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BEC中级第二辑阅读真题及问题详解

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1 the contact between coach and employee not solving all difficulties at work 2 the discussion of how certain situations could be better handled if they occur again 3 a coach encouraging an employee to apply what has been taught to routine work situations 4 coaching providing new interest to individuals who are unhappy in their current positions 5 coaching providing a supportive environment to discuss performance 6 employees being asked to analyse themselves and practise greater self-awareness 7 coaching enabling a company to respond rapidly to a lack of expertise in a certain area Coaching A Coaching involves two or more people sitting down together to talk through issues that have come up recently at work, and analysing how they were managed and how they might be dealt with more effectively on subsequent occasions. Coaching thus transfers skills and information from one person to another in an on-the-job situation so that the work experience of the coach is used to advise and guide the individual being coached. It also allows successes and failures to be evaluated in a non-threatening atmosphere. B Coaching means influencing the learner's personal development, for example his or her confidence and ambition. It can take place any time during an individual's career. Coaching is intended to assist individuals to function more effectively, and it is a powerful learning model. It begins where skills-based training ends, and helps individuals to use formally learnt knowledge in day-to-day work and management situations. Individuals being coached are in a demanding situation with their coach, which requires them to consider their own behaviour and question their reasons for doing things. C The coach professionally assists the career development of another individual, outside the normal manager/subordinate relationship. In theory, the coaching relationship should provide answers to every problem, but in practice it falls short of this. However, it can provide a
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space for discussion and feedback on topics such as people management and skills, behaviour patterns, confidence-building and time management. Through coaching, an organisation can meet skills shortages, discuss targets and indicate how employees should deal with challenging situations, all at short notice. D Effective coaches are usually those who get satisfaction from the success of others and who give time to the coaching role. Giving people coaching responsibilities can support their development, either by encouraging management potential through small-scale one-to-one assignments, or by providing added job satisfaction to managers who feel they are stuck in their present jobs. A coach is also a confidential adviser, accustomed to developing positive and effective approaches to complex management, organisational and change problems. 这篇文章讲的是培训(coaching)的作用。培训对一个公司的发展和员工的成长都是至 关重要的。文章的内容比较泛,但是题目的答案比较明显。 第一题,教练和员工之间的接触不能解决工作中的所有困难。答案是 C 段的这么一句: In theory, the coaching relationship should provide answers to every problem, but in practice it falls short of this.理论上,培训可以提供所有问题的答案。但是实践中达不到这样。Fall short of 是关键词。 第二题,讨论某些情况如果再度出现的话怎么样可以处理的更好。答案是 A 段的这么 一 句 : analysing how they were managed and how they might be dealt with more effectively on subsequent occasions.分析应该如何进行处理并且在接下来的情况下怎样可以处理的更有 效。 这里的 dealt with more effectively 对应于题干中的 better handled,on subsequent occasions.也 就是 occur again。 第三题,教练鼓励员工将所学应用到日常的工作中。答案是 B 段的这么一句:helps individuals to use formally learnt knowledge in day-to-day work and management situations.帮助 个 人 将 学 到 的 正 式 知 识 用 在 日 常 工 作 和 管 理 情 况 下 。 这 里 的 day-to-day work and management situations 就是题干中的 routine work situations,what has been taught 也就是 formally learnt knowledge。 第四题,培训为在现有岗位上不高兴的个人提供了新的兴趣。答案是 D 段的这么一句:
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providing added job satisfaction to managers who feel they are stuck in their present jobs。对感觉 自己在现有岗位上受困的经理们提供附加的工作满足感。这里的 stuck in their present jobs 就 是题干中的 unhappy in their current position,added job satisfaction 可以对应于题 干中的 new interest。 第五题,培训提供了一个有力的、支持性的讨论工作表现的环境。答案是 A 段的:It also allows successes and failures to be evaluated in a non-threatening atmosphere. 它允许成功和失败 在一个没有威胁的气氛下被评估。成功和失败也就是 performance,supportive environment 可以对应于 non-threatening atmosphere。 第六题,员工被要求分析他们自己并且培养出更强的自知。有必要理解下 self-awareness 的含义,不能简单的从中文理解成自我意识,看英文解释:knowledge and understanding of yourself。所以答案是 B 段的这么一句:requires them to consider their own behaviour and question their reasons for doing things.要求他们考虑自己的行为并且思考这么做的理 由。 consider their own behaviour 可以对应于题干中的 analyse themselves,思考这么做的 理由也是 为了进一步增进对自己的认识。 第七题,培训可以使得公司对某个领域的技术缺失迅速做出反应。答案是 C 段的最后 一句:indicate how employees should deal with challenging situations, all at short notice.指出员 工怎样处理有挑战性的情况,在短时间内。At short notice 是一接到通知就,短时间内的 意 思,可以对应这一题的 respond rapidly,challenging situations 可以指代题干中的 a lack of expertise in a certain area.
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BUFFET ZONE Lucy Robertson started working at a takeaway food business to supplement her income during her student days at Edinburgh University, Several years later she had bought the business and now, 17 years on, she owns Grapevine Caterers, probably Scotland's leading independent caterers, with a turnover of almost £6m. She had never planned to own a business, and had certainly never considered a career in catering. (0)... ... . However, her unplanned career began in 1985, when she returned to Edinburgh and discovered that the takeaway she had worked in was up for sale. On impulse, she bought it, but admits that at the time she knew nothing about catering. (8).........It was a difficult time, but essential in terms of gaining the experience she needed. The late 1980s boom was good for business, with large numbers of office workers wanting takeaway food for their lunches. (9)........'At one point there were 26 food outlets within a 5-kilometre radius,' Robertson recalls. As the economy changed and the once packed office blocks started to become vacant, it became clear that Robertson would need to diversify.(10)........It changed the direction of the company for good. As Robertson began to win catering contracts, she decided that the company would have to move to larger premises. In 1994, the move was made when she bought another catering business that already had a number of profitable contracts for boardroom lunches. Meanwhile, Robertson's main competitor, the oldest catering company in Edinburgh, was causing her some anxiety. 'Customer loyalty is not to be underestimated,' she warns. But Robertson is not someone who is easily put off.(11)........Partly as a result of this, turnover doubled, and having outgrown another site, Robertson bought a city-centre location for the group's headquarters. By now, Grapevine's main competitor was a new catering company called Towngates. Although Robertson tried to raise enough money to buy Towngates, she did not succeed.Then luck intervened and Towngates went bankrupt. (12)........Many accepted and the company's
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turnover went from £700,000 to £l .5 million almost overnight. However, the company's growth was not as smooth as it sounds in retrospect. Robertson admits, 'We were close to the edge during the growth period. Like many under-capitalised companies trying to grow, it might easily have collapsed.' But that, she feels, is the challenge of developing your own business. A But there are plenty of similar contracts to be won in the east of Scotland before Robertson turns her attention elsewhere. B Her way round this particular problem was to recruit the catering manager of the rival company. C But this demand was short-lived, and before long, increasing competition made it harder to make a profit. D 'It was a dramatic learning curve and very small amounts of money were earned at first,’says Robertson. E She decided that the solution, since many companies required working lunches for meetings with clients, was to prepare and deliver meals to business premises. F On hearing this, Robertson immediately contacted all of their clients and offered the services of Grapevine Caterers. G Instead, she studied accountancy after leaving university, and a steady if unspectacular professional path seemed set.
《Buffet Zone》,自助餐区域,在这篇文章里的意思应该是自助餐领域,讲的是一个在自 助餐领域取得了惊人成绩的杰出女性创业的故事。这套题目不难,尤其比起第四辑的题目。 文章本身有很清晰的故事发展脉络,选项和原文的对应也比较明显。文章的几个段落是按照 时间先后、故事发生的先后进行的,很明确。第一段是总括,第二段是讲的创业起步阶段的 一些困难以及应对困难的对策,第三段是公司好转后的办公室重置(relocation),第四、 五 段是公司的竞争情况,最后一段总结。 第八题,前面说一时冲动她买下了这个外卖餐馆(takeaway),事实上那个时候她对餐 饮业一无所知。空格后面说的是这段时间很困难,但是对获得所需要的经验却是很有必要的。 所以第八题的空格部分应该填入跟学习、积累经验有关的内容。D 选型最吻合,It was a dramatic learning curve,这里的 learning 是关键词,很明显的答案信号。还有 very small amounts of money were earned at first,at first 也是关键词。 第九题,空格前面说 large numbers of office workers wanting takeaway food for their lunches,大量的办公室员工需要外卖食品做午饭,这里的 wanting 是个很关键的词。空格
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后 面话锋一转,说曾经一度 5 公里内有 26 家食品商店,但是经济转变了,一条街都空了(blocks started to become vacant)。从上下文来分析,第九空的内容应该和办公室员工的外卖需 求有 关,同时带有转折意思。C 选项完全符合这一条件:但是这种需求是短暂的,不久,逐渐增 长的竞争使得赢得利润变得更加困难。 第十题,上文说经济形势转变了,所以 Robertson 决定从事多样化的经营。后面说这种 做法永远的改变了公司的经营方式。所以第十空应该填入相应的对策,怎么样来应对经济形 势的转变。符合这一条件的是 B 和 E,都是关于解决问题的,但是 B 选项所说的招募竞争 对手的餐厅经理在上下文内容中没有提到。应该选 D,为商业大厦送饭,正好对应下一段所 说的。 第十一题,这一题才应该选 B,前面说竞争对手给自己造成了很大的困扰。但是 Robertson 却不是那么容易屈服的人。后面说部分原因是这个,营业额翻倍了。所以中间应 该也是填入对策。和竞争对手有关的,所以应该选 B,B 的 particular 是个关键词,rival company 也很明显。 第十二题,前面说 Robertson 想收购一个竞争对手,但是没成功,结果人家公司自己破 产倒闭了。后面来了一个 many accepted,可以看出这中间应该填入的是人家公司破产后 Robertson 的一些举措。F 满足这一条件:一听到这些,Robertson 马上联系他们的客户并 且 提供了自己公司的服务。 1、buffet: a meal at which people serve themselves from a table and then stand or sit somewhere else to eat 自助餐 2、takeaway a、a restaurant that cooks and sells food that you take away and eat somewhere else 外卖餐 馆 b、a meal that you buy at this type of restaurant 外卖的饭菜;外卖食物 3、in retrospect: thinking about a past event or situation, often with a different opinion of it from the one you had at the time 回顾 4、under-capitalised: (about a business) not having enough money (capital) to be able to operate normally, pay debts and grow 资金不足。 5、Instead, she studied accountancy after leaving university, and a steady if unspectacular professional path seemed set. 这个句子里 if 的用法比较少见,参见朗文的解释:used when adding one criticism of a person or thing that you generally like e.g: Lunch was a grand if rather noisy affair. 所以 G 选项的意思就是:然而,离开大学后她学的是会计,一个平淡无奇的职业道路 似乎已经铺就。 HOW TO MARKET YOURSELF
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We manage our own careers now. So knowing how to brand and position yourself in the market as 'Me plc' at different stages of your working life is becoming an increasingly vital skill. At least that is what image expert Mary Spillane believes. 'Employment as we know it is decreasing. Jobs don't exist, work exists. In the next decade most of us will be suppliers, not staff. We will have clients not bosses. If you are under 30, you probably know that there is only one firm to join for life: Me plc. It promotes you and your potential to others.' 'We're working in multi-national, multicultural, multi-corporate teams and it's important to understand the implications of this. We need to create a personal brand that is unique, but complements the brand of the corporation we are working for. You have to find a way to do it so that you are not just a typical employee,' advises Spillane. 'You have to decide what central values you want to project, and also what may need to alter from situation to situation.' Many people only remember Mary Spillane for the years she spent running a cosmetics company, but she actually has masters degrees in information science and politics. She used to hide that hard-hitting side, but is now eager to show it and forget about cosmetics. 'Now that I'm working in the boardrooms of major plcs and global companies, I'm playing up my degrees and management background so that the image side is seen only as an addition to the value side,' says Spillane. Some contracts take longer than others. 'The City law firms I'm currently working for are really difficult because they don't have any idea of what their brand should be, and are still very traditional even when talking about becoming modern. I'm showing them how to do everything from changing their reception areas -which tend to be very off-putting with their high-fronted reception desks - to how to make small talk that is less formal and rigid. Companies rebrand themselves all the time, spending millions on new office interiors and so on. But without an underlying change of attitudes, it can prove an empty exercise.' She argues that for individuals too, there must be more than a surface change, as
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rebranding goes deeper than a mere change of wardrobe. Beyond advice on appearance, she tells clients, 'Remind yourself of what you are selling: the personal values that comprise your brand. Learn to present yourself in a way that will project what you want to deliver. Lifelong learning is essential, together with the sort of discovery and adventure that promote personal growth. Always have an up-to-the-minute CV ready to print out, refreshing it every few months with your most recent achievements, just to remind others of your brand value.' She believes it is essential that you understand both your public self and your private self, as well as your blind spots and your potential, in order to create an effective brand. The public self is the image you project to the world, the private self is what you know about yourself but others don't, arid blind spots are those things that others see about you but you can't see for yourself. By deciding what image you want other people to see, emphasising more of your private self and sorting out a few blind spots, you will increase not only your potential to influence others, but also your self-esteem and self-confidence.' 13 In the first paragraph, Mary Spillane says people should learn how to market themselves because A it encourages companies to give them a job for life. B in the future it will be a company requirement. C in many careers it is becoming difficult to succeed. D it will help them adapt to developments in the job market. 14 Spillane says that, when creating a personal brand, it is important to A change things depending on the circumstances. B decide what image people would like you to present. C make sure that colleagues feel at ease with your image. D follow the example of someone in the company you work for. 15 What do we learn about Spillane in the third paragraph? A She is embarrassed about her career with a cosmetics company. B She doesn't like talking about her academic background. C She has qualifications many people are unaware of. D She worries about how other people see her. 16 Which problem does Spillane refer to when talking about the companies she is presently
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working with? A They find it difficult to accept her ideas. B They are unaware of how to rebrand themselves. C They don't want to spend large amounts of money. D They are unwilling to modernise their work environment. 17 When advising people on rebranding themselves, Spillane tells them to A attend courses to gain specialist skills. B update regularly their written proof of what they can do. C try out different ways of presenting themselves to others. D remember that what they look like is the most important point. 18 Spillane says that, in order to rebrand yourself successfully, it is important to A ask for other people's opinions about your image. B feel confident about what you are trying to achieve. C learn how to make use of all aspects of your character. D model yourself on people with a certain amount of influence. 《How to market yourself》,怎样开发你自己。这篇文章主要是一个专家(Mary Spillane) 对个人在职业生涯中的一些建议,包括怎么定位、怎样正确认识自己等等。很实用很中肯的 一篇文章。看来这国外的专家并不也是夸夸其谈之辈啊。 13 题,问第一段 Mary Spillane 认为人们应该学会开发他们自己的原因是什么。第一段 里这个专家认为就业机会在减少,job 不存在了,存在的是 work,在未来十年所有人都将成 为才华和能力的提供者(supplier),而不是员工(staff),老板将变成自己的客户。从专 家的 这段话可以看出她认为人们应该学会开发自己的原因是适应就业市场的发展,也就是 D 答 案所说的。A 在原文没有提到,B 的理解有误,原文说 there is only one firm to join for life: Me plc。生活中只有一个值得加入的公司:自我公司。这句的意思还是说人们要学会开发自己, 而不是将来有公司需要。C 在原文中也没有提到。 14 题,问在创造个人品牌的时候,很重要的是什么。答案是第二段的最后一句:You have to decide what central values you want to project, and also what may need to alter from situation to situation.你必须决定自己要建立的中心价值什么,同时还有哪些是需要随着环境的改 变而 改变的。A 的表述正确,根据环境来改变事情。B 不对,不是说决定人们想要你呈现的形象, 而是自己决定自己想要建立的中心价值。C、D 在原文都没有提到。 15 题,问第三段可以了解到 Spillane 的什么事。第三段介绍说这个女人曾经经营过一家 化妆品公司,但其实她还拥有信息科学和政治的硕士学位。当在化妆品公司的时候她试图把 学历的一面深藏不露,但是现在换了一家公司,她迫不及待的想将这一面给展现出来。从这 些可以看出这个女人的思路:需要哪一面就表现哪一面。15 题的答案是 C:她拥有的素质 很多人都不知道。A 不对,没有提到尴尬,B 不对,在适当的时候才会去谈论自己的学历背 景,D 在原文也没有提到。 16 题,问 Spillane 指出了现在工作公司的什么问题。答案是第四段的这么一句:they don't have any idea of what their brand should be, and are still very traditional even when talking about
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becoming modern.对于自己的品牌应该是怎么样的他们没有任何概念,同时在谈到变得现代 时依然很传统。这一段是讲这个公司在转变时的一些问题,他们投入了巨大的财力想重新树 立自己的品牌,但是没有一个深层次的态度的转变,是很难有实效的。答案是 B,不知如何 重新树立自己的品牌。A 不对,没有说不愿意接受,C 不对,公司投入巨大,D 不对,不是 不愿意现代化,而不知道怎么现代化,说要现代化还是显得很传统。 17 题,问对于想要重新树立自己品牌的个人,Spillane 的建议是什么。答案是第五段的 最后一句:Always have an up-to-the-minute CV ready to print out, refreshing it every few months with your most recent achievements 时刻要有一个准备打印的最新的简历,每隔几个月 用你最 新的成绩来更新一次。总结起来就是 B 选项所说的“固定更新关于自己能做什么的书面证 明”。 18 题,问为了能成功的重新树立自己的个人品牌,很重要的是什么。最后一段强调了 人应该了解自己的几个方面:公我(public self)、私我(private self)、盲点和潜力, 并且分别 介绍了四种方面的含义。答案是这么一句,需要提炼总结:By deciding what image you want other people to see, emphasising more of your private self and sorting out a few blind spots。更多 的强调私我,并且挑选出一些盲点。总结起来就是 B 所说的:学会怎样全面利用自己性格 的各个方面。 理解一下 D 选项一个词组的含义:model yourself on(after) somebody:to try to be like someone else because you admire them 这篇文章其实并不难,但是很有实用价值。某些地道的商务英语表述可以用在口语里, 而更具意义的是,这篇文章里提到了一些关于个人职业的建议,很中肯,值得人参考。 1、jobs don't exist, work exists. In the next decade most of us will be suppliers, not staff. We will have clients not bosses.这是一种比较新颖的工作观,不应该把自己看做是给老板 打 工的。每个人都是自己的老板,出售自己的才学和能力,老板只是自己的客户。有了这 样的心态,人在工作中就会变得积极主动。不过有一点,客户的质量一定要好好把握啊 2、You have to decide what central values you want to project, and also what may need to alter from situation to situation.树立属于自己的品牌,并且相机而动。 3、Remind yourself of what you are selling: the personal values that comprise your brand. Learn to present yourself in a way that will project what you want to deliver. 一个企业要想 立足商界需要核心价值,同样的,一个人要立足社会也需要核心价值。关键在于你如何 定位自己。找准了定位,就不会迷失方向。
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Planning In any planning system, from the simplest budgeting to the most complex corporate planning, there is an annual process. This is partly due to the fact that firms (19).......their accounting on a yearly (20)......., but also because similar (21)....... often occur in the market. Usually, the larger the firm, the longer the planning takes. But typically, planning for next year may start nine months or more in advance, with various stages of evaluation leading to (22)....... of the complete plan three months before the start of the year. Planning continues, however, throughout the year, since managers (23) ....... progress against targets, while looking forward to the next year. What is happening now will (24)....... the objectives and plans for the future. In today's business climate, as markets constantly change and become more difficult to (25)....... , some analysts believe that long-term planning is pointless. In some markets they may be right, as long as companies can build the sort of flexibility into their (26).......which allows them to (27).......to any sudden changes. Most firms, however, need to plan more than one year ahead in order to (28).......their long-term goals. This may reflect the time it takes to commission and build a new production plant, or, in marketing (29)....... , it may be a question of how long it takes to research and launch a range of new products, and reach a certain (30)....... in the market. If, for example, it is going to take five years for a particular airline to become the (31)....... choice amongst business travellers on certain routes, the airline must plan for the various (32)....... involved. Every one-year plan, therefore, must be (33)....... in relation to longer-term plans,and it should contain die stages that are necessary to achieve the final goals. 19 A make up B carry out C bring about D put down 20 A basis B grounds C foundation D structure 21 A distributions B guides C designs D patterns 22 A approval B permission C consent D decision 23 A value B inspect C review D survey 24 A command B prompt C influence D persuade 25 A guess B speculate C reckon D predict
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26 A operations B techniques C measures D exercises 27 A answer B respond C counter D reply 28 A move B lead C develop D benefit 29 A expressions B descriptions C words D terms 30 A reputation B position C situation D influence 31 A desired B selected C preferred D supposed 32 A acts B steps C means D points 33 A handed over B drawn up C made out D written off 这篇文章是关于公司计划的(planning),做计划时的过程和需要考虑的一些因素。 全文的第一句话说公司做的决定是一个年度过程(annual process)。接下来谈到原因。 19 题,make up 是组成、捏造、化妆的意思,用在这里和 accounting 搭配不上;carry out 是执 行(to do something that needs to be organized and planned);bring about 是带来, 使发生(to make something happen);put down 放下,镇压。从意思上看,应该选 B,carry out。 事实上,carry out accounting on …..basis 是金融英语里专业且地道的说法。最常见的 一 种是 carry out accounting on the accrual basis 执行权责发生制。相应的,20 题选 basis, 公司 时在一年的基础上执行会计准则的。 21 题,这里需要理解上下文的含义。这一整句话仍然是在说明公司进行 planning 的原因。 正是因为相似的模式会在市场上出现,所以公司才需要进行计划。选 patterns 是最符合原 义 的。 22 题,很明显,这里填入的词是表示批准、通过之类的,是指年前三个月完整的计划 就会被通过。从中文意思上看,A、B、C 三个词都是符合的。具体看英文解释对几个词的 用法进行区分。 approval:when a plan, decision, or person is officially accepted 批准,正式的 eg:The president has already given his approval to the plan. permission:when someone is officially allowed to do something 允许,也是正式的 eg:You must ask permission before taking any photographs inside the church. consent:permission to do something 不那么正式的允许 eg:He took the car without the owner's consent. 这一题是讲的计划被批准或者通过,所以用 approval。 23 题,这里的前后文的意思是计划贯穿全年始终,所以经理们需要回顾过去,展望未来。 后面的 looking forward to 是个答案信号,相对应的前面应该选 review,根据目标回顾过 程。 24 题比较简单,理解了句子含义不难做出选择。现在发生的事情将会影响未来的目标和 计划。选 influence。 25 题,从这个句子来看,填入的词是应该可以直接和 market 搭配的。Predict the market 是商英里地道常见的用法,市场预测。 26 题,往他们的操作中增加一点灵活性,这样可以对突然发生的变化做出反应。Operation: the work or activities done by a business or organization, or the process of doing this work.
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27 题,respond to 对…..做出反应。 28 题,为了开发公司的长期目标,需要一年以上的时间来计划。从意思和用法上,只能 选择 develop。 29 题,in market terms 用市场术语来说。固定用法。 30 题,position in the market,市场上的地位。前面已经暗示了这里要用市场术语来表 述, position in the market 就是固定表达(positioning is that exclusive space your brand owns in the marketplace. It's relevant and compelling to your customers, and different from your competitors.) 31 题,只需要理解 preferred 的意思:首选的 32 题,想让这个航空公司成为特定路线上商务旅客的首选,必须先计划好相关的步骤。 按步骤来拟定计划,最后才能成功,所以选 step。 33 题,需要理解四个词组的含义。 hand over: to give something to someone with your hand, especially because they have asked for it or should have it.交出 draw up: to prepare a written document, such as a list or contract 起草(draw up plans/proposal) e.g: He was asked to draw up proposals for reforming the law make out: to be just able to see or hear something 看见或听见 to understand something, especially the reason why something has happened 理解
write off: to write a letter to a company or organization asking them to send you goods or information 写信寄出 to decide that someone or something is useless, unimportant, or a failure 注销 to officially say that a debt no longer has to be paid, or officially accept that you cannot get back money you have spent or lost 勾销
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1 Sometimes it is necessary to insist on further explanation. 2 You shouldn't focus on your response while others are still speaking. 3 People are reluctant to admit that they don't listen well. 4 There are benefits in seeing things from the speaker's perspective. 5 Keen observation of the speaker can support our listening skills. 6 It is risky to think about a different issue while someone is speaking. 7 People do not mind hearing their own views summarised. Good listener, better manager A Too often we accuse others of not listening, pretending that we ourselves are faultless, yet in our hearts we know that many of the mistakes we make come about because we haven't listened carefully enough. We get things wrong because we haven't quite understood what someone meant when they were talking to us. Anyone who has ever taken the minutes of a long meeting will know how hard it is to remember - despite the benefit of notes - exactly what everyone said. But success depends on getting things right - and that means listening. B Listening is not the same thing as hearing; it is not an effortless activity. It demands attention and concentration. It may mean quizzing the speaker for additional information or for clarification - it is always better to ask than to continue regardless and get things wrong. However, if you allow your mind to wander onto something else, even for a few minutes, you'll miss what the speaker is saying - probably at the very moment when he or she is saying something critical. And not having heard, you won't know you've missed anything until it's too late. C The most common bad habit we have is to start thinking of what we are going to say about the subject long before the other speaker has finished. We then stop listening. Even worse, this often adds rudeness to inattentiveness, as once you have decided what to say there is a fair chance you will interrupt to say it. Good listeners don't interrupt. In fact it is often worth explaining the main idea of what you have just been told before going on to make your own points. Nobody is offended by this and it shows that you have listened well.
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D Above all be patient and accept that many people are not very good communicators. It's helpful to remember that the ways people move and position themselves while they are speaking can reveal a great deal about what they are saying. Equally importantly you should put yourself in the other person's place, both intellectually and emotionally; it will help you to understand what they are getting at and form a response. But don't be too clever. Faced with a know-all, many people keep quiet because they see no point in continuing. 这篇文章讲的是倾听(listening)的重要性。一个好的管理者必然是一个好的倾听者, 所以要讲究倾听的艺术。 第一题,有时坚持进一步的解释是很有必要的。答案是 B 段的这么一句:It may mean quizzing the speaker for additional information or for clarification - it is always better to ask than to continue regardless and get things wrong 它可能意味着为了进一步的信息和说明去 询问说 话的人——问总比不顾情况的继续并且把事情办错的好。这里的 additional information 对应 于 further explanation. 第二题,不能在别人还在说的时候就开始关注自己的回应。答案是 C 段的第一句:The most common bad habit we have is to start thinking of what we are going to say about the subject long before the other speaker has finished。我们最常见的坏习惯就是在讲话者远还没 结束的时 候就开始思考我们将对这个话题说些什么。这里的 before the other speaker has finished 就是 others are still speaking,focus on your response 就是 start thinking of what we are going to say about the subject。 第三题,人们不愿意承认自己没有听好。答案是 A 段的第一句:Too often we accuse others of not listening, pretending that we ourselves are faultless, yet in our hearts we know that many of the mistakes we make come about because we haven't listened carefully enough。我 们经常指责别 人没有好好听,假装我们自己是无可指责的,其实在我们心里知道,很多我们所犯的错误都 是由于听的不够仔细。这句的意思就是说我们心里知道什么原因,但是口头上喜欢指责别人。 也就是第三题题干说的不愿意承认。 第四题,从说话者的视角去考虑问题是有好处的。答案是 D 段的这么一句:Equally importantly you should put yourself in the other person's place, both intellectually and emotionally。同样重要的是你必须把自己置于别人的位置上,既是智力上的也是情感上的。
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这里的 put yourself in other person’s place 就是 seeing things from the speaker’ s perspective。 第五题,对说话者的敏锐观察可以提高倾听技巧。答案是 D 段的这么一句:It's helpful to remember that the ways people move and position themselves while they are speaking can reveal a great deal about what they are saying。记住说话人的移动方式和姿势是很有用的, 这些可以 揭示出很多他们所说话的信息。连说话的姿势都要记住,当然是 keen observation 了, helpful 可以对应于 support。 第六题,当别人在说话的时候去想着另外一件事是很危险的。答案是 B 段的这么一句: if you allow your mind to wander onto something else, even for a few minutes, you'll miss what the speaker is saying 如果你让自己走神了,哪怕是仅有的几分钟,你也将错过别人所说 的话。 allow your mind wander onto something else 也就是 think about a different issue. 第七题,人们不介意听到他们自己的观点被总结。答案是 C 段的这么一句:In fact it is often worth explaining the main idea of what you have just been told before going on to make your own points. Nobody is offended by this 事实上在作出自己观点之前往往很值得解 释下刚 刚所听到内容的主要观点。没有人会被这个所冒犯。explaining the main idea of what you have just been told 也就是 hearing their own views summarised。do not mind 也就是 nobody is offended by this。
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Finding the right people When a small company grows, managers must take on many new roles. Besides the day-to-day running of the business, they find themselves responsible for, among other things, relations with outside investors, increased levels of cashflow and, hardest of all, recruitment. For most managers of small and medium-sized enterprises, the job of searching for, interviewing and selecting staff is difficult and time-consuming. (0) ... .G... . Interviewing, for example, is a highly skilled activity in itself. 'We have found the whole process very hard,' says Dan Baker, founding partner of a PR company. 'In seven years we have grown from five to eighteen staff, but we have not found it easy to locate and recruit the right people.' (8).........As Dan Baker explains, 'We went to one for our first recruitment drive, but they took a lot of money in advance and didn't put forward anybody suitable. In the end we had to do it ourselves.' Most recruitment decisions are based on a pile of CVs, a couple of short interviews and two cautious references. David Rowe, a business psychologist, studied how appointments were made in five small companies. He claims that selection was rarely based on clear criteria. (9)......... This kind of approach to recruitment often has unhappy consequences for both employers and new recruits. Small companies often know what kind of person they are looking for. (10)......... According to David Rowe, this means that small company managers themselves have to devote more time and energy to recruitment. It shouldn't be something that is left to the evenings or weekends. Many companies start the recruitment process with over-optimistic ideas about the type of person that will fit into their team. 'It's very easy to say you must have the best people in the top positions,' says Alex Jones, managing partner of an executive recruitment company. 'But someone who is excellent in one company may not do so well in another environment.(11).........You can never guarantee a successful transfer of skills.'
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Whatever the candidate's qualifications, their personal qualities are just as important since they will have to integrate with existing members of staff. This is where, the recruitment industry argues, they can really help. According to Alex Jones, 'A good recruitment agency will visit your company and ask a lot of questions. (12).........They can ask applicants all sorts of questions you don't like to ask and present you with a shortlist of people who not only have the skills, but who are likely to fit in with your company's way of doing things.' A finance director in a big company, for example, will often make a terrible small company finance director because he or she is used to having a team doing the day-to-day jobs. B More often than not, the people making the choice prioritised different qualities in candidates or relied on guesswork. C Recruitment would seem an obvious task to outsource, but the company's experience of recruitment agencies was not encouraging. D They need paying for that, of course, but you will have them working for you and not for the candidate. E They are usually in very specific markets and the problem they face is that recruitment agencies may not really understand the sector. F This means that companies cannot spend more than the standard ten minutes interviewing each applicant. G Yet few are trained and competent for all aspects of the task.
Finding the right people,寻找合适的人。是说的小公司在起步发展阶段找到合适人才 的 难度和重要性。第一段总论小公司的经理们往往身兼数职,而其中最有难度的,还是招人。 文章介绍了找到合适的人应该注意的问题,并且说招人这种事不可能过度寄希望于招聘机 构。 第八题,这一题的前面说招人相当的困难,后面一个 as Dan Baker explains,说曾经找 过招聘机构,结果人家要提前收钱并且也没有提供合适的人,最后还是得靠自己。从这里的 as …explains 和后面的解释可以看出,第八空的内容应该是和招聘机构有关,招聘机构并 不 能满足公司的需要。选项 C 正好满足这一特点:招聘看起来像是个很明显的适合交外办理 的任务,但是这个公司同招聘机构打交道的经历不那么的鼓舞人。was not encouraging 是 关
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键点。 第九题,这一段都是讲招人的决策不够科学。基于简历或者是简短的面试,很少有明 确的准则。第九空的后面是 This kind of approach to recruitment often has unhappy consequences。可见第九空的内容还是和招聘的方法有关,并且是负面的。B 选项符合这一 条件:通常(more often than not 是 often 的意思,插入语),做决定的人将候选人身上 的不 同素质按优先顺序给排好,或者依赖于猜测。 第十题,这一题的后面说 this means the small company managers themselves have to devote more time and energy to recruitment。这意味着小公司自己要多花时间和精力在 招人上。 这里的 this means 的 this 是个暗示,可以看出第十题这里应该填入的是一些不太有利的因 素, 使得公司只有自己去招人。E 选项符合这一要求:他们通常处于一些特殊市场上,面临的问 题是招聘机构并不真正理解这一行业。 第十一题,这一段是讲招的人能否适应公司的环境的问题。这一空前面说的很明确: But someone who is excellent in one company may not do so well in another environment。 在一 个公司出色的人并不一定能在另一个环境里干的好。这一空的后面一句也是补充说明这一观 点的。可见第十一空的内容仍然是这个,没有转折。A 选项填入正好,是举例说明 11 空前 面的观点:比方说,一个大公司的财务总监在小公司往往会干的很糟糕,原因是他或她已经 习惯有一个团队来进行每日的工作。 第十二题,最后一段是和招聘机构相关的。前面说招聘机构会上门服务并且询问很多 的问题。这一空的后面说的是招聘机构如何帮助招人。选项 D 可以填入,D 的 They need paying for that 的 that 是个暗示,指代前面的上门服务。D 选项的后半部分说要让招聘公 司 为你而不是为候选人服务,可以和这一段的后半部分对应上。
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Department Store Magic For most of the 20th century Smithson's was one of Britain's most successful department stores, but by the mid-1990s, it had become dull. Still profitable, thanks largely to a series of successful advertising campaigns, but decidedly boring. The famous were careful not to be seen there, and its sales staff didn't seem to have changed since the store opened in 1908. Worst of all, its customers were buying fewer and fewer of its own-brand products, the major part of its business, and showing a preference for more fashionable brands. But now all this has changed, thanks to Rowena Baker, who became Smithson's first woman Chief Executive three years ago. Since then, while most major retailers in Britain have been losing money, Smithson's profits have been rising steadily. When Baker started, a lot of improvements had just been made to the building, without having any effect on sales, and she took the bold decision to invite one of Europe's most exciting interior designers to develop the fashion area, the heart of the store. This very quickly led to rising sales, even before the goods on display were changed. And as sales grew, so did profits. Baker had ambitious plans for the store from the start. 'We're playing a big game, to prove we're up there with the leaders in our sector, and we have to make sure people get that message. Smithson's had fallen behind the competition. It provided a traditional service targeted at middle-aged, middle-income customers, who'd been shopping there for years, and the customer base was gradually contracting. Our idea is to sell such an exciting variety of goods that everyone will want to come in, whether they plan to spend a little or a lot.' Baker's vision for the store is clear, but achieving it is far from simple. At first, many employees resisted her improvements because they just wouldn't be persuaded that there was anything wrong with the way they'd always done things, even if they accepted that the store had to overtake its competitors. It took many long meetings, involving the entire workforce, to win their support. It helped when they
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realised that Baker was a very different kind of manager from the ones they had known. Baker's staff policies contained more surprises. The uniform that had hardly changed since day one has now disappeared. Moreover, teenagers now get young shop assistants, and staff in the sports departments are themselves sports fans in trainers. As Baker explains, 'How can you sell jeans if you're wearing a black suit? Smithson's has a new identity, and this needs to be made clear to the customers.' She's also given every sales assistant responsibility for ensuring customer satisfaction, even if it means occasionally breaking company rules in the hope that this will help company profits. Rowena Baker is proving successful, but the City's big investors haven't been persuaded. According to retail analyst, John Matthews, 'Money had already been invested in refurbishment of the store and in fact that led to the boost in sales. She took the credit, but hadn't done anything to achieve it. And in my view the company's shareholders are not convinced. The fact is that unless she opens several more stores pretty soon, Smithson's profits will start to fall because turnover at the existing store will inevitably start to decline.' 13 According to the writer, in the mid-1990s Smithson's department store A was making a loss. B had a problem keeping staff. C was unhappy with its advertising agency. D mostly sold goods under the Smithson's name. 14 According to the writer, Smithson's profits started rising three years ago because of A an improvement in the retailing sector. B the previous work done on the store. C Rowena Baker's choice of designer. D a change in the products on sale. 15 According to Rowena Baker, one problem which Smithson's faced when she joined was that A the number of people using the store was falling slowly. B its competitors offered a more specialised range of products. C the store's prices were set at the wrong level. D customers were unhappy with the service provided. 16 According to the writer, many staff opposed Baker's plans because
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A they were unwilling to change their way of working. B they disagreed with her goals for the store. C they felt they were not consulted enough about the changes. D they were unhappy with her style of management. 17 Baker has changed staff policies because she believes that A the corporate image can be improved through staff uniforms. B the previous rules were not fair to customers. C customers should be able to identify with the staff serving them. D employees should share in company profits. 18 What problem does John Matthews think Smithson's is facing? A More money needs to be invested in the present store. B The company's profits will only continue to rise if it expands. C The refurbishment of the store is proving unpopular with customers. D Smithson's shareholders expect a quick return on their investments.
《Department store magic》,字面上是百货公司的魔力。讲的是英国的一个百货公司如何 摆脱困境。第一段是点明公司所遭遇的困境,接着第二段讲一个女 CEO 上台开始转变局面, 第三段和第四段具体讲这位女 CEO 的应对措施,最后一段总结:革命尚未成功,同志仍需 努力。 13 题,问在 90 年代中期这个百货公司的情况是什么样的。答案是第一段的最后一句: its customers were buying fewer and fewer of its own-brand products, the major part of its business, and showing a preference for more fashionable brands.这个题目的答案有 相当的迷惑 性。整个句子都是在讲客户购买的越来越少,偏好更多的时尚品牌。所以很容易误选 A,但 实际上这里并没有说亏损。关键是这个地方:its own-brand products, the major part of its business。自由品牌仍然是公司业务的主要部分。所以应该选 D:主要销售 Smithson 名下 的 产品。Under the Smithson’s name 也就是 its own brand products。 14 题,问 Smithson 的利润从三年前开始增长,原因是什么。答案是第二段的这么一句: she took the bold decision to invite one of Europe's most exciting interior designers to develop the fashion area 她做出了一个大胆的决定,邀请了欧洲最刺激的室内设计师来开发时尚领域。 后面紧接着就说 This very quickly led to rising sales,所以答案选 C:Rowena Baker 的设计师 选择。 15 题,问当 Rowena Baker 加入时公司面临的一个问题是什么。这题的关键是要理解一 个句子中一个词的含义:It provided a traditional service targeted at middle-aged, middle-income customers, who'd been shopping there for years, and the customer base was gradually contracting.。它提供的传统服务目标人群是中年中等收入者,这些人已经在那购物多年。 并 且客户基数逐渐减少。Contracting:缩小,收缩的意思。所以答案选 A。 16 题,问很多员工反对 Baker 计划的原因是什么。答案是这么一句:many employees
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resisted her improvements because they just wouldn't be persuaded that there was anything wrong with the way they'd always done things。不愿意被说服他们以前做事情的方式有什么问 题。意 思也就是不愿意改变他们工作的方式。选 A。 17 题,问 Baker 改变员工政策的原因是什么。答案在第四段,Baker 的原话:How can you sell jeans if you're wearing a black suit? Smithson's has a new identity, and this needs to be made clear to the customers。你怎么能穿着黑西服卖牛仔?Smithson 有一个新的身份,这些 必须对 客户很明确。也就是 C 选项说的“客户必须能辨别出服务他们的员工”,A 不对,没有提到 改善公司形象,B 和 C 在原文没有提到。 18 题,问 John 认为 Smithson 面临的问题是什么。答案是最后一段的最后一句:The fact is that unless she opens several more stores pretty soon, Smithson's profits will start to fall because turnover at the existing store will inevitably start to decline.事实上除非她尽快 的开更多的店, Smithson 的利润将会减少因为现有商店的营业额将不可避免的开始下降。也就是 B 所说的 除非扩张,公司的利润才会继续增长。
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Managing a career on the way up is quite different from managing one at the top of an organisation. Individuals on the way up have to build relationships with the people they (19) to. They usually have to (20) with subordinates in addition to people at the same level as themselves. The most senior staff only have those under them to relate to. This book (21)the idea that all working relationships, including the relationship with one's boss, can and should be managed. You do not have to be (22) than your manager in order to manage the relationship. Nor do you have to be better than your manager in any (23).Your manager may well be your career (24) and guide: he or she may have taught you almost everything you know about your
(25) of business - and may continue to teach you more. You may be planning to remain under his or her guidance in the future. None of these (26)should alter your relationship with your manager or (27) you off 'managing upwards'. I use this phrase to (28) to the management of one's boss because, for many people on the way up, it is the first relationship they have to get right. You can, of course, get on at work just by (29) positively to your manager, but that is not likely to be the most successful way to (30) your working life. An active policy of managing upwards will make you more successful and, at the same time, make the business of going to work more enjoable. It can also be a way to show (31) to your manager for the efforts he or she has made on your (32) Finally, managing upwards will make it easier for your manager to manage you, leaving him or her more time for other (33) and tasks. 19 A notify B inform C account D report 20 A unite B contact C handle D deal 21 A promotes B presses C advertises D convinces 22 A clearer B deeper C smarter D fuller 23 A respect B fashion C part D means 24 A leader B supporter C adviser D helper 25 A course B line C path D route 26 A factors B aspects C causes D topics 27 A put B see C keep D take 28 A specify B identify C indicate D refer
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29 A giving B operating C reacting D co-operating 30 A run B forward C move D make 31 A appraisal B value C appreciation D regard 32 A advantage B benefit C side D behalf 33 A posts B roles C positions D acts Managing upwards,打理同上司的关系。 19 题,report to,对什么。。。负责,隶属;从属。用在这里句子意思正好:处于上升阶段 的 个人需要同他们所从属的人处理好关系。A、B 的词后面都接 of,account to 是解释的意思, 用在这里意思不对。 20 题,联系此空上下文,应该是说处理与下属的关系。deal with 后接 somebody 是表示处 理 和某人的关系。A、B 意思不对,C 是及物动词,后面不需要 with。 21 题,promote 促进,推动。promote the idea,推动某个想法。 22 题,根据意思选词。处理与上司的关系不需要比上司更聪明。其他几个词用在此处的话 都有些怪异,很容易排除。 23 题,respect,指方面。与 aspect 同义。常见的用法。 24 题,这个空要联系上下文,并且参考后面的 guide。 “ he or she may have taught you almost everything you know”,也就是说 TA 会对你的工作进行很多指导,因为有 taught,所以不 是 supporter 或者 helper,选 leader 又感觉拉远了距离,因此选 adviser。 25 题,一个让人头疼的商务英语固定词组。line of business,有业务和经营产品的意思。 提 供几个例句就很好理解含义了: We specialize in this line of business 我们专门经营此项服务; Does this item come under your line of business? 我想知道这种产品属您经营的范围 吗? You meet some very interesting people in my line of business 干我们这行,你会遇 到很多有趣的 人。 26 题,根据前后文意思,选 factors,因素。 27 题,put off 一般表示延迟,但它还有一个不太出名的意思是阻碍。see off,送行;keep off, 远离;take off,起飞。 28 题,根据意思选 refer to,提及,描述。 29 题,react to,固定搭配,对什么作出反应。用在这里意思也吻合。 30 题,the most successful way to (30) your working life,意思上应该填入表示经营、 管理等 的意思,run 有这个意思。C 和 D 用法不对,forward something 是指转发邮件。 31 题,appreciation,,表示感激之情。 32 题,on one’s behalf,站在某人的立场上,为某人的利益。此处的意思是对他为你所 做出 的努力表示感激。 33 题,role,职能,角色。为经理腾出空来扮演其他的角色。position 是位置,位置一直
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是 经理,没别的;act 是行为,法案。
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Managing a career on the way up is quite different from managing one at the top of an organisation. Individuals on the way up have to build relationships with the people they (19) to. They usually have to (20) with subordinates in addition to people at the same level as themselves. The most senior staff only have those under them to relate to. This book (21)the idea that all working relationships, including the relationship with one's boss, can and should be managed. You do not have to be (22) than your manager in order to manage the relationship. Nor do you have to be better than your manager in any (23).Your manager may well be your career (24) and guide: he or she may have taught you almost everything you know about your (25) of business - and may continue to teach you more. You may be planning to remain under his or her guidance in the future. None of these (26)should alter your relationship with your manager or (27) you off 'managing upwards'. I use this phrase to (28) to the management of one's boss because, for many people on the way up, it is the first relationship they have to get right. You can, of course, get on at work just by (29) positively to your manager, but that is not likely to be the most successful way to (30) your working life. An active policy of managing upwards will make you more successful and, at the same time, make the business of going to work more enjoyable. It can also be a way to show (31) to your manager for the efforts he or she has made on your (32) Finally, managing upwards will make it easier for your manager to manage you, leaving him or her more time for other (33) and tasks. 19 A notify B inform C account D report 20 A unite B contact C handle D deal 21 A promotes B presses C advertises D convinces 22 A clearer B deeper C smarter D fuller 23 A respect B fashion C part D means 24 A leader B supporter C adviser D helper 25 A course B line C path D route 26 A factors B aspects C causes D topics 27 A put B see C keep D take 28 A specify B identify C indicate D refer
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29 A giving B operating C reacting D co-operating 30 A run B forward C move D make 31 A appraisal B value C appreciation D regard 32 A advantage B benefit C side D behalf 33 A posts B roles C positions D acts Managing upwards,打理同上司的关系。 19 题,report to,对什么。。。负责,隶属;从属。用在这里句子意思正好:处于上升阶段 的 个人需要同他们所从属的人处理好关系。A、B 的词后面都接 of,account to 是解释的意思, 用在这里意思不对。 20 题,联系此空上下文,应该是说处理与下属的关系。deal with 后接 somebody 是表示处 理 和某人的关系。A、B 意思不对,C 是及物动词,后面不需要 with。 21 题,promote 促进,推动。promote the idea,推动某个想法。 22 题,根据意思选词。处理与上司的关系不需要比上司更聪明。其他几个词用在此处的话 都有些怪异,很容易排除。 23 题,respect,指方面。与 aspect 同义。常见的用法。 24 题,这个空要联系上下文,并且参考后面的 guide。 “ he or she may have taught you almost everything you know”,也就是说 TA 会对你的工作进行很多指导,因为有 taught,所以不 是 supporter 或者 helper,选 leader 又感觉拉远了距离,因此选 adviser。 25 题,一个让人头疼的商务英语固定词组。line of business,有业务和经营产品的意思。 提 供几个例句就很好理解含义了: We specialize in this line of business 我们专门经营此项服务; Does this item come under your line of business? 我想知道这种产品属您经营的范围 吗? You meet some very interesting people in my line of business 干我们这行,你会遇 到很多有趣的 人。 26 题,根据前后文意思,选 factors,因素。 27 题,put off 一般表示延迟,但它还有一个不太出名的意思是阻碍。see off,送行;keep off, 远离;take off,起飞。 28 题,根据意思选 refer to,提及,描述。 29 题,react to,固定搭配,对什么作出反应。用在这里意思也吻合。 30 题,the most successful way to (30) your working life,意思上应该填入表示经营、 管理等 的意思,run 有这个意思。C 和 D 用法不对,forward something 是指转发邮件。 31 题,appreciation,,表示感激之情。 32 题,on one’s behalf,站在某人的立场上,为某人的利益。此处的意思是对他为你所 做出 的努力表示感激。 33 题,role,职能,角色。为经理腾出空来扮演其他的角色。position 是位置,位置一直
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是 经理,没别的;act 是行为,法案。
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《SELL,SELL,SELL》 Last year over £ 13bn was spent on advertising in the UK and research indicates that most people will have seen 2m sales messages by the time they are 30. Advertising is big business and often acts as the interface between commerce and culture. While there are many adverts that just irritate, there are some that are miniature works of art. (0)... .The advertisers themselves believe they are delivering an important message because they are protecting and promoting a client's brand and extending greater choice to the consumer. (8).........Instead of being free, many TV channels would only be available on subscription packages of about £500 per month and newspapers might cost six times more than their present cover price. There are many different models of advertising practice, but no one is precisely sure what makes a good advert. (9).........While some try to get you to buy a product, others, such as anti-smoking campaigns, aim to get you not to do something. Some adverts are not aimed at consumers at all, but at retailers, shareholders or employees. For example, manufacturers often advertise their products in trade magazines to reassure retailers that a new brand will be widely promoted. Petrol companies often choose to emphasise how environmentally friendly they are; this is to offset any negative public perceptions of the industry rather than to persuade consumers to buy an individual brand of petrol. (10).........This is because petrol is regarded, in advertising terms, as a distress purchase. We get it because we can't do without it, not because we really want it. In general, however, the main aim of advertising is to attribute emotional qualities to a product in order to create an individual brand that the consumer can associate with. Working out whether an advert has been successful is extremely difficult.(11).........For example, what persuaded them to buy a car? You cannot be sure whether it was the advertising, the price, the opposition's distribution, changes in the law or changes in consumer attitudes that was the determining factor. What advertising can't do is make consumers buy something they
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don't want. It can perhaps persuade you to try something once, but if you don't like what you get, you won't try it again.(12).........In other words, where there is no emotional engagement, such as a consumer's feelings about a bag of peas, beliefs are much harder to shift. A Moreover, it is almost impossible to get people to change the way they view things they are indifferent to. B Over the last ten years, other forms of advertising, such as direct marketing, have become increasingly popular as well as scientific. C They don't, as the industry well knows, care enough to be brand loyal to such a product. D Whether you accept this argument or not, you have to recognise that without advertising our world would be very different. E The problem lies in isolating precisely what motivates people to behave in a particular way. F This is partly because not all advertisements are designed to do the same thing. G The production costs involved in these can reach higher figures than those for the average movie.
《Sell,Sell,Sell》,听名字像是跟销售有关,其实是关于广告的。广告的最终目的就是提 升销售。第一段是总体讲述广告业的情况以及广告的作用。第二段介绍了广告的几种形式, 不同的公司对广告的要求是不一样的。第三段讲怎么样才能打好广告,一不小心就容易让观 众产生逆反心理。 第八题,这一空的前后都是在讲广告的作用。前面说做广告的人认为他们是在传递一 种重要的信息,因为他们保护并且提升了客户的品牌同时又给消费者提供了更多的选择。后 面说要是没有广告的话,很多电视节目就不会免费,而且报纸会比现在贵六倍。从前后的信 息可以看出这里是在讲广告的重要性,广告是必不可少的。D 选项可以和这里的前后内容相 吻合:不管你接不接受这个论断,你都得承认没了广告世界将大不一样。this argument 是 指 前面广告商的那段话,而 very different 就是引出后面的电视不免费、报纸涨价等等。 第九题,这一段是讲广告的不同模式。第一句话就说广告有很多模式,但是没有人能 够精确的确定什么才是好的广告。紧接着后面说了不同的广告有不同的目的和侧重点。从 while some…的句式可以看出这里是扩展说明的,那么 F 空应该接一个过渡的句子,表示不 同的公司对广告有不同的需求。选项 F 符合这一特点:这部分是因为不是所有的广告都被 设计成干相同的事情。也就是说不同的广告会满足不同的需求。This 是指代前面的 no one is precisely sure。空格后面的扩展说明可以对应于 do the same thing。 第十题,这一空前面是以汽油公司为例,说明这些公司的广告并不怎么强调个人品牌, 他们更加看重的是整个大环境的友好。后面也是具体解释这一现象的原因。所以相应的第十 空也是填入一个过渡句,前面的 rather than to persuade consumers to buy an individual brand of
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petrol 是一个暗示,这一空应该填入 C:他们并没有像这个行业所熟知的那样看重对这个产 品的品牌忠诚度。Brand loyal 也就是 buy an individual brand of petrol 第十一题,最后一段讲什么样的广告才能算是成功的。第一句就说评判很困难。11 题 空格后面是举例说明。what persuaded them to buy a car 是一个关键的句子。因为没有 办法判 断到底是什么最终说服消费者购买,所以很难评判一个广告是否成功。11 题选 E,motivate 是关键词,可以对应最后一段反复出现的 persuade。 E 选项的句子值得分析理解:The problem lies in isolating precisely what motivates people to behave in a particular way. Isolating 在这里不是形容词,孤立的,而是动词的分词形式,isolate 此处的用法是:if you isolate an idea, problem etc, you consider it separately from other things that are connected with it。(isolate something from something)将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理)。 所以这个句子的含义就是问题在于准确的将人们某种行为的动机给剔除出来。 第十二题,这一空的前后都是在说客户对产品喜好的重要性。前面说 if you don't like what you get, you won't try it again,后面说 where there is no emotional engagement, beliefs are much harder to shift.。没有感情依赖的话,观念很难被转变。从前后内容来看,A 选项 最适 合填入:另外,让人转变对他们不感兴趣的事情的看法几乎是一件不可能的事情。Change the way 对应于 shift,indifferent to 对应 there is no emotional engagement. Trouble with Teamwork Mary Owen examines the role and efficiency of teams Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples of work they have done as members of a successful team are in as strong a position as those who can point to significant individual achievement. Indeed, too much of the latter may suggest that the person concerned is not a 'team player' - one of the more serious failings in the book of management. The importance of being a team player is a side effect of the increasing interaction across departments and functional divides. Instead of pushing reports, paperwork and decisions around the organisation, 'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertise more carefully targeted at important business issues,' says Steve Gardner, in his book Key Management Concepts. He adds, 'Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork. Multinational teams now study policy decisions in the light of their impact on the local market.' But is teamworking being overdone? 'Some managers are on as many as seven or eight
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different teams', says Dr Cathy Bandy, a psychologist who recently ran a conference on the subject. 'They take up so much time that managers can't get on with core tasks.' Forming teams and having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose. There is also the danger of an unhealthy desire to keep the team going after the work has been done. 'People feel the need to belong, and team membership can provide a kind of psychological support.' The idea behind teamworking is that, when the right group of people is brought together, a 'force' develops which is greater than the sum of their individual talents. This is often true in sport, where good players can reach unexpected heights as members of an international team. However, few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success or failure, as winning a match. 'In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team is the right way of approaching it', says Steve Gardner. 'Unfortunately, people focus instead on who the members of the team should be and what roles they are to play' Dr Bandy agrees. 'There is always a danger that teams can turn into committees,' she says. 'In a lot of situations, one or two individuals would be much more effective.' So what makes a successful team? There are some general qualities that have been identified. Steve Gardner recommends that in every team there should be someone who is good at researching ideas and another who is good at shooting down impractical ones. There should be those who can resolve the tensions that naturally occur in a team and others who are focused on getting the job done. Also, providing a clear and achievable target at the outset is the best way of ensuring that the team will move on to greater things. 13 What point does the writer make about teamworking at the beginning of the article? A It is the most successful form of management. B It has changed the recruitment procedure in companies. C Well-run teams still allow individuals to demonstrate their talents. D Being a team player is now considered an essential management skill. 14 According to the article, teamwork developed within companies as a response to
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A modern office design. B changing work practices. C a reduction in administrative tasks. D the expansion of international business. 15 In the third paragraph, Dr Bandy suggests that A many employees do not enjoy working in teams. B some managers are not very effective team leaders. C some teams are created unnecessarily. D few teams are well organised. 16 According to the writer, teamwork is more effective in the field of sport because the players A know what they want to achieve. B are more competitive by nature. C have more individual talent. D can be driven by national pride. 17 Steve Gardner and Dr Bandy agree that when a business team is created people do not pay enough attention to A the structure of the team. B alternatives to the team. C selecting the team members. D directing the team's activities. 18 What is Steve Gardner's advice on operating a successful team? A Maintain a flexible approach to membership. B Allow personalities to develop within the team. C Select people who fit naturally into certain roles. D Make every effort to avoid conflict between members. 《Trouble with Teamwork》,团队合作的麻烦。文章讲了团队的重要性和很多团队存在的 问题,以及怎么样才能打造一个成功有效的团队。 第十三题,问文章开头作者针对团队合作做了什么论点。第一段是强调团队合作的重要 性,太多的个人成果会显得这个人不是个合格的团队成员。选答案要理解第一句话的含义: Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples of work they have done as members of a successful team are in as strong a position as those who can point to significant individual achievement.招聘者说能够给出自己作为一个成功团队成员的例子的候选人同那些指出重 要 的个人成果的人具有同样重要的地位。言下之意,拥有团队成员的经历也很重要。所以选 D, 作为一个团队成员如今被视为必要的管理技巧。A、B、C 都没有提到。 第十四题,问公司内部的团队合作是作为对什么的回应。也就是问团队合作的目的是什 么,答案是第二段的这么一句:'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertise more carefully targeted at important business issues 团队提 供了一个动态
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的会议场所,使得思想可以分享,技能可以更加仔细的对准重要的商业问题。这句里的 dynamic meeting place 可以对应于 B 段的 changing work practice。 第十五题,问在第三段 Dr Bandy 暗示什么。答案是她的一句原话:Forming teams and having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose. 形成团队然 后开会成了它本身的终点,几乎不管目的是什么。也就是说很多团队的建立是没有意义的, 多余的。选 C,一些团队被不必要的创建了。 第十六题,问作者认为团队合作在体育领域里更有效的原因是什么。第四段讲当一群正 确的人被组合到一起时会产生一种高于这些人个人能力的力量,在体育比赛里就是如此。这 一题的答案是第四段的最后一句:few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success or failure, as winning a match.。很少有企业能像赢得一 场比赛一样有一 系列清晰的目标,或者是对成功或失败有清晰的评判准则。也就是 A 选项所说的:知道他 们想要实现什么。what they want to achieve 可以对应于 a set of objectives。 十七题,问这两个人同意当一个商业团队被创立时人们没有把注意力放在什么上面。 这一题要理解第五段的意思。第一句说 In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team is the right way of approaching it。在企业,每个 人都必须很清 楚挑战是什么以及团队是否是实现它的最好的办法。考虑团队是不是最好的办法,也就是说 要考虑其他可能的途径,即 B 选项所说的团队的替代品(alternatives to the team),后 面有句 focus instead….人们却把注意力放在了其他的地方。从这些可以看出答案是 B。 第十八题,问关于运作一个成功团队 Steve Gardner 的建议是什么。这题的答案是对最 后一段的概括。答案是最后一段第三句 recommend 后面的一长串 there…who,要有不同的 人胜任不同的角色。归纳起来,就是各司其职选 C:选择能够自然融洽的胜任某个角色的人。 其他几个选项都没提到。 第二段有个地方值得解释下。Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork。 这 里的 dimension 用法比较特别,表示方面,特征,并且是很地道常见的说法 牛津词典的解释:an aspect or feature of a situation, problem, or thing。 麦克米兰的解释:a part of a situation, especially when it influences the way you think about the situation。 e.g: Doing volunteer work has added a whole new dimension to my life.
常见搭配:an extra/added/additional/further dimension Human Resources Policy CBA Bank was the largest financial institution to sign the employers' 'People Come First' code of practice in the early 1990s. In doing so, it committed itself to the highest (0) in human resources practices such as the communication of company(19)....... to employees, the setting of individual
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training and personal (20).......plans, and the holding of regular performance (21)....... for all staff. Like other organisations, CBA is replacing the traditional hierarchy with a flatter organisational structure which gives employees more broadly defined (22) .......within the company. The change is offering employees greater opportunities for work in cross-disciplinary project teams. As a result, interpersonal (23) ....... are extremely important. The policy seems to be working. There is a great deal of goodwill among employees, who (24).......the fact that customer satisfaction is the organisation's chief aim. CBA claims to pursue this aim for its own (25)....... , rather than as a means of earning profits for shareholders. An ability to relate to all kinds of people is the most important attribute CBA looks for in (26).......recruits. Graduates are (27)....... for a two-year period and exposed to all (28)....... of retail financial services. By the end of this training period, they will have taken their Institute of Banking examination and, if they have (29)....... their performance targets, they will have (30)....... a job at the bank. 'On the whole, we are not looking for people straight out of college,' says human resources manager Maiy Kemp. 'We would prefer that they had (31).......some experience of life and had taken a year out between school and college to travel or do some kind of work.' The company has recently introduced a new policy on pay, and it is now (32).......to performance through bonus schemes, with the objective being to (33) ....... employees for their achievements and effort. 19 A designs B purposes C ends D objectives 20 A continuation B extension C development D advancement 21 A reviews B trials C revisions D judgements 22 A capacities B parts C roles D elements 23 A abilities B talents C assets D skills 24 A recommend B honour C respect D obey 25 A sake B reason C behalf D cause 26 A expected B intended C potential D eventual 27 A taken on B written in C put on D drawn in 28 A fields B areas C regions D parts
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29 A arrived B done C passed D met 30 A secured B reached C confirmed D fixed 31 A gained B won C earned D realised 32 A attached B linked C combined D joined 33 A return B reward C recompense D refund 《Human Resource Policy》,人力资源政策。主要是讲的 CBA 银行的人力资源政策,。先 简 单 介 绍 了 这 个 银 行 的 管 理 结 构 , 是 扁 平 化 的 组 织 结 构 ( flatter organizational structure),而 不是等级制公司(hierarchy)。总体原则是不招应届的刚出校门的毕业生,而要有一定的生 活经验或者是工作经验。 第 19、20、21 题,这几空都是举例说明前面提到的 human resources practices。19 空是 说 的将公司的发展目标传达给员工。公司目标,用 objective。purpose 是指具体做某件事情 的 意图。这里有必要区分一下 objective 和 purpose,看英文解释。 purpose: the reason you do something, and the thing you want to achieve when you do it objective: something that you are working hard to achieve, especially in business or politics 第 20 题,个人培训和发展计划的制定。个人发展计划,personal development plans,选 C。 第 21 题,定期的表现回顾。用 review。hold 在这个句子里是举行的意思。the holding of regular performance review,定期举行员工的表现回顾。 第 22 题,说扁平化的组织结构可以给员工更加定义广泛的角色。broadly defined roles, 选 C。 第 23 题,人际交往技巧是很重要的。interpersonal skills,是地道的说法。参见一个例句: you will need good interpersonal skills. 第 24 题,这一句的意思很好理解,是说员工们越来越看重或者说是承认一个事实:顾客 的满意是组织的主要目标。recommend 是推荐、建议,后面不接 the fact(事实),honour 是 敬重,obey 是遵守,这里应该选择 respect。respect 这里是重视或者接受的意思,看英英 词 典上的解释:to accept that something which is established or formally agreed is right or important and not to attempt to change it or harm it。所以这一空应该选择 respect the fact, 表示接受这个 事实。 第 25 题,CBA 银行追求这个目的是为着自己的利益,而不是为股东挣利润的工具。for the sake of something 或 for something's sake:for the purpose of; in the interest of; in order to achieve or preserve 为了…目的;为了…的利益;为了。。。固定用法,选 A。 第 26 题,寻找潜在的新成员。地道的词是 potential,比如 potential recruits, potential staff, potential candidates.
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第 27 题,考察的是短语 take on 的一个用法,雇佣:If you take someone on, you employ them to do a job.;write in:to write a letter to a newspaper, television company or other organization, to state an opinion or ask something 以群众来信的形式表达的意见。 第 28 题,把毕业生分配在各个连锁金融服务领域。用 area。field 做领域、范围讲的时候 是指的研究、活动,region 是指的具体的地区,parts 是部分,应该用 area。 第 29 题,完成目标,met the targets。 第 30 题,完成了目标就可以得到工作。secure:to get possession of; acquire: 第 31 题,招的人已经具有了一定的生活经验。gain:to obtain something that is useful, that gives you an advantage, or that is in some way positive, especially over a period of time eg: After you've gained some experience teaching abroad you can come home and get a job. 第 32 题,薪酬现在和业绩挂钩。link to,联系。 第 33 题,reward sb.奖励某人。reward employees for their achievements and effort, 因为功 劳而奖励员工。 1 This development is in an area where the potential for consumer spending is the highest in the country. 2 The partners constructing this centre have been responsible for numerous other developments. 3 The centre may become a model for future urban development plans. 4 This centre is being marketed by the developers as the best place in the area to shop. 5 Other shopping destinations are located close to the agreed site for this centre. 6 Plans for this development have been presented to people who live in the area for comment and approval. 7 This development is being built in an area which has experienced sustained growth over time. A The Birmingham Alliance will provide Birmingham with one of Europe's largest regional shopping centres, right in the heart of the city. The Alliance, an initiative between three of the largest developers in the country, all with extensive experience of urban regeneration schemes, will facilitate an £800m investment in Birmingham. This will regenerate 40 acres of the city centre within the next decade. Planning permission is in place for the new scheme, which will be a short
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distance from existing prime retail areas. The development will be well serviced by all forms of public transport, as well as providing parking space for 3,200 cars. B The private-public partnership between Legal & General and Bracknell Town Council will manage the £500m regeneration of the town's centre. The proposals, which are awaiting the outcome of consultation with local residents, provide for approximately 102,000m2 of retail and leisure facilities, 200 residential units and office accommodation. This development is expected to set the standard for town centre regeneration schemes to come because of the way it integrates the business and community sectors. It will also facilitate great improvements in the region's transport infrastructure. C Bluewater is a symbol of retail excellence, achieved through a unique combination of design, retail mix, leisure, catering and hospitality. The centre, surrounded by parkland, is situated in the country's most affluent region. Eleven million people, with a combined spending power predicted to exceed a record £5.5bn, live within 60 minutes of the centre. The developers set a precedent in the industry by getting the country's three best-known department stores to open very large branches within the centre, as well as over 300 leading fashion and lifestyle stores. D Following its recent stock market success, Lend Lease is now developing Overgate shopping centre in Dundee. Construction is well under way, and with several of the country's best-known retailers already secured, Lend Lease is promoting the centre as the unrivalled shopping destination of the region. The economic base of the area has improved continuously over the past decade, due to the fast expansion of the biomedical and service sectors. With an estimated potential market of 500,000 people, Overgate is proving attractive to leading UK retailers. 这套题目的难度不一般,我估计能把这套题给吃透了,以后基本可以笑傲阅读的第一部 分了。文章有点散,题目的信息也是相当隐晦,很可能看了半天依然找不着北。写到这里多
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啰嗦几句,越是这种时候越要沉住气,所有人都一样,别人不会感觉比你容易。这是整个 BEC 考试的第一部分,如果不对付好了,后面会溃不成军。 文章 ABCD 四个部分分别介绍了四个不同的连锁店的发展情况(retail development), 因为是基本情况的介绍,所以有点泛,没法提炼重点,只能尽可能多的把文章里的疑似重点 词汇划出来,以待备用。 第一题,说这个地区的消费支出潜力是整个国家最高的,这里的 highest 是关键词。答 案是 C 段的这句话:Eleven million people,with a combined spending power predicted to exceed a record £5.5bn.意思是综合消费能力预计将超过记录。预计(predict),也就是潜力 (potential)。 hightest,也就是 exceed a record。前面有个 affluent,是形容词,富裕的。 第二题,说建筑这个中心的合作方曾多次负责其他的项目发展。答案是 A 段的一句话: an initiative between three of the largest developers in the country, all with extensive experience of urban regeneration schemes.意思是这三个国内最大的开发商都拥有广泛的城市建造经 验。 这里的 with extensive experience 就是题干所说的 have been responsible for numerous other developments. 第三题,说这个中心可能会成为未来城市发展规划的范例。答案是 B 段的一句:This development is expected to set the standard for town centre regeneration schemes to come。这种 发展有望为即将到来的城市中心再建方案树立标准。set the standard 对应于 model,plans 对 应于 schemes。 第四题,关键词是 best,答案是 D 段的这么一句:Lend Lease is promoting the centre as the unrivalled shopping destination of the region.是说 Lend Lease 打算促使该中心成为 这个地区无 与伦比的消费目的地。Unrivalled 对应于 best。 第五题,关键词是一个 close,答案是 A 段的:Planning permission is in place for the new scheme, which will be a short distance from existing prime retail areas。A short distance from 也 就是 close。 第六题,说这个发展方案提交给了住在这里的人,等待他们的评价和同意。答案是 B 段的“The proposals, which are awaiting the outcome of consultation with local residents”,这个 提议还在等当地居民商议的最后结果,完全一个意思。 第七题,说建造在了一个曾经历了持续增长期的地区,答案是 D 段的“The economic base of the area has improved continuously over the past decade”,这个地方的经济基础 连续改善了 十年。sustained growth 对应于 improved continuously。 Staff Appraisals
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A director of the advertising agency owned by tycoon Bob Jacoby once grumbled that he wasn't enjoying his work. Jacoby's reply was, 'I don't pay you good money to enjoy yourself. If you enjoy working here, you should be paying me money.' Jacoby's sentiments used to be common.(0)____ Happily, things have changed. Most organisations now undertake regular staff appraisals, at which employees have the opportunity to discuss one-to-one with their line manager their ambitions and hopes, their strengths and weaknesses, their achievements and their disasters. But it is worth remembering how new all this is, and why. For a start, appraising isn't something many managers do naturally of their own accord. They often find appraisals difficult to handle and have to be made to carry them out. Appraisal systems have become widespread partly as a result of employment legislation, but more particularly because companies have learned that such assessments can work to their advantage. (8)......The company can improve its collective performance by helping employees to improve their individual performance. Managers who use appraisals need to approach them very carefully. They should bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised when in junior positions, recalling which appraisals were helpful, which were not, and why. In most cases, their own bosses did their homework, checking out the job specification, the C.V. and any previous reports. (9).........As a result, a lot of time would have been wasted, debating exactly what had happened and when. Being prepared and appreciating what it is like to be on the receiving end are, indeed, the keys to successful appraising. It is important to begin an appraisal by giving members of staff a chance to express their own views about their performance. (10) ......... Any information gained from colleagues is normally given in a positive spirit, since nowadays everyone understands appraisals and appreciates that they are carried out with good intentions. The atmosphere in the appraisal should be one of positive and open discussion about how the
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employee is performing in the company.(11).........Some individuals will feel unjustly criticised when their boss makes comments on their performance. Others will respond fiercely to a critical assessment - although if they defend themselves passionately, that is no bad thing! Finally, it is important to regard appraisals as part of a continuing process.(12)......... Instead, they should be followed up with friendly questions from time to time, making it clear to employees that new goals and strategies suggested in them are to be taken seriously and are to be acted upon. If these pieces of advice are followed, it is hoped that both the employees and the company as a whole will benefit from the experience. A However, managers must take great care in this respect. B Only after that should managers put forward their own points, which are likely to include comments collected from others in the organisation. C They should not be forgotten as soon as they are over. D Like many other aspects of free enterprise, appraisals are an excellent example of underlying self-interest. E Sometimes the appraiser goes too far the other way and fails to communicate problem areas and scope for improvement. F If they relied on memory, they probably got things wrong. G Employees were paid, and they obeyed; if they didn't like it, they could leave. 《Staff Appraisals》,员工评价。文章是讲的对员工进行评价归于整个公司的意义,以 及进行员工评价时应该注意哪些问题。
第八题。第二段讲了评价的好处,对整个公司是有利的。第八空前面说公司认识到这些 评估是对他们自己有利的。第八空的后面说公司可以通过帮助员工改进个人表现来改进集体 的表现。从前后文的信息看,这一题应该填入表示评估对公司有利的句子,没有转折。D 选 择符合:同自由企业的其他方面一样,评价是潜在私利的杰出例子。这里的 underlying self-interest 可以对应于前面的 work to their advantage。 第九题。第三段是讲经理们要小心谨慎的使用评价。第九空前面说经理们要记住自己处 于底层时被评价的经历(bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised),通 常情况下 需要查看任职资格、简历和先前的其他报告。而第九空后面说的是这样会浪费时间,争论到 底发生了什么,什么时候发生的。可以第九空的意思有一定得转折,选 F:如果他们依赖于 记忆,很有可能把事情弄错。Relied on memory 正好与前面的 checking out the job specification 相对应;got things wrong 对应于后面的 a lot of time would have been wasted。 Job specification : a written statement about a job that includes a job description and the
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skills, experience and personal qualities that sb needs in order to do the job, used when an organization is looking for a new person for a job. 第十题,这一题的答案比较明显。前后文内容很一致,还有明显的连词。这一空的前面 说在开始评估前给每个员工一个表达对自己表现看法的机会很重要。答案是 B:只有在那之 后经理们才能提出自己的观点,这个观点可能包括从组织中的其他人那收集的评论。After that 很明显是承接上文的连词,put forward their own points 可以对应于前面的 express their own views,而 comments collected from others 是对应于后文的 any information gained from colleagues。 第十一题。这一段的开头就说评估的气氛要积极、公开。第十一空的后面说有些人会觉 得不公正的被批评了,还有些人会对批评做出激烈的反应。可见第十一题有转折的意思。选 A,however 是个明显的关键词:经理们必须在这个方面小心。因为一旦不小心,就会出现 后文所说的那些员工的反应。 第十二题。这一段是讲的持续评估的重要性。选 C:他们不能一结束就被遗忘。前面的 a continuing process 和后面的 should be followed up 都是关键词。
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Business Meetings It is important that ideas and suggestions tabled at formal meeting are voiced at the (0) time. This is achieved by keeping to the (19)....... shown on the agenda. For example, there is no (20).......in discussing ideas to do with item six on the agenda when item two has not yet been (21)........Such deviations from the agenda may (22)....... in confusion among the people at the meeting; they may also (23)....... concentration if they see something as irrelevant. To make certain that the meeting proceeds in an orderly fashion, it is therefore useful to (24)....... some ground rules. First, everyone will need to understand that they must (25).......their comments to the topic under discussion. The Chair can then encourage one person to speak at a (26)....... , so that any ideas offered can be discussed and (27)........Once that person has finished, someone else can put (28).......their ideas and so on. If this procedure is adopted, the participants will be able to follow the various issues in a consistent manner, which will help with the decision-making (29)....... later on. It will also (30).......that the quiet people at meetings get a chance to (31).......their say, rather than just their more outspoken colleagues. In (32)....... , it is often the quiet people at meetings who generate the best ideas, because they are in the (33).......of thinking before they speak. 19 A structure B direction C order D arrangement 20 A point B worth C need D reason 21 A brought in B dealt with C catered for D taken off 22 A appear B produce C arise D result 23 A lose B fail C miss D drop 24 A form B establish C design D settle 25 A contain B reserve C check D restrict 26 A turn B time C moment D sequence 27 A noted B written C regarded D remarked 28 A down B through C away D forward 29 A path B course C process D method 30 A ensure B secure C allow D permit 31 A give B make C have D put 32 A part B reality C contrast D case 33 A custom B routine C practice D habit
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《Business Meeting》,商业会议。文章一共两段,第一段说开会要按照日程安排来进行, 第二段说开会要尽量让大家发言,尤其是在会议上沉默寡言的人。 19 题,这一题可能会选择 arrangement。order 和 arrangement 的中文意思也的确很相像。 只有看英文的意思来进行理解。Order:A sequence or arrangement of successive things. 一系列连 续事情的安排。因为这里的意思是保持日程表上的安排,日程表上的安排井井有条且有秩序, 应该选择 order,比 arrangement 更合适。 20 题,there is no point in doing sth.做什么事情没有意义。 21 题,目录 2 上的事情还没有处理就谈论日程表上的目录 6 是没有意义的。选 dealt with。 cater for 是迎合的意思。 22 题,这种偏差(指前面说的目录 2 没完就讨论目录 6)会导致开会的人产生混乱。选 result in,导致。 23 题,如果他们认为什么是不相关的,就会注意力不集中。lose concentration 是地道标 准的说法,参考一个例句:I was absent minded and lose concentration very easily. 24 题,建立一些基本规则。地道的用法就是 establish the rules。form rules 是指表单 规则, design rules 是指设计规则。 25 题,把自己的评论限制在讨论的话题之下。restrict to 限制 26 题,主席可以鼓励每个人分别说一会。重点在于理解词组 at a time 的含义:separately in the specified groups or numbers。看一个例句:He took the stairs two at a time. 27 题,这里考察的是 note 一个不太常见的用法:to give your attention to something by discussing it or making a written record of it。正好和前面动词 discuss 相对应,而 且做笔记这 一点也符合会议的特点。不选 remark,因为是开会,更多的是发言、讨论、记笔记,而不 是评论。 28 题,put forward: suggest, propose 提出。 29 题,decision-making process,做决定的过程。 30 题,这样可以确保沉默的人在会上也能有发言权。用 ensure。不是 allow 和 permit, 一直都是允许的,只是没有一个保证的程序。 31 题,拥有发言权。say 在这里是发言权的意思,动词用 have。参考牛津高阶词典上的 例句:Can't you keep quiet for a minute and let me have my say? / The judge usually has the final say. have a say in: To have the right to express one's opinion or cast a vote in a pending matter. e.g.: Our boss is friendly and democratic; he always encourages us to have a say in what we will do next. 32 题,in reality 在现实中。in contrast 对比,in case 万一。 33 题,往往会上沉默的人能想出好点子,因为他们养成了开口前思考的习惯。in the habit of 有什么习惯。固定搭配。
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