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研究生的体育活动度过休闲时间的方式与校园文化建设和活动组织 启示与拓展

An investigation of the ways Tehran university students follow a specific life style and pass their leisure time with an emphasis on sport Social and Behavioral Sciences
Today, people live in an industrialized and mechanized era which has provided them with a great deal of leisure time and a totally different life style. On the other hand, individuals pursue limited physical activities at their work places, settlements and most noticeably, at their leisure time. Hence, the present paper explores the ways Tehran university students follow a specific life style and pass their leisure time with an emphasis on sport and taking exercise.

Methodology: To determine the ways students pass their leisure time especially on sport, we would select 830 male and female students through random-stratified sampling. In addition, in order to collect the required data, we would apply a 40-item researcher-conducted questionnaire whose validity determined using experimental research and Alpha kranbakh method(r = 0.841).

Findings: The research results showed that students ‘mean daily leisure time was 3.6 hours which, on the basis of order of time magnitude, dedicated to watching TV, listening to music, chit chatting with friends, reading, taking exercise and working with computer, respectively.Of course, the leisure time activites like working with computer, taking exercise and listening to music were considerably favored among students.Excercise taking at leisure time ranked second and sixth for boys and girls, respectively.In addition 52.8% and 43.2% of boys and girls, respectively, wouldn’t take exercise at all.The boys preferred to get involved in sports like soccer, bodybuilding, swimming, mountain climbing volleyball and basketball,respectively; whereas the girls would prefer to take part in sports like swimming, jogging volleyball, mountain climbing, badminton and table tennis,respectively. On the other hand, the ways both male and female students would pass the leisure time like visiting their relatives,taking exercise and engaging in art and religious works, watching films and listening to music differed significantly. The main reasons as for the students inactivity were their busyness, laziness and lethargy. Also, there was a significant difference between both male and female students as to how they would pass their leisure time like visiting relatives, engaging in art and religious

works,taking exercise,watching films and listening to music(p < 0.05).

Conclusions:Immobile activities make up majority of students ‘leisure time in which sport and exercise role is at a minimum. Meanwhile,cultural,social and physical factors contribute to different leisure time activities between both male and female students.As a result,to promote an active life style among students, they should be informed about the advantages of physical activities and well-being.In addition,there should be open air sport venues at campuses and green spaces devoted for students ‘physical activities.Also,based upon students ‘preferences,there can be music rooms at dorms and music shall be played in sport clubs so that students can optimally pass their leisure time.

Leisure activities and adolescent psychological well-being 闲暇时光的休闲活动/爱好与未成年人的良好心理状态的保持和恢复 Adolescence
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as measures of personality. As expected, personality variables were better predictors of adolescent well-being than spare-time use, although engagement in less structured leisure activities was associated with poorer psychological well-being and substance use. These findings support previous personality research which suggests that spare-time use may be related to well-being only insofar as individuals who are psychologically healthy tend to be involved in structured leisure activities. The implications of these findings for school policy and future research concerning the links between leisure involvement and psychological well-being are discussed.

Motivational interference in school-leisure conflict and learning outcomes: The differential effects of two value conceptions 学校休闲时间冲突与学习效果 两种价值观和出发点的效用差异与各方动机交互 Learning and Instruction
It was hypothesized that students' value orientations are connected to their experience of motivational interference in a conflict between a school- and a leisure-related activity as well as to school marks as indicators of learning outcomes. In a self-report study with Italian adolescents (N = 433; M = 14.5 years) using a school-leisure conflict scenario, first, the relations between the 10 values introduced by Schwartz and the Inglehart-based Achievement and Well-being value orientations were investigated. Correlations and multidimensional scaling analysis showed overlaps as well as differences between the two sets of value variables. Regression analyses revealed that the Schwartz values were significantly related to the experience of motivational interference during studying and during leisure as well as to school marks. The inclusion of Achievement and Well-being value orientations explained additional variance of the three dependent variables. The relevance of individual values in explaining students' reactions to

motivational conflicts is highlighted.

A Prospective Study of Neck, Shoulder, and Upper Back Pain Among Technical School Students Entering Working Life Adolescent Health

在校中学生参与技术工作,对于身体的疲劳和疼痛的影响
The aim of this prospective study was to relate the prevalence of neck, shoulder, and upper back pain to occupational and individual risk factors among a population of technical school students in their transition from school to working life. In addition, we wanted to assess the changes in pain prevalence during follow-up.

Methods

A cohort consisting of 173 technical school students was followed up during a 3-year period, from their last year of school through their first years of working life. Data on self-reported neck, shoulder, and upper back pain and factors such as mechanical exposure, perceived stress, and physical activity in leisure time were collected.

Results

A high prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, and upper back among the technical school students was found. There were however few students reporting severe pain. Reporting pain at baseline gave over three times higher risk of reporting it at follow-up. A high level of physical activity outside working hours gave a lower risk of reporting neck, shoulder, and upper back pain at follow-up. High and moderate levels of mechanical exposure and high stress level were not found to be risk factors for pain after entering working life.

Conclusion

Neck, shoulder, and upper back pain are common among adolescents and may persist into working life. These results may give potential for preventive efforts at a young age. There is still much uncertainty about the factors leading to musculoskeletal pain, and more research is needed on this topic.

A study on learning environments of elementary school students taking social studies course: Bursa sample 给小学生一个学习社会科学的好环境 Social and Behavioral Sciences
Schools as educational and instructional institutions are expected to be renowable ones where motivation is increased through establishing relationships between students’ interests and needs and subject matters of social studies lessons are derived from daily life and events. Finalizing any learning activity at school by realizing it as aimed and hence having students succeed can be achieved only through establishing an effective and positive learning environment. The aim of the present study is to examine the opinions of the elementary school students taking the Social Studies course on learning environments.

Increasing school playground physical activity: A mixed methods study combining environmental measures and children's perspectives 学校体育锻炼器械与操场文化建设 学生的视角 整合体育运动的环境评估 Science and Medicine in Sport 国际运动科学与医药学学报
Schools are integral settings in which children can participate in moderate and vigorous physical activity. This study reports on the relationship between playground characteristics and child activity levels using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The aim of the study is to increase understanding of how children respond to their school playground environments. Twenty-three primary schools located in a predominantly low socio-economic area of Melbourne, Australia were involved. SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth) was administered in all 23 schools to measure the levels of student physical activity and playground environmental factors such as equipment provision. In 12 of the 23 schools, a sample of 9–11-year-old students participated in focus group discussions exploring perceptions of their school playgrounds using a photo ordering technique. A larger proportion of students participated in VPA when loose equipment (60% vs. 52%; p < 0.001) and teacher supervision (62% vs. 52%; p < 0.001) were present in activity settings, compared to when they were unavailable. Fixed play equipment and bitumen with court/play-line markings were seen by children as settings inviting active play but only had the greatest impact on moderate activity (fixed play equipment: 35% vs. 20%, p < 0.001; court markings/goals: 62% vs. 52%, p < 0.001; play-line markings: 25% vs. 20%, p = 0.04). The mixed method design provided a greater understanding of the potential influence of environmental characteristics on children's lunch time activity levels and their perceptions of play areas. The findings indicate that relatively simple changes such as the provision of loose equipment, painting of court and play-line markings, and increased teacher presence on the playground, are likely to provide opportunities for increased physical activity.

Sleep patterns and impulse control among Japanese junior high school students
Adolescents with decreased impulse control exhibit behavioral problems. Lifestyles are related to impulse control. However, the relations of sleep patterns and impulse control among adolescents are unknown. Thus we examined how sleep patterns were associated with impulse control among Japanese

junior high school students. Surveys were completed by a nationwide sample of 1934 students. A significant association between decreased impulse control and bedtimes after midnight was revealed. Specific lifestyle factors related to bedtimes after midnight were older age, greater numbers of hours spent watching television, lack of participation in an extracurricular activity, greater use of convenience stores, and increased attendance at cram schools. This study revealed that going to sleep after midnight was significantly related to decreased impulse control among adolescents. Data about specific lifestyle factors related to going to sleep after midnight should be useful in preventing those behaviors demonstrated by school children that derive from decreased impulse control.

The life style of the youth, their every day life and relationships in Finland
The authors studied the lifestyle of Finnish adolescent students who were studying at 8th grade in comprehensive school (n = 805), and 3rd grade in senior high school (n = 271). The study is a part of a comparative study done in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The data collection was done by an electronic self-reporting questionnaire with 177 items. The conceptual framework and theory stands on the indicator system model by Allardt (1989) to which we added the value system as a fourth factor influencing lifestyle. Only part of the results is reported in this article. Finnish adolescents seem to be very friend centered. They value friendship and doing common hobbies or just talking or listening music together. Also family has still a great meaning to their life.

Environmental citizenship: What level of knowledge, attitude, skill and participation the students own?
Now-a-days people think of their responsibility to maintain and protect the environment and this is the responsibility of all including the government, private sectors and individuals. The concept of Environmental Citizenship (EC) redefines the relationship of people and nature and reiterates that environmental conservation is everybody's sole responsibility at all time, based on one's life choices in minimizing ecological impact on earth. In light of this, this study is designed around the concept of EC that gravitates around the Malaysian primary and secondary school student's knowledge, attitude, skills and participation in their daily activities and lifestyles that may bring a positive or negative impact on the environment. Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches were used in this study. The quantitative technique took on the form of a survey administration where 2853 Year-5 primary and secondary school students participated. Qualitative data was collected by open-ended response of the students. The findings determine that the current environmental citizenship level of students is low to moderate. There are many areas within EC domain where students’ level of Knowledge, attitude, skills and participation must be increased to reach expected EC level. In a wider perspective, this study hopes to act as leverage towards more emphasis of EE by Ministry of Education (MOE) in the science curriculum. Most importantly, the findings will also enable the stakeholders to make evidence-based decisions on the contributory factors that can improve the current EC among students, be it budget, Environmental Education (EE) materials or even an EE policy statement in the National Education Policy (NEP).

Creativity comparison between students who studied life skills courses and those who didn’t
In many countries of the world the training of the life skills are under practice in primary, guidance and high schools as a general program which its aim is developing psychological and social abilities. Because of this, we decided to evaluate to performance of this education in the guidance school's students.

First of all, we started with this hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the creative of students who took part in living skills training source and those who did not take part there.

Therefore and for the approval or disapproval of this hypothesis we analyzed the creative of the students of 3 areas in Tehran who passed the life skills and those who did not pass these courses in this article.

Relations between the development of future time perspective in three life domains, investment in learning, and academic achievement
Relations between development in different time perspectives and changes in students' learning investment and academic achievement were examined in this study. Participants were 584 students in the first and 584 in the second year of the lowest level of secondary school in the Netherlands. The data were analysed using multivariate latent growth curve modelling. Future time perspectives can partly explain the well-known decrease in students' motivation after starting secondary school. Development in long-term time perspective on leisure time had a negative effect on development in learning investment, while the effects of the longterm time perspective on school and professional career and social relations were positive.

Relationship among perfectionism, academic procrastination and life satisfaction of university students
The aim of this study is to determine whether the perfectionist personality trait in university students predicts their academic procrastinations and life satisfactions. Research participants were 230 students attending Anadolu University - Faculty of Education in spring semester of 2007-2008 School Year. Data were collected by Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale for perfectionist personality trait, Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student for academic procrastination, and Life Satisfaction Scale for life satisfaction. Regression analysis was done for research findings. In the conclusion of the analysis, it was found that self-oriented perfectionist personality trait significantly predicted academic procrastination and life satisfaction.

A study of psychological health among students of gifted and nongifted high schools 天才学生与非天赋学生的心理健康研究

Purpose of Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and life satisfaction among gifted and nongifted high school students.

Methods

The participants of this study were 670 students (349 girls and 321 boys) selected by random cluster sampling. They completed The Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale and 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS).

Findings and Results

There was a significant negative relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and life satisfaction. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that girls had the better life satisfaction than boys. According to the results, nongifted students had the higher level of life satisfaction than gifted ones. On the other hand, the results of two-way ANOVA showed that girls had higher scores in anxiety and stress indexes than boys. Furthermore, the results showed that gifted students had the lower level of anxiety and a higher level of stress than no gifted ones.

Conclusions

These findings provide some evidence for the existence of a negative relationship between depression, anxiety, Stress and life satisfaction.

Conceptions of students about renewable energy sources: a need to teach based on contextual approaches
Renewable energy sources are one of the main topics not only in scientific researches but also in daily life. In this study, it is aimed to investigate Turkish primary and secondary students’ knowledge about the renewable energy sources. 107 primary and secondary school students participated in the study. Open-ended questions are used to determine students’ knowledge about the topic. Students’ answers

were analyzed using descriptive analysis technique. It is revealed that there were major differences in students’ answers according to grades. In addition, these answers were depended on their conceptual frameworks. These frameworks can be classified into two categories as daily life and school context. It is hoped that this study would contribute both to understand students’ knowledge related to this topic and to teach energy sources based on contextual approaches.

Students’ ideas about school history: a view from Greece
This paper reports the findings of a study of students’ views on history as a school subject. The study aimed to investigate pupils’ perceptions of the usefulness of studying school history and history in general. Particular attention was paid to pupils’ feedback on educational material used in history teaching and teacher's contribution.

The research was conducted across 8 schools in North Greece and over 200 young people (age 12-15) took part in it. In terms of the sample, data was obtained from a range of different schools taking into consideration geographical, social-economic and ethnic background parameters. The survey consisted of focus group interviews.

The outcomes indicate a contradiction between the aspects of history promoted by the particular history curriculum and pupils’ perceptions of the subject. According to pupils’ reflections on the subject, school history does not seem to affect their way of thinking and their understanding of the past; points that are mentioned in the history curriculum. The paper suggests that pupils’ voices should be heard whenever school history course is discussed in order to bridge this gap because they experience history teaching ‘in real life’ and pupils are the most involved agent in the teaching and knowing process.

Substance use among middle school students: Associations with self-rated and peer-nominated popularity
Associations of popularity with adolescent substance use were examined among 1793 6–8th grade students who completed an in-school survey. Popularity was assessed through both self-ratings and peer nominations. Students who scored higher on either measure of popularity were more likely to be lifetime cigarette smokers, drinkers, and marijuana users, as well as past month drinkers. Self-rated popularity was positively associated with past month marijuana use and heavy drinking, and peer-nominated popularity showed a quadratic association with past month heavy drinking. These results extend previous work and highlight that popularity, whether based on self-perceptions or peer friendship nominations, is a

risk factor for substance use during middle school. Given the substantial increase in peer influence during early adolescence, prevention program effectiveness may be enhanced by addressing popularity as a risk factor for substance use or working with popular students to be peer leaders to influence social norms and promote healthier choices.

Effects of students’ and schools’ characteristics on mathematics achievement: findings from PISA 2006 学校的文化和特点和学生的单科成绩间的关系
This study explored the effects on mathematics achievement of students’ and Schools’ characteristics. To do that, gender, computer use for internet or entertainment, self-confidence in high level computer tasks, school types and economic, social and cultural status of students’ families are analyzed with detailed. The sample was prepared from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 in Turkey. The estimates of PISA mathematics performance and questionnaire responses of 4942 15 year-old Turkish students in 160 schools were analyzed via multilevel analysis. Also, it was shown that frequencies of the reasons of students’ computer use. Two-level model was used to estimate coefficients and modeled differences across school types. Results from this study indicated that male students, students who have high self-confidence to use computer, students who have high economic, social and cultural status and schools which have quality educational resources have better scores in mathematics. However, female students and schools which have high student teacher ratio have lower score in mathematics. Furthermore, students, particularly female students, need greater motivation to use computers and teachers should integrate computer within mathematics and programs. Also, higher socio-economic and cultural status of the family, higher educational background of the parents and students who find mathematics subjects important are the factors that increase mathematics performance too. As a result of this study, it is shown that some characteristics of student and schools, especially gender and quality educational resources, have a positive effect on mathematic achievement.

Evaluation of educational and technical structure at vocational schools 职校的教学专业结构和课程结构合理化

In Turkey, vocational schools are one of the most important educational institutions for breeding well-qualified manpower in higher education level. At present time, the main purpose of these institutions that provide vocational training in accordance with two-year education programs is: to provide the breeding of of well-qualified manpower who may be able to adapt to scientific and technological developments and provide quality production that needed by business life.

In the process of training the students of vocational school in accordance with these qualifications, educational partnerships that are established with the collaboration of both university and industry have become very important. In order to substantiate the necassary cooperation in this partnership Marmara

University Vocational School of Technical Sciences has started a project. In this project work, within the inclusion of students, industry and academic staff, three surveys have been conducted in order to collect data. The survey applications that have been carried out included, firstly, the thoughts of the vocational school's students about the education provided in Vocational School of Technical Sciences (T.B.M.Y.O); secondly, their thought of the sector's cooperation with vocational schools and the evaluation of the graduates performances. Thirdly, another survey regarding the adequacy of the training fields and the students of the vocational schools was conducted and it's reviews have been addressed.

Using ubiquitous games in an English listening and speaking course: Impact on learning outcomes and motivation 口语课/语言类课程的游戏教学法 提高学习效果和动力 Computers & Education
This paper reports the results of a study which aimed to investigate how ubiquitous games influence English learning achievement and motivation through a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment. An English curriculum was conducted on a school campus by using a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment called the Handheld English Language Learning Organization (HELLO). HELLO helps students to engage in learning activities based on the ARCS motivation theory, involving various educational strategies, including ubiquitous game-based learning, collaborative learning, and context-aware learning. Two groups of students participated in the learning activities prescribed in a curriculum by separately using ubiquitous game-based learning and non-gaming learning. The curriculum, entitled ‘My Campus’, included three learning activities, namely ‘Campus Environment’, ‘Campus Life’ and ‘Campus Story’. Participants included high school teachers and juniors. During the experiment, tests, a survey, and interviews were conducted for the students. The evaluation results of the learning outcomes and learning motivation demonstrated that incorporating ubiquitous games into the English learning process could achieve a better learning outcomes and motivation than using non-gaming method. They further revealed a positive relationship between learning outcomes and motivation.

Children's information seeking in coping with daily-life problems: An investigation of fifth- and sixth-grade students Library & Information Science Research
Researchers have increasingly paid attention to the personal and emotional growth of youth. However, little research has examined how exactly young people use or seek information for their personal development and growth. The primary goal of this study, therefore, was to explore the students' use of “information seeking” to cope with their day-to-day personal stressors and problems. The sample consisted of 641 children in fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms from an urban public elementary school in Taiwan. Data were collected through semistructured, open-ended surveys. Both quantitative and

qualitative methods were employed to analyze the data. This study found that in coping with daily-life problems, nearly two-thirds of the participating children would seek information; that sixth graders were more likely to do so; and that gender did not make information seeking more (or less) probable in this coping context. Findings also revealed some major reasons for children's information seeking in this coping context, for example, to solve problems, to escape, and to find a transition. Finally, five major different information seeking behaviors related to coping emerged from the findings: information seeking for problem solving, information seeking to escape, information seeking for a transition, information seeking to change mood, and information avoidance, which can be used as a platform to develop an explanatory and possibly predictive framework for future studies. 小学五、六年级学生如何使用图书馆/互联网资料来学习 调查报告与研究结论


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