urbanization 温饱型农业 subsistence agriculture 贫困的恶性循环 vicious cycle of poverty 大 气 监 测 系 统 atmospheric monitoring system 空气污染浓度 air pollution concentration 酸 雨 、 越 境 空 气 污 染 acid rain and transboundary air pollution 二 氧 化 硫 排 放 sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions

悬浮颗粒物 suspended particles 工业粉尘排放 industrial dust discharged 烟尘排放 soot emissions 二氧化氮 nitrate dioxide (NO2) 矿物燃料 (煤、 石油、 天然气) fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas 清洁能源 clean energy 汽车尾气排放 motor vehicle exhaust 尾气净化器 exhaust purifier 无铅汽油 lead-free gasoline 天然气汽车 gas-fueled vehicles 电动汽车 cell-driven vehicles; battery cars 氯氟烃 CFCs 温室效应 greenhouse effect 厄尔尼诺南徊 ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) 噪音 noise (分贝 db; decibel) 化学需氧量(衡量水污染程度的一个指 标) COD;chemical oxygen demand 生 物 需 氧 量 BOD; biological oxygen demand 工 业 废 水 处 理 率 treatment rate of industrial effluents 城 市 污 水 处 理 率 treatment rate of domestic sewage 集中处理厂 centralized treatment plant 红潮 red tide (rapid propagation of sea algae


1、气候种类 山地气候 mountain climate 恒风 constant wind 微风 breeze 冬季季风气候 winter monsoon climate 逆风 headwind 台风 typhoon 季风气候 monsoon climate 高气压 high-pressure 锋面 frontal edge 亚热带气候 sub-tropical climate 气团 air mass 热浪 heat wave 高原气候 plateau climate 闪电 lightning 雾 fog 海滨气候 littoral climate 凉 cool 霜 frost 极地气候 polar climate 雪堆 snowdrift 露 dew 热带气候 tropical climate 寒冷 chilly 3、风的名称 温带沙漠气候 temperate desert climate 间歇雨 intermittent rain 无风 calm 温带干燥气候 temperate arid climate 大雨 heavy rain 轻风 light breeze 热带季风气候 tropical monsson climate 信风 trade wind 微风 gentle breeze 大陆气候 continental climate 天气预报 weather forecast 和风 moderate breeze 沙漠气候 desert climate 甘霖 welcome rain 清风 fresh breeze 沿海气候 coastal climate 冰柱 icicle 强风 strong breeze 高地气候 highland climate 西北风 northwester 疾风 near gale 海洋气候 marine climate 地形雨 local rains 大风 gale 森林气候 forest climate 狂风 squall 烈风 strong gale 温带气候 temperate climate 雨季 rainy season 狂风 storm 湿润气候 humid climate 雨点 raindrops 暴风 violent storm 温带草原气候 temperate grassy climate 东北信风 northeast trades 飓风 hurricane 热带雨林气候 tropical rainy climate 东南风 southeaster 台风 typhoon 热带海洋气候 tropical marine climate 风级 wind scale 龙卷风 tornado 2、气象用语 虹 rainbow 4、浪的名称 小雨 light rain 阵雨 shower 平静 calm 毛毛雨 drizzle,fine rain 疾风 gusty wind 微波 rippled 反常天气 freakish weather 气旋 cyclone 微浪 smooth wavelets 北风 north wind 气压 barometric pressure 细浪 light seas 冰 ice 阴天 cloudy day 小浪 moderate seas 冰点 freezing point 雪花 snow flake 中浪 rough seas 西南风 southwester 晴 clear 大浪 very rough seas 冷峰 cold front 顺风 favorable wind 强浪 high seas 低气压 low-pressure 闷热天气 muggy weather 巨浪 very high seas

雨量 rainfall 雹 hail 狂浪 monster waves 东北风 northeaster 雷 thunder 5、自然灾害 东风 east wind 滂沱大雨 downpour 火山地震 volcanic earthquake 炎热 scorching heat 暖锋 warm front 海啸 tidal wave 风眼 eye of a storm 零度 zero 山崩 landslide 零度以下 subzero

机关机构词汇 汉英口译分类词汇(06)-一、部属机构属译名(以化学工业为例) 化学工业部 Ministry of Chemical Industry 办公厅 General Office 计划司 Planning Department 外事司 Foreign Affairs Department 人事司 Personnel Department 化工新材料局 New Chemical Material Department 化工司 Chemical Department 橡胶司 Rubber Department 炼化司 Department of Refining and Chemicals 矿山司 Chemical Mines Bureau 化工规划院 Chemical Planning Institute 设备总公司 Equipment General Corporation 基建局 Capital Construction Department 教育司 Education Department 化肥司 Chemical Fertilizer Department 供销局 Department of Supply and Sales 二、市属机械译名(以北京市为例) 北京市人大常委会 Standing Committee of Beijing Municipal People's Congress 中国共产党北京市委员会 Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC 中国人民政治协商会议北京市委员会 Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPPCC 北京市人民政府 Beijing Municipal People's Government 高级人民法院 High People's Court 人民检察院 People's Procuratorate 外事办公室 Foreign Affairs Office 侨务办公室 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office 财贸办公室 Office of Finance and Trade 文教办公室 Office of Culture and Education 计划委员会 Planning Committee 经济委员会 Economic Committee 城乡建设委员会 Committee of Municipal and Rural Construction 科学技术委员会 Committee of Science and Technology 城市规划委员会 Committee of Municipal Design 对外经贸委员会 Committee of Economic Trade for Foreign Countries 市政管理委员会 Municipal Administration Committee 民族委员会 Nationalities Committee 体育委员会 Physical Culture and Sports Committee 计划生育委员会 Family Planning Committee

人事局 Personnel Bureau 科技干部管理局 Bureau of Scientific and Technical Personnel 老干部局 Bureau of Retired Veteran Cadres 统计局 Statistical Bureau 物价局 Bureau of Commodity Price 工商行政管理局 Administration Bureau for Industry and Commerce 商品检验局 Bureau for Inspection of Commodities 审计局 Auditing Bureau 财政局 Finance Bureau 税务局 Tax Bureau 劳动局 Labor Bureau 档案局 Archives Bureau 物资管理局 Bureau of Materials 标准计量局 Bureau of Standard Measurement 公用局 Bureau if Public Utilities 广播电视局 Bureau of Radio and Television 教育委员会 Education Committee 文化局 Bureau of Culture 文物事业管理局 Bureau of Cultural Relics 卫生局 Health Bureau 乡镇企业管理局 Bureau if Township Enterprise Management 地质矿产局 Bureau of Geology and mineral Resources 农业局 Agricultural Bureau 林业局 Forestry Bureau 水产局 Bureau of Aquatic Products 气象局 Meteorological Bureau 水资源管理局 Control Bureau of Water Resources 园林局 Bureau of Parks and Woods 环境保护局 Bureau for Environmental Protection

环境卫生管理局 Bureau for Environmental Health 商业委员会 Commerce Committee 粮食局 Food Bureau 房地产管理局 Real Estate Bureau 城市规划管理局 Bureau for Municipal Design 机械设备成套局 Bureau for Complete Plants of Machinery and Equipment 公安局 Public Security Bureau 安全局 Security Bureau 司法局 Justice Bureau 民政局 Bureau of Civil Affairs 劳改工作管理局 Bureau of Reform-through-Labor Work 旅游局 Travel Bureau/Tourism Administration 铁路局 Railways Bureau 邮政局 Post Bureau 电信局 Telecommunications Bureau 北京民航管理局 Beijing Bureau of Civil Aviation 北京海关 Beijing Customs 外交人员服务局 Service Bureau for Foreign Officials 首都钢铁公司 Capital Iron and Steel Company 燕山石化总公司 Yanshan Petro-Chemical Industry Corporation 三、企业 半导体器械厂 Semi-Conductor Apparatus Plant 包装材料厂 Packaging Materials Plant 保温瓶厂 Thermos Flask Factory 炼钢厂 Steel Works 被单厂 Bed sheet Factory 变压器厂 Transformer factory 玻璃制品厂 Glassware Factory

茶厂 Tea Processing Factory 柴油机厂 Diesel Engine Plant 车辆制造厂 Railway Car Plant 船舶修造厂 Ship Repair Yard 灯具厂 Lighting Equipment Factory 低压开关厂 Low-Voltage Switch Factory 汽车制造厂 Automobile Works 发电厂 Power Plant 电动工具厂 Electric Tool Works 电机厂 Electrical Machinery Plant 电讯器材厂 Telecommunication Apparatus Factory 电子管厂 Electronic Tube Factory 电子设备厂 Electronic Equipment Factory 铸造厂 Foundry Works 纺织机械厂 Textile Machinery Plant 服装厂 Garment Factory 皮革制品厂 Leather Goods Factory 罐头食品厂 Canned Food Plant 光学仪器厂 Optical Instrument Factory 广播器材厂 Broadcasting Equipment Factory 锅炉厂 Boiler Factory 化肥厂 Chemical Fertilizer Plant 化工厂 Chemical Works 化学纤维厂 Chemical Fiber Plant 化妆品厂 Cosmetics Plant 机床厂 Machine Tools Plant 机械修理厂 Machine Repair Plant 建筑机械厂 Construction Machinery Plant 金属工艺制品厂 Metal Handicraft Plant 晶体管厂 Transistor Factory 绝缘材料厂 Insulating Materials Plant 民族乐器厂 Folk Music Instrument Factory 炼油厂 Oil Refinery 粮油加工厂 Grain and Cooking Oil Processing Factory 毛纺织厂 Woolen Mill

木材厂 Timber Mill 家具厂 Furniture Factory 农药厂 Insecticide Factory 啤酒厂 Beer Brewery 汽车修配厂 Motor-Car Repair and Assembly Plant 人造纤维厂 Artificial Fiber Plant 乳品加工厂 Milk Processing Plant 石油化工机械厂 Petro-Chemical Machinery Plant 水泥厂 Cement Plant 塑料厂 Plastics Plant 搪瓷厂 Enamel Plant 陶瓷厂 Pottery and porcelain Factory 通用机械厂 General Machinery Plant 玩具厂 Toy Factory 无线电器材厂 Radio Appliances Factory 五金厂 Hardware Factory 橡胶厂 Rubber Plant 制药厂 Pharmaceutical Factory 羊毛衫厂 Woolen Sweater Mill 针织厂 Knitwear Mill 冶炼厂 Metallurgical Plant 医疗器械厂 Medical Apparatus Factory 仪表厂 Instrument and Meters Factory 饮料厂 Soft Drinks Plant 印染厂 Printing and Dyeing Mill 油漆厂 Paint Factory 有机化工厂 Organic Chemical Plant 造纸机械厂 Paper Making Machinery Plant 造船厂 Shipbuilding Plant 自行车厂 Bicycle Plant 四、公司、企业集团 家用电器有限公司 Household Electrical Appliance Co., Ltd. 技贸公司 Technology and Trade Co., Ltd. 钢铁公司 Iron and Steel Company

保安服务公司 Security Service Company 针织有限公司 Knitting Company Ltd. 实业集团公司 Industrial Group Corporation 国际租赁公司 International Leasing Company 电子技术开发公司 Electronic Technology Development Co. 毛纺织有限公司 Woolen Textile Co., Ltd. 系统工程有限公司 System Engineering Corporation 计算机集团公司 Computer Group Co. 时装有限公司 Fashion Company Ltd. 广告公司 Advertising Company 科学技术开发公司 Science and Technical Development Company 水产品有限公司 Aquatic Product Company Ltd. 旅游公司 Travel Corporation 服装公司 Garment Company Ltd. 国际广告展览有限公司 International Advertising and Exposition Co., Ltd. 电冰箱厂有限公司 Refrigerator Factory Co., Ltd. 电风扇工业公司 Electric Fan Industry Company 电话技术开发服务公司 Telephonic Technology Development Service Co. 电力机械制造公司 Electrical Machinery Manufacturing Company 电信发展公司 Telecommunications Development Co. 电子器材公司 Electronic Equipment & Materials Corporation 建筑工程 Construction Project Consulting 咨询公司 Corporation 科学仪器 Scientific Instrument Import and 进出口公司 Export Co. 仪器设备公司 Instrument and Equipment

Company 汽车企业集团 Automobile Enterprise Group 技术开发咨询公司 Technical Development and Consultancy Co. 对外服务公司 Foreign Service Company 对外经济发展公司 Foreign Economic Development Company 纺织企业集团 Textile Enterprise Group 对外贸易公司 Foreign Trade Company 贸易有限公司 Trading Company Ltd. 国际投资有限公司 International Investment Company 塑料制品有限公司 Plastic Products Co., Ltd. 工艺美术品公司 Arts and Crafts Corporation 国际经济技术合作公司 International Economic & Technological Consulting Corporation 国际经济开发公司 International Economic Development Corporation 国际科技咨询公司 International Scientific and Technological Consulting Corporation 国际贸易展览公司 International Trade Exhibition Company 国际商业服务公司 International Commercial Service Company 国际信息处理有限公司 International Information Processing Co., Ltd. 国际经济合作公司 International Economic Cooperation Corporation 国际工程集团 International Engineering Group Corporation 制衣实业公司 Garments Industrial Company 化工工程咨询公司 Chemical Engineering Consulting Corporation 计算机技术 Computer Technology Service

服务公司 Corporation 工程承包有限公司 Project Contracting Co., Ltd. 建筑设计合资公司 Building Design Joint Venture Corporation 交通进出口 Communications Import & Export 服务公司 Service Company 饭店集团服务公司 Hotel Group, Ltd. 饮料有限公司 Beverage Company Limited 建筑工程公司 Construction Engineering Co. 陶瓷企业集团 Porcelain Industry Complex 饲料技术开发集团 Feed Technological Development Group 能源开发公司 Energy Development Corporation 民办交通信息中心 Non-Governmental Transport Information Center 国货有限公司 China Products Company Ltd. 气象服务公司 Meteorological Service Company 农资公司 Agricultural Materials Company 化纤工业集团公司 Chemical Fiber Industry Group 房产投资有限公司 Realty & Investment Company 房地产开发公司 Real Estate Development Company 国际集装箱有限公司 International Container Co., Ltd. 证券公司 Securities Company 塑料皮革工业公司 Plastics and Leather Industrial Company 讨债公司 Debt Collecting Company 新型建筑材料供应公司 New Building Materials Supply Company

五、金融、保险机构 中国人民银行 People's Bank of China 中国人民建设银行 People's Construction Bank of China 中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China 中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China 中国银行 Bank of China 交通银行 Bank of Communications 中国投资银行 China Investment Bank 中信实业银行 CITIC Industrial Bank 中国光大银行 Everbright Bank of China 厦门国际银行 Xiamen International Bank 广东发展银行 Guangdong Development Bank 浦东发展银行 Pudong Development Bank 中国国际信托投资公司 China International Trust & Investment Corporation 中国人民保险公司 People's Insurance Company of China 平安保险公司 Ping An Insurance Company 中国人寿保险公司 China Life Insurance Company Ltd. 六、商店 书店 books store 粮店 grain store 食品点 food store 煤店 coal store 食品杂货(副食品)店 grocery 酱园 sauce and pickles shop 肉店 meat (butcher's) shop 酒店 wine shop 水产店 aquatic products shop 家禽店 fowl shop 豆腐店 bean curd shop 烤肉店 roast meat shop

卤味店 sauced meat shop 饮食店 food and drink shop 小吃店 eating house (snack bar) 饭店 restaurant 冷饮店 cold drinks shop 蔬菜店水果店 green grocery (green grocer's) 蔬菜店 vegetables shop 鞋帽店 shoes and hats store 百货公司 department store 百货商场 general merchandise market 服装店 clothing store 成衣店 ready-made clothes shop 呢绒绸布店 wool, silk and cotton fabrics store 药店(美:杂货店) drug store (pharmacy) 儿童用品商店 children's goods shop 妇女用品商店 women's goods shop 钟表店 watch and clock ship 文具店 stationer's (stationery shop) 日用杂货店 daily-use sundry goods shop 炊事用具商店 cooking utensils shop 家用器具商店 household utensils shop 五金商店 metal products shop 家具店 furniture shop 眼镜店 eyeglasses store 玻璃礼品店 glass gifts store 爆竹鞭炮店 fireworks shop 电器商店 electrical appliance shop 油漆店 paint shop 化工油漆染料店 chemicals, paint and dyestuffs shop 地产建材商店 native building materials store 照相馆(摄影室) photographic studio (photographer's) 旧货店 second-hand goods store (used goods store) 寄卖商店 commission shop

综合修理店 general repair shop (service) 工艺美术服务社 arts and crafts shop 花店 flower shop 古玩珠宝店 antiques and jewelry shop 香烟店(摊) cigarette shop (stall) 售报亭 newspaper and magazine stand 茶馆 tea house 理发店 barber's shop (hairdresser's) 洗澡堂 bath house 旅店/旅馆 inn/ hotel 邮局 post office 七、中国人民团体 People’s Organizations of China 测绘学会 Society of Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography 地震学会 Seismological Society 国际金融学会 International Finance Society 国际战略问题学会 Institute for International Strategic Studies 海洋学会 Society of Oceanography 科普学会 Popular Science Society 全国少年儿童文化艺术委员会 National Council on Cultural and Art Work for Children 全国少年儿童工作协调委员会 National Children’s Work Coordination Committee 全国史学会 China Society of History 宋庆龄基金会(上海) Song Ching Ling Foundation (Shanghai) 中国奥林匹克委员会 Chinese Olympic Committee 中国笔会中心 Chinese Pen Center 中国标准化协会 China Association for Standardization 中国残疾人福利基金会 China Welfare Fund for the Handicapped 中国出版协会 Chinese Publishers

Association 中国道教协会 Chinese Taoist Association 中国电视艺术家协会 Chinese Television Artists Association 中国电影家协会 China Film Association 中国法律质询中心 Chinese Legal Consultancy Center 中国法律会 China Law Society 中国翻译工作者协会 Translators Association of China 中国佛教协会 Chinese Buddhists Association 中国福利会 China Welfare Institute 中国歌剧研究会 Chinese Opera Research Institute 中国共产主义青年团 Communist Youth League of China 中国国际法学会 Chinese Society of International Law 中国国际交流协会 Association for International Understanding of China 中国红十字会总会 Red Cross Society of China 中国会计学会 China Accounting Society 中国基督教“三自”爱国运动委员会 Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee of the Protestant Churches of China 中国基督教协会 China Christian Council 中国计量测试学会 Chinese Society for Measurement 中国金融学会 Chinese Monetary Society 中国考古协会 Archaeological Society of China 中国科学技术史学会 Chinese Society of Science and Technology History 中国科学技术协会 China Society and Technology Association 中国联合国教科文组织全国委员会 National Commission of The People’s

Republic of China for UNESCO 中国联合国协会 United Nations Association of the People’s Republic of China 中国美术家协会 Chinese Artists Association 中国民间文艺家协会 China Society for the Study of Folk Literature and Art 中国企业管理协会 China Enterprise Management Association 中国曲艺家协会 Chinese Ballad Singers Association 中国人民保卫儿童基金会 Chinese People’s National Committee for Defense of Children 中国人民对外友好协会 Chinese People’ s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries 中国少年儿童基金会 Children’s Foundation of China 中国少年先锋队 China Young Pioneers 中国摄影家协会 Chinese Photographers Society 中国书法家协会 Chinese Calligraphers Association 中国天主教爱国会 Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association 中国天主教教务委员会 National Administrative Commission of the Chinese Catholic Church 中国天主教主教团 Chinese Catholic Bishops College 中国文学艺术界联合会 China Federation of Literary and Art Circles 中国舞蹈家协会 Chinese Dancers Association 中国戏剧家协会 Chinese Dramatists Association 中国伊斯兰教协会 Chinese Islamic

Association 中国音乐家协会 Chinese Musicians Association 中国杂技艺术家协会 Chinese Acrobats Association 中国政法学会 China Society of Political Science and Law 中国作家协会 Chinese Writers Association 中化全国妇女联合会 All-China Women’s Federation 中华全国工商联合会 All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce 中华全国归国华侨联合会 All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese 中华全国青年联合会 All-China Youth Federation 中华全国世界语联合会 All-China Esperanto League 中华全国台湾同胞联谊会 All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots 中华全国体育总会 All-China Sports Federation 中华全国新闻工作者协会 All-China Journalists’ Association 中华全国总工会 All-China Federation of Trade Unions 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association 八、国家机关 China's State Organs 1. 全国人民代表大会 National People's Congress (NPC) 主席团 Presidium 常务委员会 Standing Committee 办公厅 General Office 秘书处 Secretariat 代表资格审查委员会 Credentials Committee 提案审查委员会 Motions Examination Committee

民族委员会 Ethnic Affairs Committee 法律委员会 Law Committee 财政经济委员会 Finance and Economy Committee 外事委员会 Foreign Affairs Committee 教育、 科学、 文化和卫生委员会 Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee 内务司法委员会 Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs 华侨委员会 Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee 法制工作委员会 Commission of Legislative Affairs 特定问题调查委员会 Commission of Inquiry into Specific Questions 宪法修改委员会 Committee for Revision of the Constitution 2.中华人民共和国主席 [President of the People's Republic of China] 3. 中央军事委员会 [Central Military Commission] 4. 最高人民法院 [Supreme People's Court] 5. 最高人民检察院 [Supreme People's Procuratorate] 6. 国务院 [State Council] (1)国务院部委 Ministries and Commissions Directly under the State Council 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 国防部 Ministry of National Defence 国家发展计划委员会 State Development Planning Commission 国家经济贸易委员会 State Economic and Trade Commission 教育部 Ministry of Education 科学技术部 Ministry of Science and Technology

国防科学技术工业委员会 Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National De-fence 国家民族事物委员会 State Ethnic Affairs Commission 公安部 Ministry of Public Security 国家安全部 Ministry of State Security 监察部 Ministry of Supervision 民政部 Ministry of Civil Affairs 司法部 Ministry of Justice 财政部 Ministry of Finance 人事部 Ministry of Personnel 劳动和社会保障部 Ministry of Labour and Social Security 国土资源部 Ministry of Land and Resources 建设部 Ministry of Construction 铁道部 Ministry of Railways 交通部 Ministry of Communications 信息产业部 Ministry of Information Industry 水利部 Ministry of Water Resources 农业部 Ministry of Agriculture 对外贸易经济合作部 Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation 文化部 Ministry of Culture 卫生部 Ministry of Public Health 国家计划生育委员会 State Family Planning Commission 中国人民银行 People's Bank of China 国家审计署 State Auditing Administration (2)国务院办事机构 Offices under the State Council 国务院办公厅 General Office of the State Council

侨务办公室 Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs 港澳台办公室 Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office 台湾事务办公室 Taiwan Affairs Office 法制办公室 Office of Legislative Affairs 经济体制改革办公室 Office for Economic Restructuring 国务院研究室 Research Office of the State Council 新闻办公室 Information Office 公司部门的英文标识名称 总公司 Head Office 分公司 Branch Office 营业部 Business Office 人事部 Personnel Department 人力资源部 Human Resources Department 总务部 General Affairs Department 财务部 General Accounting Department 销售部 Sales Department 促销部 Sales Promotion Department 国际部 International Department 出口部 Export Department 进口部 Import Department 公共关系 Public Relations Department 广告部 Advertising Department 企划部 Planning Department 产品开发部 Product Development Department 研发部 Research and Development Department (R&D) 秘书室 Secretarial Pool

汉英口译分类词汇(07)-(补贴协议)可诉补贴 Actionable subsidy


Integration process (服务贸易)境外消费 Consumption abroad (服务贸易) 跨境交付 Cross border supply (服务贸易)商业存在 Commercial presence (服务贸易)自然人 natural person (服务贸易)自然人流动 Presence of natural person (解决争端)被诉方 Defendant (解决争端)调查结果 Findings (解决争端)上诉 Appeal (解决争端)申诉方 Complaint (利益的)丧失和减损 Nullification and impairment (农产品)国内支持 Domestic support (农产品)综合支持量 AMS (Aggregate Measurement of Support) (农产品国内支持)黄箱措施 Amber Box measures (农产品国内支持)蓝箱措施 BOP(Balance-of-payments) Provisions (农产品国内支持)绿箱措施 Green Box measures (农业)多功能性 Multifunctionality (欧盟)共同农业政策 Common Agriculture Policy (争端解决)专家组 Panel (知识产权)地理标识 Geographical indications 《巴黎公约》 (关于保护工业知识产权的公 约)Paris Convention 《巴塞尔公约》 (有关危险废弃物的多边 环境协定)Basel Convention 《北美自由贸易协定》NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 《濒危物种国际贸易公约》Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 《伯尔尼公约》 (有关保护文学和艺术作

品版权的公约)Berne Convention 《多种纤维协定》MFA (Multifibre Agreement) 《纺织品与服装协议》 ATC (Agreement on Textiles and Clothing) 《服务贸易总协定》GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 《关于争端解决规则与程序的谅解》 DSU(Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes) 《京都议定书》 Kyoto Protocol 《里斯本条约》 (有关地理标识及其国际 注册)Lisbon Agreement 《蒙特利尔议定书》 (有关保护大气臭氧层 的多边环境协定)Montreal Protocol 《农产品协议》特殊保障 SSG (Special Safeguard) 《农业协议》中关于反补贴的和平条款 Peace clause 《生物多样性公约》CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity) 《信息技术协议》ITA (Information Technology Agreement) WTO 最不发达国家高级别会议 HLM (WTO High-level Meeting for LDCs) 北美自由贸易区 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) 采取措施后 Ex post 采取措施前 Ex ante 产品生命周期分析 LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) 出口补贴 Export subsidy 出口实绩 Export performance 垂直兼并 vertical merger 当地含量 Local content 电子商务 Electronic Commerce 东部和南部非洲共同市场 COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern

Africa) 东盟自由贸易区 ASEAN Free Trade Area 动植物卫生检疫措施 SPS (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard ) 反补贴税 Countervailing duty 反倾销措施 anti-dumping measures against? 反向通知 Counter-notification 非配额产品 quota-free products 非生产性投资 investment in non-productive projects 非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家集团(洛美协 定)ACP(African, Caribbean and Pacific Group) 风险管理/评估 risk management/ assessment 关贸总协定,世界贸易组织的前身 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 规避 Circumvention 国际标准化组织 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 国际纺织品服装局 ITCB (International Textile and Clothing Bureau) 国际货币基金组织 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 国际劳工组织 ILO (International Labor Organization) 国际贸易中心 ITC (International Trade Center) 国际贸易组织 ITO (International Trade Organization) 国际贸易组织临时委员会 ICITO (Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization) 国际清算 international settlement 国际收支 balance of international payments/ balance of payment 国际收支条款 BOP(Balance-of-payments) Provisions

国际兽疫组织 International Office of Epizootics 国民待遇 National treatment 国内补贴 Domestic subsidy 国内生产 Domestic production 海关估价 Customs valuation 海关完税价值 Customs value 横向兼并 horizontal merger 环保型技术 EST(Environmentally-sound technology) 灰色区域措施 Grey area measures 货币留成制度 Currency retention scheme 货币贸易理事会 CTG(Council for Trade in Goods) 基础税率 Base tariff level 既定日程 Built-in agenda 交叉报复 Cross retaliation 进口差价税 Import variable duties 进口附加税 Import surcharge 进口环节税 import linkage tax 进口渗透 Import penetration 进口替代 Import substitution 进口许可 Import licensing 进口押金 Import deposits 经济合作与发展组织 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 垃圾融资 junk financing 联合国环境署 UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) 联合国开发计划署 UNDP (United Nations Development Program) 联合国粮农组织 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States) 联合国贸易与发展会议 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) 粮食安全 Food security

慢性萧条 chronic depression 贸易和投资自由化和便利化 TILF (Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation) 贸易与发展委员会 Committee on Trade and Development 贸易与环境委员会 Committee on Trade and Environment 模式 Modalities 南方共同市场(或称南锥体共同市场) MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market) 南亚区域合作联盟 SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional cooperation) 欧洲自由贸易联盟 EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 配额调整条款 modulation of quota clause 瓶颈制约 'bottleneck' restrictions 全球配额 global quota 上诉机构 Appeal body 申报制度 reporting system; income declaration system 生产补贴 Production subsidy 实行国民待遇 grant the national treatment to 实质损害 Material injury 食品法典委员会 CAC(Codex Alimentaries Commission) 世界海关组织 WCO (World Customs Organization) 世界贸易组织 WTO (World Trade Organization) 世界知识产权组织 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 市场准人的行政管理措施 AAMA (Administrative Aspects of Market Access) 市场准入 Market access 通知义务 Notification obligation 同类产品 Like product 乌拉圭回合 Uruguay Round

消费膨胀 inflated consumption 协调制度 (商品名称及编码协调制度) HS (Harmonized Commodity and Coding System) 新议题 New issues 许可费 License fee 有秩序的市场安排 Orderly market arrangements 约束水平 Bound level 争端解决机构 Dispute Settlement Body 政府采购 Government procurement 知识产权 IPRs (Intellectual property rights) 直接支付 Direct payment 诸边协议 Plurilateral agreement 专门的营销机构 Market boards 转基因生物 GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) 祖父条款 grandfather clause 最不发达国家 LDCs (Least-developed countries) 最初谈判权(初谈权) INRs (Initial Negotiating Rights) 最惠国待遇(现通常称'正常贸易关系') MFN(most-favored-nation) treatment 最惠国贸易地位(待遇)MFN (Most-favored-nation)(Treatment)

WTO 术语英文解释
General GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which has been superseded as an international organization by the WTO. An updated General Agreement is now one of the WTO’s agreements. GATT 1947 — The old (pre-1994) version of the GATT. GATT 1994 — The new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, which governs trade in goods. Members — WTO governments (first letter capitalized, in WTO style). MFN — Most-favoured-nation treatment (GATT Article I, GATS Article II and TRIPS Article 4), the principle of not discriminating between one’s trading partners.national treatment — The principle of giving others the same treatment as one’s own nationals. GATT Article III requires that imports be treated no less favourably than the same or similar domestically-produced goods once they have passed customs. GATS Article XVII and TRIPS Article 3 also deal with national treatment for services and intellectual property protection. TPRB, TPRM — The Trade Policy Review Body is General Council operating under special procedures for meetings to review trade policies and practices of individual WTO members under the Trade

April 1994.

Tariffs binding, bound — see ―tariff binding‖ electronic commerce — The production, advertising, sale and distribution of products via telecommunications networks. free-rider — A casual term used to infer that a country which does not make any trade concessions, profits, nonetheless, from tariff cuts and concessions made by other countries in negotiations under the most-favoured-nation principle. Harmonized System — An international nomenclature developed by the World Customs Organization, which is arranged in six digit codes allowing all participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis. Beyond the six digit level, countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariffs and many other purposes. ITA — Information Technology Agreement, or formally the Ministerial-Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products, under which participants will remove tariffs on IT products by the year 2000. ITA II — Negotiations aimed at expanding ITA’s product coverage. nuisance tariff — Tariff so low that it costs the government more to collect it than the revenue it generates. schedule of concessions — List of bound tariff

Policy Review Mechanism. transparency — Degree to which trade policies and practices, and the process by which they are established, are open and predictable. Uruguay Round — Multilateral trade negotiations launched at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Geneva in December 1993. Signed by Ministers in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 5

rates. tariff binding — Commitment not to increase a rate of duty beyond an agreed level. Once a rate of duty is bound, it may not be raised without compensating the affected parties. tariff escalation — Higher import duties on semi-processed products than on raw materials, and higher still on finished products. This practice

protects domestic processing industries and discourages the development of processing activity in the countries where raw materials originate. tariff peaks — Relatively high tariffs, usually on ―sensitive‖ products, amidst generally low tariff levels. For industrialized countries, tariffs of 15% and above are generally recognized as “tariff peaks‖. tariffs — Customs duties on merchandise imports. Levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kgs.). Tariffs give price advantage to similar locally-produced goods and raise revenues for the government. WCO — World Customs Organization, a multilateral body located in Brussels through which participating countries seek to simplify and rationalize customs procedures.

prohibitions, etc. price undertaking — Undertaking by an exporter to raise the export price of the product to avoid the possibility of an anti-dumping duty. PSI — Preshipment inspection — the practice of employing specialized private companies to check shipment details of goods ordered overseas — i.e. price, quantity, quality, etc. QRs — Quantitative restrictions — specific limits on the quantity or value of goods that can be imported (or exported) during a specific time period. rules of origin — Laws, regulations and administrative procedures which determine a product’s country of origin. A decision by a customs authority on origin can determine whether a shipment falls within a quota limitation, qualifies for a tariff preference or is affected by an anti-dumping duty. These rules can vary from country to country. safeguard measures — Action taken to protect a specific industry from an unexpected build-up of imports — governed by Article XIX of the GATT 1994. subsidy — There are two general types of subsidies: export and domestic. An export subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent on exports. A domestic subsidy is a benefit not directly linked to exports. tariffication — Procedures relating to the agricultural market-access provision in which all non-tariff measures are converted into tariffs. trade facilitation — Removing obstacles to the movement of goods across borders (e.g. simplification of customs procedures). VRA, VER, OMA — Voluntary restraint arrangement, voluntary export restraint, orderly marketing arrangement. Bilateral arrangements whereby an exporting country (government or industry) agrees to reduce or restrict exports 6

Non-tariff measures anti-dumping duties — Article VI of the GATT 1994 permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their export price and their normal value, if dumping causes injury to producers of competing products in the importing country. circumvention — Measures taken by exporters to evade anti-dumping or countervailing duties. countervailing measures — Action taken by the importing country, usually in the form of increased duties to offset subsidies given to producers or exporters in the exporting country. dumping — Occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third-country markets, or at less than production cost. NTMs — Non-tariff measures such as quotas, import licensing systems, sanitary regulations,

without the importing country having to make use of quotas, tariffs or other import controls.

exporting countries if the importing country can show that both overall imports of a product and imports from the individual countries are entering

Textiles and clothing ATC — The WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing which integrates trade in this sector back to GATT rules within a ten-year period. carry forward — When an exporting country uses part of the following year’s quota during the current year. carry over — When an exporting country utilizes the previous year’s unutilized quota. circumvention — Avoiding quotas and other restrictions by altering the country of origin of a product. CTG — Council for Trade in Goods — oversees WTO agreements on goods, including the ATC. integration programme — The phasing out of MFA restrictions in four stages starting on 1 January

the country in such increased quantities as to cause — or threaten — serious damage to the relevant domestic industry. Agriculture/SPS Agenda 2000 — EC’s financial reform plans for 2000–06 aimed at strengthening the union with a view to receiving new members. Includes reform of the CAP (see below). border protection — Any measure which acts to restrain imports at point of entry. BSE — Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or ―mad cow disease‖. box — Category of domestic support. — Green box: supports considered not to distort trade and therefore permitted with no limits. — Blue box: permitted supports linked to production, but subject to production limits and therefore minimally trade-distorting. — Amber box: supports considered to distort trade and therefore subject to reduction commitments. Cairns Group — Group of agricultural exporting nations lobbying for agricultural trade liberalization. It was formed in 1986 in Cairns, Australia just before the beginning of the Uruguay Round. Current membership: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Paraguay, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay. CAP — Common Agricultural Policy — The EU’s comprehensive system of production targets and marketing mechanisms designed to manage agricultural trade within the EU and with the rest of the world. Codex Alimentarius — FAO/WHO commission that deals with international standards on food 7

1995 and ending on 1 January 2005. ITCB — International Textiles and Clothing Bureau — Geneva-based group of some 20 developing country exporters of textiles and clothing. MFA — Multifibre Arrangement (1974-94) under which countries whose markets are disrupted by increased imports of textiles and clothing from another country were able to negotiate quota restrictions. swing — When an exporting country transfers part of a quota from one product to another restrained product. TMB — The Textiles Monitoring Body, consisting of a chairman plus ten members acting in a personal capacity, oversees the implementation of ATC commitments. transitional safeguard mechanism — Allows members to impose restrictions against individual

safety. distortion — When prices and production are higher or lower than levels that would usually exist in a competitive market. deficiency payment — Paid by governments to producers of certain commodities and based on the difference between a target price and the domestic market price or loan rate, whichever is the less. EEP — Export enhancement programme — programme of US export subsidies given generally to compete with subsidized agricultural exports from the EU on certain export markets. food security — Concept which discourages opening the domestic market to foreign agricultural products on the principle that a country must be as self-sufficient as possible for its basic dietary needs. internal support — Encompasses any measure which acts to maintain producer prices at levels above those prevailing in international trade; direct payments to producers, including deficiency payments, and input and marketing cost reduction measures available only for agricultural production. International Office of Epizootics — Deals with international standards concerning animal health. multifunctionality — Idea that agriculture has many functions in addition to producing food and fibre, e.g. environmental protection, landscape preservation, rural employment, etc. See non-trade concerns. non-trade concerns — Similar to multifunctionality. The preamble of the Agriculture Agreement specifies food security and environmental protection as examples. Also cited by members are rural development and employment, and poverty alleviation. peace clause — Provision in Article 13 of the Agriculture Agreement says agricultural subsidies committed under the agreement cannot be 8

challenged under other WTO agreements, in particular the Subsidies Agreement and GATT. Expires at the end of 2003. reform process/program — The Uruguay Round Agriculture Agreement starts a reform process. It sets out a first step, in the process, i.e. a program for reducing subsidies and protection and other reforms. Current negotiations launched under Article 20 are for continuing the reform process. SPS regulations — Sanitary and Phytosanitary regulations — government standards to protect human, animal and plant life and health, to help ensure that food is safe for consumption. variable levy — Customs duty rate which varies in response to domestic price criterion.

Intellectual property Berne Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works. CBD — Convention on Biological Diversity. compulsory licensing — For patents: when the authorities license companies or individuals other than the patent owner to use the rights of the patent — to make, use, sell or import a product under patent (i.e. a patented product or a product made by a patented process) — without the permission of the patent owner. Allowed under the TRIPS Agreement provided certain procedures and conditions are fulfilled. See also government use. counterfeit — Unauthorized representation of a registered trademark carried on goods identical or similar to goods for which the trademark is registered, with a view to deceiving the purchaser into believing that he/she is buying the original goods. exhaustion — The principle that once a product has been sold on a market, the intellectual property owner no longer has any rights over it. (A debate

among WTO member governments is whether this applies to products put on the market under compulsory licences.) Countries’ laws vary as to whether the right continues to be exhausted if the product is imported from one market into another, which affects the owner’s rights over trade in the protected product. See also parallel imports. geographical indications — Place names (or words associated with a place) used to identify products (for example, ―Champagne‖, ―Tequila‖ or ―Roquefort‖) which have a particular quality, reputation or other characteristic because they come from that place government use — For patents: when the government itself uses or authorizes other persons to use the rights over a patented product or process, for government purposes, without the permission of the patent owner. See also compulsory licensing. intellectual property rights — Ownership of ideas, including literary and artistic works (protected by copyright), inventions (protected by patents), signs for distinguishing goods of an enterprise (protected by trademarks) and other elements of industrial property. IPRs — Intellectual property rights. Lisbon Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of geographical indications and their international registration. Madrid Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the repression of false or deceptive indications of source on goods. mailbox — Refers to the requirement of the TRIPS Agreement applying to WTO members which do not yet provide product patent protection for pharmaceuticals and for agricultural chemicals. Since 1 January 1995, when the WTO agreements entered into force, these countries have to establish a means by which applications of patents for these products can be filed. (An additional requirement 9

says they must also put in place a system for granting ―exclusive marketing rights‖ for the products whose patent applications have been filed.) parallel imports — When a product made legally (i.e. not pirated) abroad is imported without the permission of the intellectual property right-holder (e.g. the trademark or patent owner). Some countries allow this, others do not. Paris Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of industrial intellectual property, i.e. patents, utility models, industrial designs, etc. piracy — Unauthorized copying of materials protected by intellectual property rights (such as copyright, trademarks, patents, geographical indications, etc) for commercial purposes and unauthorized commercial dealing in copied materials. Rome Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, UNESCO and ILO, for the protection of the works of performers, broadcasting organizations and producers of phonograms. TRIPS — Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. UPOV — International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants Washington Treaty — Treaty for the protection of intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs of integrated circuits. WIPO — World Intellectual Property Organization.

Investment export-performance measure — Requirement that a certain quantity of production must be exported. FDI — Foreign direct investment. local-content measure — Requirement that the investor purchase a certain amount of local materials for incorporation in the investor’s product.

product-mandating — Requirement that the investor export to certain countries or region. trade-balancing measure — Requirement that the investor use earnings from exports to pay for imports. TRIMS — Trade-related investment measures.

in Services. general obligations — Obligations which should be applied to all services sector at the entry into force of the agreement. Initial commitments — Trade liberalizing commitments in services which members are prepared to make early on. modes of delivery — How international trade in services is supplied and consumed. Mode 1: cross border supply; mode 2: consumption abroad; mode 3: foreign commercial presence; and mode 4: movement of natural persons. multi-modal — Transportation using more than one mode. In the GATS negotiations, essentially door-to-door services that include international shipping. national schedules — The equivalent of tariff schedules in GATT, laying down the commitments accepted — voluntarily or through negotiation — by WTO members. natural persons — People, as distinct from juridical persons such as companies and organizations. offer — A country’s proposal for further liberalization. protocols — Additional agreements attached to the GATS. The Second Protocol deals with the 1995

Dispute settlement Appellate Body — An independent seven-person body that, upon request by one or more parties to the dispute, reviews findings in panel reports. automaticity — The ―automatic‖ chronological progression for settling trade disputes in regard to panel establishment, terms of reference, composition and adoption procedures. DSB — Dispute Settlement Body — when the WTO General Council meets to settle trade disputes. DSU — The Uruguay Round Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes. nullification and impairment — Damage to a country’s benefits and expectations from its WTO membership through another country’s change in its trade regime or failure to carry out its WTO

obligations. panel — Consisting of three experts, this independent body is established by the DSB to examine and issue recommendations on a particular dispute in the light of WTO provisions.

commitments on financial services. The Third Protocol deals with movement of natural persons. prudence, prudential — In financial services, terms used to describe an objective of market regulation by authorities to protect investors and depositors, to avoid instability or crises. schedule — ―Schedule of Specific Commitments‖ — A WTO member’s list of commitments regarding market access and bindings regarding national treatment. specific commitments — See ―schedule‖.

Services accounting rate — In telecoms, the charge made by one country’s telephone network operator for calls originating in another country. commercial presence — Having an office, branch, or subsidiary in a foreign country. GATS — The WTO’s General Agreement on Trade 10

Regionalism/trade and development

ACP — African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. Group of 71 countries with preferential trading relation with the EU under the former Lom? Treaty now called the Cotonou Agreement. Andean Community — Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. APEC — Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. ASEAN — Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The seven ASEAN members of the WTO — Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand — often speak in the WTO as one group on general issues. The other ASEAN members are Laos and Vietnam. Caricom — The Caribbean Community and Common Market comprises 15 countries. CTD — The WTO Committee on Trade and Development Customs union — Members apply a common external tariff (e.g. the EC). EC — European Communities (official name of the European Union in the WTO). EFTA — European Free Trade Association. free trade area — Trade within the group is duty free but members set own tariffs on imports from non-members (e.g. NAFTA). G15 — Group of 15 developing countries acting as the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement. G77 — Group of developing countries set up in 1964 at the end of the first UNCTAD (originally 77, but now more than 130 countries). G7 — Group of seven leading industrial countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States. GRULAC — Informal group of Latin-American members of the WTO. GSP — Generalized System of Preferences — programmes by developed countries granting 11

preferential tariffs to imports from developing countries. HLM — WTO High-Level Meeting for LDCs, held in October 1997 in Geneva. ITC — The International Trade Centre, originally established by the old GATT and is now operated jointly by the WTO and the UN, the latter acting through UNCTAD. Focal point for technical cooperation on trade promotion of developing countries. LDCs — Least-developed countries. MERCOSUR — Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. NAFTA — North American Free Trade Agreement of Canada, Mexico and the US. Quad — Canada, EC, Japan and the United States. SACU — Southern African Customs Union comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. S&D — ―Special and differential treatment‖ provisions for developing countries. Contained in several WTO agreements. UNCITRAL — United Nations Centre for International Trade Law, drafts model laws such as the one on government procurement. UNCTAD — The UN Conference on Trade and Development.

Trade and environment Agenda 21 — The Agenda for the 21st Century — a declaration from the 1992 Earth Summit (UN Conference on the Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro. Article XX — GATT Article listing allowed ―exceptions‖ to the trade rules. Basel Convention — An MEA dealing with hazardous waste. BTA — Border tax adjustment CITES — Convention on International Trade in

Endangered Species. An MEA. CTE — The WTO Committee on Trade and Environment. EST — Environmentally-sound technology. EST&P — EST and products. ex ante, ex post — Before and after a measure is applied. LCA — Life cycle analysis — a method of assessing whether a good or service is environmentally friendly.

MEA — Multilateral environmental agreement. Montreal Protocol — An MEA dealing with the depletion of the earth’s ozone layer. PPM — Process and production method. TBT — The WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. waiver — Permission granted by WTO members allowing a WTO member not to comply with normal commitments. Waivers have time limits and extensions have to be justified.

经济金融词汇 汉英口译分类词汇(08)-不景气 slump (衰退 recession) 二板市场 the second board market 中国创业板 China Growth Enterprise Market 首次上市 IPOs (initial public offering) 市场资本总额 market capitalization 法人股 institutional shares 内部股(非上市招股) private company shares 牛市 bull market 法律风险 legal risk 风险管理 risk management 坚持严格的贷款标准 maintain strong underwriting standards 六大风险 risks in 6 key areas (U.S. Federal Reserve criterion) 信用风险 credit risk 供给学派 supply-side economist 第一产业(农业) agriculture (primary industry) 第二产业(工业) manufacturing industry (secondary industry) 第三产业(服务业) service industry (tertiary industry) 主要经济指标 major economic indicators

国内生产总值 GDP gross domestic product (商品和劳务币值总和,不包括 海外收入支出) 国民生产总值 GNP gross national product (商品和劳务币值总和,包括海外收入支 出) 人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita 宏观经济 macro economy 互助基金 mutual fund 扩大内需 expand domestic demand 改善居民心理预期 inspire the general public's confidence in the future needs 鼓励增加即期消费 encourage more immediate consumption 长期国债 long-term treasury bonds 支付国债利息 to service treasury bonds 财政赤字和债务 deficits and the national debt 按原口径计算 calculate on the base line 按不变价格计算 calculate at constant price 按可比价格计算 calculate at comparable price 列入财政预算支出 listed in the fiscal budget

结售汇制度 the system of exchange, settlement and sales 经常项目顺差 favorable balance of current account, surplus of current account 开办人民币业务 engage in Renminbi (RMB) business 出口退税制度 the system of refunding taxes on exported goods 保证金台帐制度 Deposit account system for processing trade 分期付款 pay by installment 保值储蓄 inflation-proof bank savings 抵押贷款 collateralised loans 住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan 货币主义者 monetarist 计划经济 planned economy 指令性计划 mandatory plan 技术密集型 technology intensive 大规模生产 mass production 经济林 cash tree 跟踪审计 follow-up auditing 流动性风险 liquidity risk 操作风险 operational risk 内部审计 internal audit 抛售 bear sales 配套政策 supporting policies 中国人民银行(中央银行)The People’s Bank of China(central bank) 四大国有商业银行 4 major state-owned commercial banks 中国银行 Bank of china 中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China()and 中国建设银行 Construction Bank of China 中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China 招商银行 China Merchants Bank 疲软股票 soft stock 配股 allotment of shares 实际增长率 growth rate in real terms

年均增长率 average growth rate per annum 投资回报率 rate of return on investment 外贸进出口总额 total foreign trade value 实际利用外资 incoming overseas capital (investment) in place 消费价格指数 consumer price index (CPI) 零售价格指数 retail price index (RPI) 生活费用价格总指数 total price index of living cost 生活费用 income available for living expenses 扣除物价因素 in real terms / on inflation-adjusted basis 居民储蓄存款 residents’ bank savings deposit 恩格尔系数(食品开支占总支出的比例) Engel coefficient 基尼系数 (衡量地区差别)Gini coefficient 购买力平价法 purchasing power parity (PPP) (衡量使用不同货币的两个国家或 地区的经济水平、收入水平的一种计算 法,用相等的汇率比较两种货币各自的国 内购买力) 片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth 泡沫经济 bubble economy 经济过热 overheating of economy 通货膨胀 inflation 实体经济 the real economy 经济规律 laws of economics 市场调节 market regulation 优化资源配置 optimize allocation of resources 规模经营优势 advantage of economies of scale 劳动密集型 labor intensive 市场风险 market risk 收紧银根 tighten up monetary policy

适度从紧的财政政策 moderately tight fiscal policy 信用紧缩 credit crunch 加强国有商业银行内部资金调度 In state commercial banks, internal capital allocation should be improved. 合理划分贷款审批权限 Limits of authority for examining and approving loans should be rationally defined. 保证有市场、有效益、守信用企业的流动 资金贷款 ensure floating capital loans for well-performing and trustworthy enterprises which turn out the right products for the right markets 启动民间投资 attract investment from the private sector 适销对路的产品 the right products / readily marketable products 国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 集体企业 collectively-owned (partnership) enterprises 私营企业 private businesses 民营企业 privately-run businesses 中小企业 small-and-medium-sized enterprises 三资企业(中外合资、中外合作、外商独 资) overseas-invested enterprises; foreign-invested enterprises (Chinese-overseas equity joint ventures, Chinese-overseas contractual joint ventures, wholly foreign- owned enterprises) 存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits 货币回笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation 吸收游资 absorb idle fund 经常性贷款 commercial lending 经常性支出 operating expenses 再贷款 re-lending; subloan 支持国有大型企业和高新技术企业上市

融资 support large state-owned enterprises and high and innovative technology companies in their efforts to seek financing by listing on the stock market 改制上市 An enterprise is re-organized according to modern corporate system so that it will get listed on the stock market. 进一步规范和发展证券市场 further standardize and develop the securities market 增加直接融资比重 increase the proportion of direct financing 完善股票发行上市制度 improve the system for IPO and listing on stock markets 中国证监会 China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) 深圳证券交易所市 Shenzhen Stock Exchange 上海证券交易所 Shanghai Stock Exchange 综合指数 composite index 纳斯达克(高技术企业板) NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation 主板市场 the main board 通货紧缩 deflation 中国现代化建设分三步走的战略 the three-step development strategy of China’s modernization drive 第一步,到 1990 年国 民生产总值比 1980 年翻一番 Step One: GDP of 1990 doubles that of 1980.第二步, 到 2000 年人均国民生产总值比 1980 年翻 两番,人民生活达到小康水平 Step Two: GDP of 2000 quadruples that of 1980; people live a fairly comfortable life.第三 步,到 21 世纪中期建国 100 周年时,达 到中等发达国家水平 Step Three: By the year 2049, the 100th anniversary of the P.R.C., China’s level of development is

expected to be on par with the mid-ranking developed countries 与世界经济的联系将更加紧密 be more closely linked to the world economy 中国巨大的市场潜力将逐步转化为现实 的购买力 The huge market potential that China enjoys will be turned into tangible purchasing power. 适应市场经济需要的法律法规体系还不 够健全 The regulatory and legal system is not well established as to adapt to the demand of market economy. 经济管理体制可能会出现一些不适应 The economic management system may not be readily adapted to the changes. 一些行业和企业可能会受到冲击 Some sectors of economy and some businesses may be adversely affected. 立足中国国情,发挥自身优势 proceed from national conditions in China and bring our advantages into play 扬长避短,趋利避害,迎接经济全球化的 挑战 foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses and rise to the challenge of economic globalization 瓶颈制约 bottleneck constraints 放权让利 decentralization and interest concessions (in late 1980s and early 1990s) 深化改革 intensify reform; deepen one’s commitment to reform 配套改革 supporting (concomitant) reforms 配套资金 counterpart funds; local funding of 提高经济效益 improve economic performance; increase economic returns 讲求社会效益 value contribution to society; pay attention to social effect 加速国民经济信息化 develop

information-based economy accelerate IT application in economy 拉动经济增长 fuel economic growth 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery 费改税 transform administrative fees into taxes 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 头寸宽裕(头寸紧缺) in an easy position (tight position) 朝阳产业 sunrise industry 招标投标制 the system of public bidding for project 充分发挥货币政策的作用 give full play to the role of monetary policy 实施积极的财政政策 follow a pro-active fiscal policy 向银行增发国债,扩大投资 The government issued additional treasury bonds to banks to increase investment. 再注资 recapitalization 放松银根 to ease monetary policy 信息经济 IT economy 外向型经济 export-oriented economy 信息时代 information age 全球化 globalization (全球性 globality) 信誉风险 reputational risk 风险评级 risk rating 到期不还贷 default on a loan 资不抵债 insolvency; be insolvent 亚洲金融危机 Asian financial crisis (1997-98) 投资(贷款)组合 investment (loan) portfolio 外汇储备充足 sufficient foreign exchange reserves 中国金融业问题 problems with financial sector in China 储蓄比例过高 the excessively large

proportion of savings in the money supply 国有企业产负债率过高 high leverage ratio of the state-owned enterprises, 国有独资商业银行不良资产比例过高 high ratio of non-performing loans of the state commercial banks 少数中小存款金融机构不能支付到期债 务 insolvency of a handful of small and medium-sized financial institutions 不良贷款 non-performing loans 防范和化解金融风险 address financial risks 提高企业借贷和行使民事责任的能力 improve enterprises’ creditworthiness and ability to fulfil their civil liabilities 监事会 supervisory board 实行谨慎会计制度 adopt prudential accounting standards 五级分类法划分贷款质量 the five-category asset classification approach 金融资产管理公司 financial asset management companies 分离和收回不良资产 substantially reduce the ratio of non-performing assets 分业管理、规模经营 business segregation, economy of scale 规范金融机构市场退出制度 improve the market exit mechanism for financial institutions 政策性银行 state policy-related bank 国家发展银行 State Development Bank account number 帐目编号 depositor 存户 pay-in slip 存款单 a deposit form 存款单 a banding machine 自动存取机 to deposit 存款 deposit receipt 存款收据 private deposits 私人存款

知识经济 knowledge-based economy 网络经济 Internet-based networked economy 指导性计划 guidance plan 社会主义市场经济 (中国)socialist market economy 社会市场经济(德国) social market economy 新经济(美国) new economy 中国光大银行 Everbright Bank of China 中国民声银行 China Minsheng Banking Corporation Ltd. 中信实业银行 CITIC Industrial Bank 中国进出口银行 China EXIM Bank 汇丰银行 Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HKSBC) 金融监管 financial supervision 中国人民银行法 Law of the People’s Bank of China 商业银行法 Law of Commercial Banks 保险法 Law of Insurance 证券法 Law of Securities 巴塞尔原则 Basel Core Principles 监管对象的行为有问题、管理机制不健全 problems of supervised entities’ behavior and the unsound internal governance mechanism 风险意识 consciousness of risk prevention 事前监管 proactive regulation and supervision certificate of deposit 存单 deposit book, passbook 存折 credit card 信用卡 principal 本金 overdraft, overdraw 透支 to counter sign 双签 to endorse 背书 endorser 背书人

to cash 兑现 to honor a check 兑付 to dishonor a check 拒付 to suspend payment 止付 check 支票 check book 支票本 order check 记名支票 bearer check 不记名支票 crossed check 横线支票 blank check 空白支票 rubber check 空头支票 check stub, counterfoil 票根 cash check 现金支票 traveler's check 旅行支票 check for transfer 转帐支票 outstanding check 未付支票 canceled check 已付支票 forged check 伪支票 Bandar's note 庄票,银票 banker 银行家 president 行长 savings bank 储蓄银行 Chase Bank 大通银行 National City Bank of New York 花旗银行 Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation 汇丰银行 Chartered Bank of India, Australia and Chin a 麦加利银行 Banque de I'Indo Chine 东方汇理银行 central bank, national bank, banker's bank 中央银行 bank of issue, bank of circulation 发行币银 行 commercial bank 商业银行, 储蓄信贷银行 member bank, credit bank 储蓄信贷银行 discount bank 贴现银行 exchange bank 汇兑银行 requesting bank 委托开证银行 issuing bank, opening bank 开证银行

advising bank, notifying bank 通知银行 negotiation bank 议付银行 confirming bank 保兑银行 paying bank 付款银行 associate banker of collection 代收银行 consigned banker of collection 委托银行 clearing bank 清算银行 local bank 本地银行 domestic bank 国内银行 overseas bank 国外银行 unincorporated bank 钱庄 branch bank 银行分行 trustee savings bank 信托储蓄银行 trust company 信托公司 financial trust 金融信托公司 unit trust 信托投资公司 trust institution 银行的信托部 credit department 银行的信用部 commercial credit company(discount compa ny) 商业信贷公司(贴现公司) neighborhood savings bank, bank of deposit 街道储蓄所 credit union 合作银行 credit bureau 商业兴信所 self-service bank 无人银行 land bank 土地银行 construction bank 建设银行 industrial and commercial bank 工商银行 bank of communications 交通银行 mutual savings bank 互助储蓄银行 post office savings bank 邮局储蓄银行 mortgage bank, building society 抵押银行 industrial bank 实业银行 home loan bank 家宅贷款银行 reserve bank 准备银行 chartered bank 特许银行 corresponding bank 往来银行 merchant bank, accepting bank 承兑银行 investment bank 投资银行

import and export bank (EXIMBANK) 进 出口银行 joint venture bank 合资银行 money shop, native bank 钱庄 credit cooperatives 信用社 clearing house 票据交换所 public accounting 公共会计 business accounting 商业会计 cost accounting 成本会计 depreciation accounting 折旧会计 computerized accounting 电脑化会计 general ledger 总帐 subsidiary ledger 分户帐 cash book 现金出纳帐 cash account 现金帐 journal, day-book 日记帐,流水帐 bad debts 坏帐 investment 投资 surplus 结余 idle capital 游资 economic cycle 经济周期 economic boom 经济繁荣 economic recession 经济衰退 economic depression 经济萧条 economic crisis 经济危机 economic recovery 经济复苏 inflation 通货膨胀 deflation 通货收缩 devaluation 货币贬值 revaluation 货币增值 international balance of payment 国际收支 favorable balance 顺差 adverse balance 逆差 hard currency 硬通货 soft currency 软通货 international monetary system 国 际 货 币 制 度 the purchasing power of money 货 币 购 买 力

money in circulation 货币流通量 note issue 纸币发行量 national budget 国家预算 national gross product 国民生产总值 public bond 公债 stock, share 股票 debenture 债券 treasury bill 国库券 debt chain 债务链 direct exchange 直接(对角)套汇 indirect exchange 间接(三角)套汇 cross rate, arbitrage rate 套汇汇率 foreign currency (exchange) reserve 外汇储 备 foreign exchange fluctuation 外汇波动 foreign exchange crisis 外汇危机 discount 贴现 discount rate, bank rate 贴现率 gold reserve 黄金储备 money (financial) market 金融市场 stock exchange 股票交易所 broker 经纪人 commission 佣金 bookkeeping 簿记 bookkeeper 簿记员 an application form 申请单 bank statement 对帐单 letter of credit 信用证 strong room, vault 保险库 equitable tax system 等价税则 specimen signature 签字式样 banking hours, business hours 营业时间 share, equity, stock 股票、股权 negotiable share 可流通股份 treasury /government bond 国库券/政府债 券 closed-end securities investment fund 封闭 式证券投资基金 open-end securities investment fund 开放

式证券投资基金 market capitalization 市值 mark-to-market 逐日盯市 clearing and settlement 清算/结算 put / call option 看跌/看涨期权 rights issue/offering 配股 ADR(American Depository Receipt)美国存 托凭证/存股证 GDR(Global Depository Receipt) 全球存 托凭证/存股证 institutional investor 机构投资者 proprietary trading 自营 market manipulation 市场操纵 IPO(Initial Public Offering)新股初始公开 发行 securities 证券 premium 溢价 share capital 股本 composite index 综合指数 capital market 资本市场 liquidity 流通性 highly-leveraged institutions(HLI) 高杠杆 交易机构 subscribe 申购 underwriter 承销商 road show 路演 primary market 一级市场 information disclosure 信息披露 blue chips 蓝筹股 gilt-edged bond 金边债券 rating agency 评级机构 credit trading 信用交易 open/close a position 建/平仓 bond, debenture, debts 债券 convertible bond 可转换债券 AA 制 Dutch treatment; go Dutch B to B (B2B) business to business B to C (B2C) business to consumer NASDAQ National Association of

corporate bond 企业债券 fund manager 基金经理/管理公司 fund custodian bank 基金托管银行 p/e (price/earning) ratio 市盈率 payment versus delivery 银券交付 commodity/financial derivatives 商品/金融 衍生产品 margins, collateral 保证金 bonus share 红股 dividend 红利/股息 retail / private investor 个人投资者/散户 broker/dealer 券商 insider trading/dealing 内幕交易 prospectus 招股说明书 merger and acquisition 收购兼并 warrant 认股权证 raised capital/proceeds 筹资 component index 成份指数 turnover rate 换手率 monetary market 货币市场 hedge fund 对冲基金 self-regulatory organization(SRO)自律组织 issuer 发行人 intermediary 中介机构 secondary listing 第二上市 secondary market 二级市场 controlling shareholder 控股股东 red chips 红筹股 junk bond 立即债券 securities loan 融券 financing 融资

Securities Deal Automated Quotations 艾滋病(获得性免疫缺陷综合征 ) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) 安居工程 housing project for low-income

urban residents 按成本要素计算的国民经济总值 GNP at factor cost 按揭贷款 mortgage loan 按揭购房 take out a mortgage to buy a house; buy a house on time 按劳分配 distribution according to one's performance 暗亏 hidden loss 暗 恋 unrequited love; fall in love with someone secretly 奥姆真理教 Japanese Aum Doomsday Cult 巴黎证券交易所 Paris Bourse 把?当成耳 旁风 Like water off (on) a duck’s back 把握大局 grasp the overall situation 白马王子 Prince Charming 白 色 农 业 white agriculture (also called "white engineering agriculture"; It refers to microbiological agriculture and biological cell agriculture.) 白色行情表 white sheet 白手起家 starting from scratch 白雪公主 Snow White 摆架子 put on airs 摆谱儿 put on airs; show off; keep up appearances 拜把兄弟 sworn brothers 拜年 pay New Year calls or visits 搬迁户 relocated families 半拉子工程 uncompleted project 傍大款 (of a girl) find a sugar daddy; be a mistress for a rich man; lean on a moneybags 棒球运动记者 scribe 包 二 奶 have a concubine (originally a Cantonese expression) 包干到户 work contracted to households 包干制 overall rationing system; scheme of

payment partly in kind and partly in cash 包工包料 contract for labor and materials 保持国民经济发展的良好势头 maintain a good momentum of growth in the national economy 保持国有股 keep the State-held shares 保健食品 health-care food 保理业务 factoring business 保 税 区 the low-tax, tariff-free zone; bonded area/zone 保证金 margins, collateral 保证重点支出 ensure funding for priority areas 保值储蓄 inflation-proof bank savings 报 国 计 划 的 实 施 implementation of Dedicator's Project 奔小康 strive for a relatively comfortable life 本本主义 bookishness 本命年 one's year of birth considered in relation to the 12 Terrestrial Branches 笨鸟先飞 A slow sparrow should make an early start. 蹦击 bungee, bungee jumping 逼上梁山 be driven to drastic alternatives 比较经济学 comparative economics 比上不足,比下有余 worse off than some, better off than many; to fall short of the best, but be better than the worst 闭门羹 given cold-shoulder 边际报酬 marginal return 边缘科学 boundary science 便 携 式 电 脑 portable computer; laptop; notebook computer 变相涨价 disguised inflation 标书 bidding documents 表演赛 demonstration match 剥 夺 冠 军 strip the gold medal of somebody

博彩(业)lottery industry 博士生 Ph.D candidate 补缺选举 by-election 不败记录 clean record, spotless record 不 承 诺 放 弃 使 用 武 器 not undertake to renounce the use of force 不打不成交 No discord, no concord. 不到长城非好汉 He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man. 不 分 上 下 的 总 统 选 举 结 果 the neck-and-neck presidential election result 不可再生资源 non-renewable resources 不良贷款 non-performing loan 不夜城 sleepless city, ever-bright city 不 正 之 风 bad (harmful) practice; unhealthy tendency 布达拉宫 Potala Palace 步行天桥 foot bridge 擦边球 edge ball, touch ball 擦网球 net ball 财政收入 fiscal revenue 采取高姿态 show magnanimity 菜篮子工程 shopping basket program 参政、议政 participate in the management of State affairs 仓储式超市 stockroom-style supermarket 沧海桑田 Seas change into mulberry fields and mulberry fields change into seas--time brings great changes to the world. / What was once the sea has now changed into mulberry fields--the world is changing all the time. 藏学 Tibetology 草 根 工 业 grass root industry (refers to village and township enterprises which take root among farmers and grow like wild grass) 层 层 转 包 和 违 法 分 包 multi-level contracting and illegal sub-contracting

查房 make/go the rounds of the wards 差额投票 differential voting 差额选举 competitive election 拆东墙补西墙 rob Peter to pay Paul 拆迁户 households or units relocated due to building demolition 搀 水 股 票 water-down stocks (ordinary stocks that can be bought by persons inside a stock company or a business at a cost lower that their face value) 产粮大省 granary province 产品结构 product mix 产权明晰、权责明确、政企分开、科学管 理 clearly established ownership, well defined power and responsibility, separation of enterprise from administration, and scientific management 产权制度、产权关系 property relations; property order 产 销 直 接 挂 钩 directly link production with marketing 产业的升级换代 upgrading of industries 产业结构升级 upgrading of an industrial structure 长江三角洲 Yangtze River delta 长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与 共 long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, sincere treatment with each other and the sharing of weal or woe 长线产品 product in excessive supply 畅通工程 "Smooth Traffic Project" 唱高调 mouth high-sounding words 超高速巨型计算机 giant ultra-high-speed computer 超 前 消 费 over-consuming, excessive consumption 朝阳产业 sunrise industry 炒作 speculation 彻头彻尾的反动政治势力 an out and out

reactionary political force 成份指数 component index 成组技术 group technology 承包 contract with 承销商 underwriter 城市规划 city's landscaping plan; urban planning 城市中年雅皮士 muppie (一批中年专业 人士,附庸风雅,矫揉造作 cutesification, 崇尚竟品至上 boutiqueification,攀比银行 存 款 bankification 等 摆 阔 作 风 , 由 middle-aged urban yuppie 缩合而成) 城乡信用社 credit corroborative in both urban and rural areas 吃 大 锅 饭 egalitarian practice of "everybody eating from the same big pot" 吃皇粮 receive salaries, subsidies, or other supported from the government 抽杀成功 hit through 筹备委员会 preparatory committee 筹资 raised capital/proceeds 出风头 show off; in the limelight 出家 pravrajana; cloister 出 口 创 汇 能 力 capacity to earn foreign exchange through exports 出口加工区 export processing zones 出口卖方信贷 seller's credit on exports 出 口 退 税 制 度 the system of refunding taxes on exported goods; export (tax) rebate 出口押汇 bill purchased (B/P); outward documentary bill 出口转内销 domestic sales of commodities originally produced for exports 传 销 pyramid selling; multi-level marketing 窗口行业 various service trades 创建卫生城市:build a nationally advanced clean city 创 业 园 high-tech business incubator;

pioneer park 吹风会 (advanced) briefing 春蕾计划 Spring Buds Program 春 运 (passenger) transport during the Spring Festival 辞旧迎新 bid farewell to the old and usher in the new; ring out the old year and ring in the new 磁 悬 浮 列 车 Maglev (magnetically levitated train) 此 地无银 三百 两 A guilty person gives himself away by consciously protesting his innocence. 次新股 sub-new stock 从粗放经济转变为集约经济 shift from extensive economy to intensive economy 粗放式管理 extensive management 促 进 全 球 经 济 一 体 化 foster integration with the global economy 存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits 达标活动 "target hitting" activities 打白条 issue IOU 打包贷款 packing credit (loan) 打 黑 crack down on speculation and profiteering 打假 crack down on counterfeit goods 打破僵局 break the deadlock 打 顺 手 find one's touch, get into gear, settle into a groove 大包干 all-round responsibility system 大轰动 blockbuster 大开眼界 open one's eyes; broaden one's horizon; be an eye-opener 大款 tycoon 大力扣杀 hammer 大路货 staple goods 大满贯 grand slam 大排档 sidewalk snack booth; large stall 大胜 white wash

大事化小,小事化了 try first to make their mistake sound less serious and then to reduce it to nothing at all 大腕 top notch 大型电视系列片,长篇电视连续剧 maxi-series 大学生创业 university students' innovative undertaking 大要案 major and serious criminal cases 大专生 junior college student 大专文凭 associate degree 代职 function in an acting capacity 带薪分流 assign redundant civil servants to other jobs while allowing them to retain their original rank and benefits 待岗 await job assignment, post-waiting 待业 job-waiting 单刀赴会 start a solo run 单循环制 single round-robin system 弹性工资 flexible pay 弹性外交 elastic diplomacy 党群关系 Party-masses relationship 党 政 机 关 Party and government organizations 倒春寒 unusually cold spell in an otherwise warm early spring 倒计时 countdown 倒票 speculative reselling of tickets 倒爷 profiteer 捣浆糊 give the runaround 盗版 VCD pirated VCD 盗打(电话) free call on somebody else's expense through illegal means 盗用公款 embezzlement 等外品 off-grade goods, rejects 邓 小 平 外 交 思 想 Deng Xiaoping's diplomatic thoughts 低调 low keyed (a metaphor for taking a cautious and slow approach)

地方保护主义 regional protectionism 地 方 财 政 包 干 制 system whereby local authorities take full responsibility for their finances 地球村 global village 地区差异 regional disparity 地热资源 geothermal resources 地市级城市 prefecture-level city 第二产业 secondary industry 第二上市 secondary listing 第三产业 tertiary industry; service sector 第三代移动电话(3G 手机) third generation mobile; 3G mobile 第一发球权 first inning 第一发球员 first server 第一双打 first pair 点球 penalty kick 点子公司 consultancy company 电话号码升位 upgrade telephone number 电话会议 teleconference 电脑犯罪 computer crime 电视直销 TV home shopping 电信运营商 telecom operators 电子商务认证 e-business certification 吊球 drop shot 吊销执照 revoke license 钉子户 person or household who refuses to move and bargains for unreasonably high compensation when the land is requisitioned for a construction project 定向培训 training for specific posts 豆腐渣工程 jerry-built projects 毒枭 drug trafficker 独 立 核 算 工 业 企 业 independent accounting unit(enterprise) 度假外交 holiday-making diplomacy 短期债务 floating debt 断交信 Dear John letter (from woman to man)

队长袖标(足球) skipper's armband 对...毫无顾忌 make no bones about ... 对冲基金 hedge fund 对外招商 attract foreign investment 多 党 合 作 制 multi-party co-operation in exercising State power 多任务小卫星 small multi-mission satellite (SMMS) 夺冠 take the crown 厄尔尼诺现象 El Nino phenomenon 恶性通货膨胀 hyperinflation 恶性循环 vicious circle 二板市场; 创业板市场 growth enterprise board; second board; hi-tech board 二次创业 start a new undertaking 二级市场 secondary market 二进宫 to enter the palace a second time (people with a past criminal record again commits a crime, and is convicted and put into a correctional institution) 二流选手 scrub, second-rater 二手房 second-hand house 二元经济 dual economy 发案率 incidence (of criminal cases) 发烧友 fancier; zealot; enthusiastic fan 发展不平衡 disparate development 发 展 是 硬 道 理 Development is of overriding importance. / Development is the absolute need. 法制国家 a state with an adequate legal system 法治国家 a country under the rule of law 翻两番 quadruple 反败为胜 bring about a complete turnabout, pull out of the fire 反 不 正 当 竞 争 法 Law of the People's Republic of China Against Competition by Inappropriate Means 反腐倡廉 combat corruption and build a

clean government 防 抱 死 系 统 ABS (anti-lock braking system) 防洪工程 flood-prevention project 房管 real estate management 访谈式竞选 (候选人在电视访谈节目中 亮相进行的竞选)talk-show campaign 放下架子 to relinquish haughty airs; to get off one's high horse; throw off one's airs 放行单 release permit 飞毛腿(导弹)Scud missile 飞行药检 spot check 非 对 称 数 字 用 户 环 路 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Loop (ADSL) 费改税 transform administrative fees into taxes 分 拆 上 市 A subsidiary company of a corporation is listed on the stock market. 分流 reposition of redundant personnel 分期付款 installment payment 分税制 system of tax distribution 分销 sub-underwriting, distribution 粉领族 pink-collar tribe (Women who play major role in certain professions such as office workers, secretaries, models, airline hostesses, etc) 风险投资 venture capital; risk investment 封闭式基金 close-ended fund 封杀出局 force out 疯 牛 病 mad cow disease; bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) 锋利扣杀 razor-sharp smash 扶贫 poverty alleviation 浮 动 工 资 floating wages; fluctuating wages 福利彩票 welfare lotteries 福利分房 welfare-oriented public housing distribution system 复 式 住 宅 duplex apartment; compound

apartment (a type of residential housing that maximizes usable space by increasing the number of the story building) 覆盖率 coverage rate 改制上市:An enterprise is re-organized according to modern corporate system so that it will get listed on the stock market. 干部队伍革命化、年轻化、知识化、专业 化 make the ranks of cadres more revolutionary, younger in average age, better educated and professionally more competent 尴尬,困境,糟糕 pretty pass 感谢款待的信 a bread and butter letter (a letter sent as thanks for being treated well as someone's guest) 港人治港 Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong 高 层 次 、 全 方 位 的 对 话 high-level and all-directional dialogue 高产优质 high yield and high quality 高度自治 high degree of autonomy 高 杠 杆 交 易 机 构 highly-leveraged institutions(HLI) 高官会 Senior Officials Meeting (SOM) 高级商务师 Certified Business Executive 高架公路 elevated highway; overhead road 高科技板块 high-tech sector 高难度动作 stunner, stunt 高清晰度 high definition 高 新 技 术 产 业 开 发 区 high and new technology industrial development zone 个人收入应税申报制度 the system of the declaration of individual incomes for tax payment 个人自扫门前雪, 莫管他人瓦上霜 hoe one’s own potatoes 各大菜系 major styles of cooking 各尽所能 let each person do his best; from

each according to his ability 各就各位 On your marks!" 根 本 政 治 制 度 fundamental political system 跟踪审计 follow-up auditing 工程公司 engineering company 工商局 industrial and commercial bureau 工薪阶层 salariat; state employee; salaried person 工 业 控 制 一 体 化 integrated industrial control; industrial control of integration 工业园区 industrial park 公费医疗 medical services at state expense 公告板服务 Bulletin Board Service (BBS) 公积金 public accumulation funds, public reserve funds 公 检 法 public security organs, procuratorial organs and people's courts 公开喊价市场 open outcry markets 公 款 吃 喝 recreational activities using public funds 公路隔离带 median 公 司 分 立 与 解 散 separation and dissolution of a company 公益林 public welfare forest 公正、公平、公开 just, fair and open 公证财产 notarize the properties 功夫不负有心人 Everything comes to him who waits. 恭喜发财 May you be prosperous!; Wish you all the best! 共产党领导下的多党合作与政治协商 multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of Communist Party 股本 share capital 股本金 equity capital 骨干企业 key enterprise 挂 靠 be attached or affiliated to; be

subordinate to 挂职 1) take a temporary post (in order to temper oneself); 2) serve in a lower level unit for a period while retaining one's position in the previous unit 关税壁垒 customs barrier; tariff wall 光谷 optical valley 光 机 电 一 体 化 optical, mechanical and electronic integration 光盘杂志 CD-ROM magazine 光 通 讯 photo-communication; optical communication 广告电话直销 direct response advertising 广域网 wide area network (WAN) 归 口 管 理 put under centralized management by specialized departments 国 产 化 率 import substitution rate; localization rate of parts and components 国 防 动 员 体 制 the mobilization for national defense 国际惯例 international common practice 国际化战略 internationalization strategy 国际日期变更线 International Date Line (IDL) 国际商业机器公司 International Business Machine Corporation (IBM) 国 家 经 济 体 制 改 革 委 员 会 the State Commission for Restructuring the Economic Systems 国家控股公司 state-controlling company 国家普通话水平考试 National Proficiency Test of Putonghua 国家一级保护 first-grade State protection 国家质量技术监督局 the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision 国脚 player of the national football team; footballer of the national team 国库券 treasury bonds 国民党 Kuomintang

国 民 经 济 支 柱 产 业 pillar industries in national economy 国 民 生 产 总 值 gross national product (GNP) 国 内 生 产 总 值 gross domestic product (GDP) 国土局 Land and Resources Bureau 国债专项资金 special fund for treasury bond 过度开垦 excess reclamation 过犹不及 going too far is as bad as not going far enough; beyond is as wrong as falling short; too much is as bad as too little 海市蜃楼, 镜花水月, 无稽之谈 a mare’s nest 海湾战争综合征 the Gulf War syndrome 函授大学 correspondence university 汉 字 处 理 软 件 Chinese character processing software 旱地滑雪场 mock skiing park 航母 aircraft carrier 航向错误, 奉行错误方向 on the wrong tack 豪赌 unrestrained gambling 好 出 风 头 的 运 动 员 exhibitionist, grandstander 好莱坞大片 Hollywood blockbuster 好球 "Strike" 好 事 不 出 门 , 恶 事 传 千 里 Good news never goes beyond the gate, while bad news spread far and wide. 合理引导消费 guide rational consumption 合议庭 collegiate bench 和服 Kimono 核销 cancel after verification 黑店 gangster inn 黑客 hacker 黑 社 会 Mafia-style organizations; gangland

红包 (中) paper containing money as a red gift, (贬) bribe, kickback 红筹股 red chips 红股 bonus share 红帽子企业 red cap enterprise (refers to the reputation a private enterprise enjoys by becoming attached to a government department and doing business in the name of a state-run or collective-run enterprise) 红细胞生成素 Erythropoietin (EPO) 宏观调控 macro-control 后防空虚 leave the defense exposed 后台管理 back-stage management 呼啦圈 hula hoop 胡子工程 long-drawn-out project (a project which takes so long that young workers become bearded) 虎父无犬子 A wise goose never lays a tame egg. 互动广告 interactive advertisement 户口簿 residence booklet 户口管理制度 domicile system, residence registration system 户主 head of a household 护身法宝 amulet 华表 ornamental column/cloud pillar/stele 华盖 canopy 滑板车 scooter 坏球 "Ball" 还俗 resume secular life, unfrock 环太平洋地区 Pacific Rim 换手率 turnover rate 黄、 毒 pornography, gambling and drug 赌、 abuse and trafficking 黄金时段 prime time 灰色收入 income from moonlighting 挥棒 swing 挥棒不中 fan 汇 丰 银 行 Hong Kong and Shanghai

Banking Corporation (HSBC) 婚介所 matrimonial agency 婚外恋 extramarital love 活到老,学到老 One is never too old to learn. 火 炬 计 划 Torch Program (a plan to develop new and high technology) 货币化 monetization 货 币 回 笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation 货到付款 cash on delivery 机场建设费 airport construction fee 机构投资者 institutional investor 机构臃肿 overstaffing in organizations (government) 积 压 产 品 overstocked commodities (inventories) 基 本 国 情 fundamental realities of the country 基本路线要管一百年 The basic line must be followed unswervingly for a very long time to come. 基层民主 democracy at the grassroots level 基层组织 organizations at the grass-roots level 基础设施 infrastructure 基因工程 genetic engineering 基因突变 genetic mutation 绩优股 blue chip 缉毒队 narcotics squad 缉私力量 the forces engaged in the fight against smuggling 激烈竞争 cut-throat competition 吉 尼 斯 世 界 记 录 Guinness (Book of Records) 吉祥物 mascot 集体婚礼 collective wedding ceremony 集中精力把经济建设搞上去 go all out for economic development

计划单列市 city specifically designated in the state plan 计划生育责任制 responsibility system of family planning 计 算 机 辅 助 教 学 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) 计 算 机 中 央 处 理 器 central processing unit(CPU) 记者席 press box 技术产权交易所 technology equity market; technology property right exchange 技术交底 confide a technological secret to somebody 技 术 密 集 产 品 technology-intensive product 技术下乡 spread technological knowledge to farmers 既成事实 fait accompli (noun) 既 往 不 咎 , 忘 掉 旧 嫌 let bygones be bygones 加班 work extra shifts 加密 encrypt 加 强 舆 论 监 督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 加权平均值 weighted average 家 庭 联 产 承 包 责 任 制 the household contract responsibility system 家族企业 family firm 嘉宾 distinguished guest, honored guest 甲 骨 文 inscriptions on animal bones or tortoise shells 假唱 lip-synch 假动作 deception, feint 假日经济 holiday economy 尖端产品 highly sophisticated products 坚持统一,反对分裂,增加了解,化解歧 见 persist in reunification, oppose separation, increase understanding and iron out differences

监督部门 watchdog 减负 alleviate burdens on sb. 减速玻璃(汽车)decelerating glass 减员增效 downsizing for efficiency; cut payroll to improve efficiency 剪彩 cut the ribbon 剪刀差 the scissors gap between the prices of ... and ... 江南水乡 the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River 讲诚信,反欺诈: honor credibility and oppose cheating 降落伞候选人,外来候选人(应召而来参 加本人非所在地区竞选的政党候选人) parachute candidate 侥幸球 fluke 脚踩两只船 sit on the fence 脚踏实地 be down-to-earth 教书育人 impart knowledge and educate people 教学法 pedagogy; teaching method 教 育 部 社 政 司 Social Science Research and Ideological Work Department of the Ministry of Education 接口 interface 街道企业 neighborhood enterprise 街心花园 park at an intersection; garden in the city center 节奏布鲁斯音乐(RMB 音乐) rhythm blues 结 售 汇 制 度 the system of exchange, settlement and sales 解 放 生 产 力 emancipate the productive forces 解放思想、实事求是的思想路线 ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts 解困基金 anti-poverty funds 戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center

戒 急 用 忍 overcome impetuosity and exercise patience; no haste, be patient 金本位 gold standard 金边债券 gilt-edged bonds 金降落伞 golden parachute 金融电子化 computerize financial services 金融危机 financial crisis 金税工程 Golden Tax Project 金无足赤, 人无完人 Gold can't be pure and man can't be perfect. 紧箍咒 inhibiting magic phrase 紧 密 型 企 业 集 团 tightly-knit groups of enterprises 紧追 cling to, shadow, thunder on one's trail 劲射 power shot 近海渔业 offshore fishery 近水楼台先得月 First come, first served; A water-front pavilion gets the moonlight first--the advantage of being in a favored position. 进出口商会 chamber of import and export trade 进口渗透 import penetration 进修班 class for further studies 禁渔期 closed fishing seasons 禁止在任何地方、任何环境进行一切方式 的释放核能的核武器试验保爆炸 prohibit any nuclear weapon test explosion which releases nuclear energy at any place and in any environment 京剧票友 Peking Opera fan 京剧人物脸谱 types of facial make-up in Beijing opera 经常项目顺差 favorable balance of current account, surplus of current account 经常性贷款 commercial lending 经常性支出 running expenses 经济林 cash tree

经 济 全 球 化 economic globalization; economic integration 经济失调指数 misery index 经 济 头 脑 commercially minded people; people with business sense 经营管理高度科学化的现代化大企业 modern big enterprise with highly scientific management system 精简机构 streamline government organs 精品 competitive products 景泰蓝 cloisonné 敬 业 精 神 professional dedication; professional ethics 九五攻关 State Key Task 95 居委会 neighborhood committee; residents' committee 局域网 local area network (LAN) 举报电话 informants' hot-line telephone 拒载 refuse to take passengers 君子之交淡如水 the friendship between gentlemen is as pure as crystal; a hedge between keeps friendship green 竣工式 completion ceremony 卡丁车 kart 开发一代, 储存一带, 预研一代 (产品) to develop this generation of products while researching on the next generation of products 开放式基金 open-ended fund 开工不足 enterprises running under their production capacity 开工典礼 commencement ceremony 开 后 门 under-the-counter deals; offer advantages to one's friends or relatives by underhand means 开题报告 opening speech; opening report, thesis proposal 开小灶 give special favor 开夜车 burn the midnight oil; work over

night 看跌/看涨期权 put / call option 看守政府, 看守内阁,过渡政府 caretaker cabinet 抗震棚 quake-proof shelter 考研 take part in the entrance exams for postgraduate schools 考研热 the craze for graduate school 科 技 成 果 转 化 为 生 产 力 transfer of scientific and technological achievements 科技含量 technology content 科 技 是 第 一 生 产 力 Science and technology constitute a primary productive force. 科教兴国 rely on science and education to rejuvenate the nation 科研攻关 scientific research and tackle the key research project 可持续发展战略 strategy of sustainable development 可转换债券 convertible bond 刻录机 CD writer; disc-carving machine 空头支票 accommodation note, lip service 空中小姐 air hostess; air stewardess 控股公司 holding company 口蹄疫 foot-and-mouth disease 扣帽子 put a label on 跨世纪工程 a trans-century project 跨 越 式 发

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