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现代汉译英口译教程 (自动保存的)

UNIT 1 To excavate 发掘 ['eksk?,veit] Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇陵墓 [,m? :s?'li?m] Metropolis n. 大都市;首府;重要中心 [mi'tr? p?lis, me-] Proper 严格意义上的(用于名词后面) Mansion n 大厦;宅邸 ['m?n? ?n] China World Trade Tower 国贸中心 Expressway 高速公路 Overpass/ flyover 高架道路;立体交叉 Footbridge 天桥 Underpass / underground (在铁路等下面通过的)地道 Passageway 高架桥下通道 Pedestrian adj. 徒步的;缺乏想像力的 n. 行人;步行者 The lama temple 雍和宫 lama ['lɑ :m?] n. 喇嘛 Cloud Pillar 华表 Chang?an Boulevard 长安街 Star Boulevard 星光大道 Boulevard [?bu: lvɑ : d, 'bul?vɑ : d ] n. 林荫大道; (美)大马路 adj. 娱乐性的 vt. 给…提供林阴大街;把…建成林阴大街 Locale [l?u'kɑ :l , -'k?d ] n. 场所,现场 posterity 子孙,后代 sedan chair 轿子 sedan [si'd?n] n. [美]轿车;轿子 To garrison ['ɡ ?ris?n] n. 要塞;卫戍部队 vt. 驻防;守卫 Thoroughfare 大街 /大道;干线公路,干道 Traditional single-story houses with rooms around the four sides of a courtyard 四合院 Freestanding 【建】独立式的 Impediment 阻碍 Symposium 研讨会,专题报告会 Terrace 平台 Beacon tower 烽火台 The Warring States Period 战国时代 Nomad 游牧部落的一员 Terrain 地形 Juyongguan Pass 居庸关 Battlement 城垛 At regular interval 每隔一定距离 Hectare 公顷 The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest 祈年殿 The Imperial Vault of Heaven 皇穹宇 The Circular Mound Altar 圜丘坛 The Hall of Abstinence 斋宫 Lath 【建】板条 Rafter 【建】椽 Triple eaves 三重檐

Twelve divisions of day and night 十二时辰 Solar terms / the twenty-four divisions of the solar year 节气 Tier (阶式看台等的) (一)排/ 屋 Balustrade 栏杆,扶栏 Railing 栏杆,围栏,扶手 Concentric 同心的 Winter solstice 冬至 To offer sacrifice to 祭祀 Spirit tablet (for the dead ancestors, deities, or other objects of worship) 牌位 Supreme Ruler of Heaven 皇天上帝 Echo Wall 回音壁 Acoustic 听觉的,声学的

周边外围 circumference 渤海湾 Bohai Gulf 流域面积 drainage area 珠江 the Pearl River 京韵大鼓 story-telling in Beijing dialect with drum accompaniment 豆汁 a fermented drink made from ground beans 纪念品 souvenir 避暑胜地 summer resort 护城河 moat 宫 palace 殿 hall 亭,阁 pavilion 水榭 pavilion on the water 阁 tower 塔(舍利塔式的)dagoba 塔(宝塔式的)pagoda 寺院 monastery 寺;庙 temple 圣坛;祭坛 altar 假山 artificial hillock; rockery 角楼,岗楼 watchtower 鼓楼 drum tower 钟楼 clock tower 古代钟楼 bell tower 牌楼 pailou ; ceremonial / memorial arch 围墙 enclosure wall (敦煌)壁画 (Dunhuang) Murals 复制品 reproduction / replica 仿制品 imitation 扇面 fan leaf

装裱 mount(ing) 浮雕木刻 wooden carving(s) in relief 泥塑 clay figure modeling 人像 image / figure 塑像 moulded figure 小塑像 figure 塑像;铸像 statue 半身雕塑像 bust 与真人大小相等的泥像 life-size clay figure 古玩 antique / curio 坠子 pendant 镯子 bracelet 胸针 brooch 景泰蓝 cloisonné cloisonnéenamel , 漆器 lacquerware, lacquerwork UNIT 2 奖牌榜 medal tally 广播体操 set exercises to radio music 《准备劳动与卫国》体育制度(简称“劳卫制” ) sports system to strengthen labor and defense capabilities 国家体育锻炼标准 Athletic Fitness Standard 全民健身计划 Whole-People Health-Building Plan 居民小区 residential community / housing estate (英) 密切注意;关心(体育)的发展状况 to follow (sports) 授予(称号,学位,权力等)to confer 复兴,振兴 to revitalize 使有系统;整理 systemize / systematize 历史悠久的 time-honored 牦牛赛 yak race 跳板 springboard 秋千 swing 石弓,弩 crossbow 五禽(指虎、鹿、熊、猿、鸟)戏 five-animal exercises 挡 to repel 形意拳 imitation boxing 九节鞭 nine-section whip 生理的 physiological 疗法 therapy 呼吸 respiration 平衡 equilibrium 体格 constitution 开业医生 practitioner 生物电流 bioelectricity

亚运会 the Asian Games 东亚运动会 East Asian Games 亚洲冬季运动会 Asian Winter Games 远南残疾人运动会 the Far South Para-Olympics 远东及南太平洋地区残疾人运动会 Far East and South Pacific Games for the Disabled 世界大学生运动会 the Universiade / World University Games 容纳——名观众 to accommodate….spectators 最高级,最高精尖,尖端 state-of-the-art 举行场所,会场 venue 延……的三倍 to triple the length of… 提高地铁载客量 4 倍 to quadruple the capacity of the subway system 具有国际先进水平的体育场馆 state-of-the-art sports venues 曲棍球场 hockey field 冰球场 ice hockey rink 高架桥 elevated walkway 奥林匹克公园 the Olympic Green 中华民族博物馆 Chinese Nationalities Museum 综合体育馆 sports complex 首都体育馆 the Capital Stadium 建筑面积 floor space 套路 set exercises 内功 exercises to benefit the internal organs 外功 exercises to benefit the muscles and bones 发展体育运动, 增强人民体质 promote physical culture and improve the people?s physical fitness promote sports, get fit 锻炼身体,保卫祖国 build a good / sound constitution to defend the country; get fit, defend the homeland 为祖国争光 to win honors for the motherland / homeland 胜不骄, 败不馁 do not become cocky / be dizzy with success, not downcast over /discouraged by defeat 体育道德 sportsmanship 打出水平,打出风格 up to one?s best level in skill and style of play 竞技状态好 in good form 失常 not in shape/ good form 比分领先 to outscore ……胜 …wins 打成平局 to draw; to tie; to play even/ level the score; to end in a draw/tie; to tie with one?s competitor 扳成平局 to equalize the score 屡次出现平局 the score was tied again and again ……次平局 …draws 失利 to lose ……负 …loses 竞技性体育 athletic sports; competitive sports

健身性体育 health-giving sports; health-building sports; body-building sports 娱乐性体育 entertaining sports; recreational sports 中华人民共和国运动委员会(国家体委)Sports Commission of the People?s Republic of China 中华全国体育总会 All-China Sports Federation 执行委员会 executive board 秘书处 secretary department / secretariat 体育中心 sports center / complex 运动会 sports meets; athletic meeting; games 比赛地点 competition / sports venue(s) 国际比赛 international tournament 邀请赛 invitational tournament 锦标赛 championship 体育场 stadium; sports field / ground 体育馆 gymnasium, gym; indoor 练习场地 training gymnasium and stadium 检录处 call room 兴奋剂检测中心 drug-testing center 操场 playground; sports ground; drill ground 课间/ 工间课 physical exercises during breaks 体育工作者 physical educator, PE workers; sports organizer 运动爱好者 sports fan / enthusiast 啦啦队 cheering-section 主队 home team 客队 visiting team 教练员 coach 裁判员 referee 裁判长 chief referee 男子项目 men?s events 女子项目 women?s events 全能冠军 all-round champion 冠军 champion; gold medalist 亚军 runner-up; second; silver medalist 第三名 third; bronze medalist 世界记录保持者 world record holder 种子选手 seed player; seed 优秀选手 top-ranking/ topnotch athlete 田径运动 track and field; athletics 田赛 field events 径赛 track events 跳高 high jump 撑杆跳高 pole jump; pole-vault 跳远 long / broad jump 三级跳远 hop, step and jump; triple jump 标枪 javelin throw

铅球 shot put 铁饼 discus throw 链球 hammer throw 马拉松赛跑 Marathon (race) 接力 relay race, relay 跨栏比赛 hurdles; hurdle race 竞走 walking; walking race 体操 gymnastics [d? im'n? stiks] 自由体操 floor / free exercises 蹦床 trampoline ['tr? mp?li:n] 技巧运动 acrobatic gymnastics [,? kr?u'b? tik] 垫上运动 mat exercise 单杠 horizontal bar ['h? ri'z? nt?l] 双杠 parallel bars 高低杠 uneven bars; high-low bars 吊环 rings 跳马 vaulting horse [v? :lt] 鞍马 pommel horse ['p? m?l, 'p? m-] 足球场 field, pitch 篮球场 basketball court 乒乓球拍 racket, bat 羽毛球运动 badminton 羽毛球 shuttlecock; shuttle ['? ? tlk? k] 球拍 racket 垒球 softball 棒(垒)球场 baseball (softball) field / ground 手球 handball; team netball 手球场 handball field 曲棍球 hockey; field hockey 现代五项 modern pentathlon [pen't?θl?n] 铁人三项(三项全能运动)triathlon [trai'?θl? n] 水上运动 water/ aquatic sports [?'kw? tik] 水上运动中心 aquatic sports center 水球(运动) water polo 水球场 playing pool 滑水 water skiing 游泳馆 natatorium [,neit?'t? :ri?m] 自由泳 freestyle; crawl (stroke) 蛙泳 breaststroke 侧泳 sidestroke 蝶泳 butterfly(stroke) 海豚式 dolphin stroke / kick 蹼泳 fin swimming 跳台跳水 platform diving

跳板跳水 springboard diving 帆船运动 yachting; sailing [j? t] 皮划艇运动 kayak ['kai? k] 赛艇运动 rowing [r?u] 赛龙舟 dragon boat racing 举重 weightlifting 重量级 /中量级 /轻量级 heavyweight / middleweight / lightweight 击剑 fencing 射击 shooting 靶场 shooting range 射箭 archery 拳击 boxing 拳术 quanshu , barehanded exercises; Chinese boxing 气功 qigong, breathing exercises 打擂台 to fight a challenge fight in an arena [?'ri:n?] 康复医疗体育 recuperative medical sports 自行车运动 cycling; cycle racing 室内自行车赛场 indoor velodrome ['vi:l?dr?um] 赛马场 equestrian park [i'kwestri?n] 骑术 horsemanship 马术 equestrianism [i'kwestri?niz?m] 国际象棋 (international) chess 中国象棋 xiangqi,Chinese chess 象棋大师 master 特级大师 grandmaster 围棋 weiqi, go 航空模型 aero model; model aero plane 航海模型 marine model ; model ship 定点跳伞 accuracy jump; precision landing 无线电定向 radio direction finding 造型跳伞 relative work 滑翔运动 gliding; sailing planning 技巧 sports acrobatics 拔河 tug-of-war 毽子 shuttlecock 踢毽子 shuttlecock kicking 毽球 jianqiu, shuttlecock playing 冰球运动 ice hockey 冰球场 rink 冰球 puck [p? k] , rubber ['r? b?] 速度滑冰 speed skating 花样滑冰 figure skating 冰场 skating rink; ice rink 人工冰场 artificial ice stadium

高山滑雪 alpine skiing ['? lpain] 冰壶 curling ['k?:li?] 蹦极 bungee jumping ['b? nd? i:] 台球 billiards 滑板 skateboard 溜旱冰 roller skating 定向越野 orienteering 民族传统体育 traditional ethnic sports 蒙古族的摔跤、赛马、射箭 Mongolian wrestling, horsemanship and archery 回族的踢毽、拔河 kicking the shuttlecock and tug-of-war of the Hui 藏族的赛牦牛 Tibetan yak racing 苗族的荡秋千、划龙舟 Miao people?s swinging and dragon-boat racing 壮族的“投绣球” Zhuang people?s “throwing balls made of colored silk” 朝鲜族的荡秋千、跳板 Korean swinging and see-sawing 侗族的骑木马(踩高跷) walking on stilts of the Dong people 瑶族的打陀螺 whipping tops of the Yao People 高山族的放风筝 kite-flying of the Gao-shan 柯尔克孜族的“追姑娘” the “girl chasing” of the Kirgiz 扭秧歌 yangge dancing 奥林匹克精神是互相了解、友谊、团结和公平竞争。 The Olympic Spirit is the spirit of mutual understanding, friendship, solidarity and fair play. 奥林匹克圣火象征着光明、团结、友谊、和平、正义。 The Olympic Flame symbolizes brightness, solidarity, friendship, peace and fair play. 新北京,新奥运 New Beijing, Great Olympics 绿色奥运,科技奥运,人文奥运 Green Olympics, High-Tech Olympics and People?s Olympics 中国结 Chinese Knot 北京 2008 年奥运会会徽由奥运五环色构成,形似中国传统民间工艺品的“中国结” ,又似一 个打太极拳的人形和数字 56,代表中国的 56 个民族。 The emblem of the Beijing Olympics Games of 2008 has the same colors of the Olympic rings. It looks like a “Chinese Knot”, a traditional handcraft. It also resembles a person doing taiji shadow boxing and the figure 56, which represents the 56 nationalities of China. UNIT 3 有计划、分阶段地 in stages in a planned way 多层次、多形式、学科门类基本齐全的高等教育体系 Higher education system which offers a complete range of subjects at various levels through diverse formats and media 政府办学为主体、社会各界共同办学 Government as the major investor and social institutions, mass organizations, and individuals as co-investors 行业、企业、事业单位 industries, businesses and public institutions 协调 to coordinate

学位条例 Degree Statute 《未成年人保护法》Law of Protection of Minors 游戏活动小组 play group 巡回教学点 “caravan” mobile service 灌输,教诲 to inculcate 入学率 enrollment rate of school-age children 扫盲教育 anti-illiteracy education 扫盲班 literacy class 联合国教科文组织 UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) 联合国儿童基金会 UNICEF (United Nations International Children?s Emergency Fund / United Nations Children?s Fund) 联合国人口基金会 UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) 联合国开发计划署 UNDP (United Nations Development Program) 大学专科 junior college program 国家级重点实验室和专业实验室 state-level key labs and specialized labs 全国基本普及九年义务教育 to popularize nine-year compulsory education nationwide 普及九年义务教育 universalization of nine-year compulsory schooling 基本扫除青壮年文盲 to basically eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged population 扫除青壮年文盲 elimination of literacy among young and middle-aged people 高校高新技术产业 high-tech-based enterprises affiliated with universities 素质教育 Essential-Quality-Oriented (EQO) Education 全面提高国民素质和民族创新能力 to improve the quality of the nation and enhance its innovative capacity 遵纪守法教育 education in legal knowledge and discipline 爱国主义、国际主义、集体主义、共产主义、社会主义理想教育 education in patriotism, internationalism, collectivism, communism and social ideals 培养社会公德 to foster a sense of public morals 共产主义道德品质 communist ethnics 政治思想教育 political and ideological education 中华民族优秀传统和革命传统教育 education in the fine tradition of the Chinese nation and in our revolutionary education 体育和美育 physical and aesthetic education 高层次创造性人才工程 High-Level Creative Talent Development Project 知识创新 knowledge innovation 知识更新 knowledge renewal 团结,协作和奉献 solidarity, teamwork and dedication 学术攻坚 to break new grounds in advanced research 博士后流动站 post-doctoral program 函授教育 correspondence-based education 广播电视教育 broadcast / TV-based education 中国教育科研网 CERNET (China Education and Research Net) 全国大学生招生远程录取 on-line enrollment of students admitted to HELs 计算机学籍管理 computer-aided management of students? record and status

毕业生远程就业服务 network service for graduate job seeker 继续教育制度 continuing education system 国家自学考试 state-administered examination for self-taught students 高校高新技术产业化工程 Project of Commercializing High and New Technologies Developed in HELs 培育经济新的增长点 to foster new growth points in the national economy 高新技术企业 high-and-new-technology-based (HNT-based) enterprise 科技园区 science and technology park 科技开发“孵化器” incubator of scientific and technological development 《面向 21 世纪教育振兴计划》Action Plan for Invigorating Education Towards the 21 Century (院校)合并 amalgamation 授予硕士学位 to confer master?s degree 脱产学习 to be released from work for study 毛入学率 gross enrollment rate 在校学生人数 total enrollment of students 招生数 students newly recruited /enrolled 大学生本专科招生与研究生招生之比 the ratio of recruits of undergraduate students to graduate students 文理科综合大学 comprehensive universities of liberal arts and science 教育部直属院校 universities directly under the Ministry of Education 高等院校调整 to reorganize / readjust institutions of higher learning 优化高等教育的布局和专业结构 to rationalize the locations and their educational program planning 科教兴国战略 the strategy of rejuvenating the nation through science and education 211 工程 Project 211, that is, developing 100 major universities and an extensive range of important disciplines and areas of study to reach advanced world standards by the early part of the 21st century 教育要面向现代化、面向世界、面向未来 To gear education to the needs of modernization, the world and the future 五爱(爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱护公物) Five loves (love the motherland, love the people, love work. Love science and take good care of public property) 四有新人(有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的社会主义新人) New citizens with lofty ideals, moral integrity, rich knowledge and a sense of discipline 人才流失严重 Brain drain remains serious 构筑终身学习体系,创建学习型社会 to set up a lifelong education system and create a learning society 营造尊师重教、求知好学的社会氛围 To create a social environment in which teachers are respected, and education is valued, knowledge sought and learning stressed 导师+辅导员制 supervisor-instructor system

本科+硕士研究生统筹培养 undergraduate-postgraduates? overall training plan 放宽招生和入学的年龄限制 to widen the age limits of recruitment and enrollment 计算机的普及要从娃娃抓起 the popularization of computer should start from children. 坚持社会主义方向 to keep to the socialist orientation 德才兼备 to combine ability with character; equal stress on integrity and ability 教书育人 to educate the person as well as impart book knowledge 培养独立分析问题和解决问题的能力 to cultivate the ability to analyze and solve concrete problems independently 启发学生独立思考的能力 to help develop the ability of the students to think things out for themselves 培养学生自学能力 to foster the students? ability to study on their own 发挥学生主动性、创造性 to give scope to the students? initiative and creativeness / creativity 自学成才 to become educated through independent study 勤工俭学 work-study program 启发式 elicitation method (of teaching); Heuristic study 填鸭式教学法 cramming; forced-feeding method of teaching 普及教育 universal education 高等教育 higher / tertiary education 普遍教育 general education 职业技术教育 vocational and technical education 高等学校 institution of higher learning / higher education institution (HEI) 综合性大学 comprehensive university 文科大学 university of liberal arts 文科院校 colleges of arts 理工科大学 college / university of science and engineering 师范大学 normal university; teachers? university 师范学院 teachers? college 大学 university 学院 college, school, institute 医科大学 medical university 医学院 medical college 中医院 institute of traditional Chinese medicine 音乐学院 conservatory of music 美术学院 academy of fine arts 体育学院 physical culture institute 业余职工大学 spare-time college for staff and workers 电视广播大学 television and radio broadcasting university 函授学院 correspondence school 教师进修学校 teachers? college for vocational studies 半工半读学校 part-work and part-study school 半农半读学校 part-farm work and part-study school 中等专业学校 secondary specialized school; polytechnic school 中等技术学校 secondary technical school; technical secondary school 职业学校 vocational school

为聋哑、弱智等残疾儿童开办的学校 special school for deaf-mutes and mentally disabled children 附中 attached middle school 在职进修班 in-service training course 进修班 class for advanced studies 短训班 short-term training course 专修班 special (training) course 自学考试 examinations for the self-taught / exams open to the public 教职员 teaching and administrative staff 教学人员 the faculty; teaching staff (中小学)校长 headmaster / headmistress; principal (大专院校)校长 president; chancellor 教务长 dean of studies (系)主任 faculty / department chair / chairperson 副主任 vice-chair 副教授 associate professor 客座教授 visiting professor; guest professor 讲师 lecturer 助教 teaching assistant 辅导员 counselor<美> (assistant for political and ideological work) 教研室 / 组 teaching and research section / group 教员休息室 staff room; common room 母校 Alma Mater 校友 alumnus(男) 复数 alumni ; alumna(女) 复数 alumnae 学生会 student(s?) union / association 高年级学生 upper / higher grade student; student in senior grades 低年级学生 lower grade student; student in junior grades 走读生 day student; non-resident student 住宿生 boarder 旁听生 student not formally enrolled 研究生 graduate student; postgraduate (student) 硕士生 postgraduate studying for a master?s degree 博士生 postgraduate studying for a doctor?s / doctoral degree; Ph. D. candidate 应届毕业生 graduating student; this year?s graduate 辍学 / 失学青少年 school dropout 听课 to visit a class; to sit in a class; to attend a lecture 公开课 open class 课程 course; curriculum 课程表 school timetable 课外活动 extracurricular activities 课外辅导 instruction after class 课外阅读 outside reading (大学的)研究小组;讨论会 seminar 教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus

教学内容 content of courses; course content 学习年限 period of schooling, term of study 学历 record of formal schooling 学年 school / academic year 学期 (school) term; semester 三学期制 the trimester system 双学士制 double BA degree system 主辅修制 a system of a major field of specialization plus a minor field 分数 mark; grade 五分制 the five-grade marking system / five-point grading system 百分制 100-mark system 学习成绩 academic record; school record 成绩单 school report; report card; transcript 毕业论文 thesis; dissertation 毕业实习 graduation field work 毕业设计 graduation project 毕业典礼 graduation ceremony; commencement 毕业证书 graduation certificate; diploma 毕业鉴定 graduation appraisal 授予某人学位 to confer a degree on sb. 升级 to go on to the next grade / to promoted to be a higher grade 留级 to repeat the year?s work; to stay down 补考 make-up examination 升学 to go to a school of a higher level; to enter a higher school 升学率 proportion of students entering schools of a higher level 奖学金 scholarship (国家助学金)(state) stipend / subsidy 领取助学金的学生 a grant-aided student , scholarship student 学费 tuition (fee) 伙食费 board expenses 伙食补助 food allowance UNIT 4 半边天 half the Sky 半封建半殖民地的 semi-feudal and semi-colonial 帝国主义,封建主义,官僚资本主义 imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism 受……支配;服从于 to be subject to 父姓家族制度 patriarchal family system 男女在政治和经济上不平等的根源 roots of political and economic inequality between men and women 取消一切带歧视性的法律 to abolish all women?s discriminatory legislations 实行改革开发的政策 implementation of the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world 提高妇女地位 to raise women?s status

封建思想根深蒂固 feudal ideas die hard 家务劳动 household chores 在城里打零工 to work on /do odd jobs in the cities 大中型企业 the large and medium-sized enterprises 优化组合 to optimize the production 工作环境中的性骚扰 sexual harassment at work 家庭暴力 family violence at work 拐卖妇女 trafficking in women 适应迅速变化的形势 to keep up with the changing circumstances 自尊、自信、自立、自强 self-respect, self-confidence, self-reliance and self-development 不懈努力 sustained efforts 中国人民政治协商会议 Chinese People?s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 中国共产党 Communist Party f China (CPC) 国务院各部委 various ministries and commissions under the State Council 带薪的产假 paid maternity leave 从传统产业转向第三产业 to shift to tertiary industry from conventional industries 更适合妇女的生理特点 to be more suited to women?s physiological characteristics 农村妇女创新奖 Prize for Women?s Creativity in Rural Life 世界妇女首脑会议基金 Women?s World Summit Foundation 遗传工程学 genetic engineering 微电子学 microelectronics 院士 academician 中国科学院 Chinese Academy of Science 中国工程院 Chinese Academy of Engineering 中国医学院 Chinese Academy of Medical Science 推动成人教育和职业教育,消除文盲妇女 promoting adult and vocational education and eliminating illiteracy among women 中高级专业职称 professional titles of middle and senior ranks 未成年人 minors 杀婴弃婴 infanticide and abandoning infants 青春期 puberty 体罚 corporal punishment 文盲妇女 women illiterates, illiterate women 普通高校 regular institutions of higher learning 希望工程 Project Hope 春雷计划 the Spring Bud Program 救助事业儿童 to provide assistance to dropouts 基层义务工作者 grass-roots health workers and medical staff 孕产妇死亡率 women?s mortality rate due to pregnancy and childbirth 儿童福利机构 children?s welfare institutions 康复中心 rehabilitation centers 聋哑和智残儿童 hearing-impaired and mentally challenged children 前所未有的 unprecedented 服务行业 service industry

低人一等,被人看不起 to be looked down upon as inferior to 进入科技前沿领域 to have stepped into the frontiers of science and technology 草拟方案 to draft a proposition 采取双重标准 to adopt a double standard 加班加点 to work overtime 提高素质 to improve oneself 中国的妇女顶半边天。Chinese women “hold up half the sky”. 中国的妇女是一种伟大的人力资源。 必须发掘这种资源, 为了建设伟大社会主义国家而奋斗。 China?s women are a vast human resource. This resource should be tapped in our effort to build a great socialist country. 旧中国的男子,普遍受到政权、族权和神权这三大权力系统的支配。而妇女,除了要受这三 大权力的支配外,还要受夫权的支配,这四种权力——政权、族权、神权、夫权——代表了 全部封建宗法的思想和制度,是束缚中国人民特别是农民的四条极大地绳索。 Men in old China were usually subject to the domination of three systems of authority, namely political authority, clan authority and religious authority. As for women, in addition to being dominated by these three systems of authority, they were also dominated by the authority of the husband. These four authorities ——political, clan, religious and masculine embody the whole feudal patriarchal ideology and system, and were the four thick ropes binding the Chinese people particularly the peasants. 大男子主义 male chauvinism 三从(未嫁从父、既嫁从夫、夫死从子) the three obedience (to father before marriage, to husband after marriage, and to son after the death of husband) 四德(妇德、妇言、妇容、妇功) the four virtues (morality, proper speech, modest manner and good needlework) 男尊女卑 Men are superior; women are inferior./ The male is respected, while the female is regarded as lowly. 贤妻良 virtuous wife and good mother 《中华人民共和国妇女权益保障法》 Laws of the People?s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women 妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等方面享受与男子平等的权利。 Women enjoy equal rights with men in all aspects of political, economic, cultural, social and family life. 实行男女同工同酬。 To apply the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike Equal pay for equal work should be applied to men and women alike. 国家保护妇女依法享有的特殊权益,逐步完善对妇女的社会保障制度。 The state protects the special rights and interests enjoyed by women according to law, and gradually perfects its social security system with respect to women. 禁止歧视、虐待、残害妇女 Discrimination against women, abuse of women, or causing injury or death to women, are all prohibited.

保障妇女的合法权益是社会的共同责任. The protection of women lawful rights and interests is a common responsibility of the whole society. 妇女有权通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。 Women have the right to conduct state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings and administer social affairs through various channels and in various ways. 妇女享有与男子平等的选举权和被选举权。 Women have the same right as men to vote and to stand for election. 全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会的代表中,应当有适当数量的妇女代表,并逐 步提高妇女代表的比例。 Among deputies to the National People?s Congress and local people?s congresses at various levels, there should be an appropriate number of women deputies, and the proportion should be increased gradually. 密切人大代表同人民的联系 deputies to people's congresses maintain close ties with the general public 国家保障妇女享有与男子平等的文化教育权利。 The state guarantees that women enjoy equal rights with men with respect to culture and education. 父母或者其他监护人必须履行保障适龄女性儿童少年接受义务教育的义务。 Parents or other guardians must perform their duty of ensuring that female school-age children or adolescents receive the compulsory education. 国家保障妇女享有与男子平等的劳动权利。 The state guarantees that women enjoy equal rights with men with respect to work/employment. 任何单位均应根据妇女的特点,依法保护妇女工作和劳动时的安全和健康,不得安排不适 合妇女从事的工作和劳动。 All employers should, in line with women?s characteristics and according to law, ensure women?s safety and protect their health in work or physical labor, and should not assign to them any work or physical labor unsuitable for women. 妇女在经期、孕期、产期、哺乳期受特殊保护。 Women are under special protection during menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and lactation periods. 禁止歧视、虐待生育女婴的妇女和不良妇女。 Discrimination against or maltreatment of women who are sterile or give birth to female babies is prohibited. 禁止用迷信、暴力手段残害妇女。 Cruel treatment causing injury even death of women by superstition or violence is prohibited. 禁止虐待和遗弃老年妇女。Maltreatment or abandonment of aged women s prohibited. 禁止拐卖和绑架妇女。 Abduction of and trafficking of aged women is prohibited. 禁止卖淫、嫖娼。Prostitution is prohibited. 国家保护妇女的婚姻自由权。 The state protects women?s right if self-determination with regard to marriage. 禁止干涉妇女的结婚、离婚自由。 Interference with women?s rights regarding marriage or divorce is prohibited. 有理想、有道德、有文化、守纪律的社会主义事业的接班人

Successors to the socialist cause with high ideals, lofty morality, a good education and a sense of discipline. 理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育 Education in ideals, morality and ethics, culture, discipline and legal system 德育、智育、体育、美育、劳动教育 (to conduct) moral, intellectual, physical, aesthetic and labor education 反对资本主义、封建主义思想的侵蚀 To resist the influence of bourgeois and feudal ideology 教育与保护相结合 To combine education with protection 禁止体罚 corporal punishment is forbidden. 教育、感化、挽救 education, persuasion, and redemption 坚持教育为主、体罚为辅的原则 to uphold the principle of taking education as the main method and punishment as the subsidiary method. 买卖婚姻 mercenary marriage 双方自愿结合 both / two parties agree to get married 一夫一妻制 monogamy 多配偶(一夫多妻、一妻多夫)polygamy 重婚(罪) bigamy 中华全国妇女联合会 All-China Women?s Federation 三八红旗手 March 8th Red Banner Pacesetter 托儿所 nursery 托儿站 child-care center 日托托儿站 day-care center, day nursery 全托托儿站 boarding nursery 哺乳室 nursery/ crè (where mothers leave their babies when at work and breast-feed che them during breaks) 保育员 nurse(at a nursery) 婴儿班 infant class 抚养孩子 child-rearing UNIT 5 预期寿命 life expectance 可喜的 gratifying (根据已知资料或观察所做的)预测、估计 projection 不平衡的;不对等的;不规律的;参差不齐的 uneven 在全国形成网络 form a nationwide network 宣传教育 to give publicity to and conduct education on (法律、协议等)开始生效/实施 to come/ go into force 提供各种便民服务 to provide various facilities and services 活动站 recreational center 有发言权 to have a say (工作、责任等)无法逃避的 unshirkable 被写入 to be written into

相互的 reciprocal 微博的收入 modest income 咨询辅导站 advisory and coaching center 道德标准 ethical code 春秋战国时期 the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods 把——嵌/插/埋 /放入 to imbed / embed 谨慎对待 to approach with prudence 调停,调解;做媒介,中人 to mediate 当事人 party 批准 to mandate 义不容辞的 duty-bound 和解 reconciliation 感情完全破裂 complete alienation of mutual affection 以——为特色 feature 平等、和睦、文明的家庭关系 family relations featuring equality, harmony and civility 提出(申请、议案等) ;提起(诉讼等)to file 总的趋势 the general tendency, the tendency 生活补贴 extra allowance for living expenses 取其精华,弃其糟粕 to discard the dross and select the essence 夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务 Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning. 父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务 Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents. 敬老、爱老、养老是中国的传统美德 It is a Chinese tradition to respect, love and support the elderly. 老有所养、老有所医、老有所为、老有所学、老有所乐 The elderly should be supported financially, enjoy medical care, contribute to the society, engage in lifelong learning and live happily. 养为结合,以为保养,发挥家庭和社会养老两个功能 Combining social support with self-support through work, reinforcing social support with self-support through work and mobilizing both the family and society to support / in supporting the elderly. 养儿防老 raising sons to support one in one?s old age 五保户 a household enjoying the Five Guarantees(childless and infirm old persons who are guaranteed food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses by the collective) The “Five-Guarantees” households, i.e., the aged, the infirm, old widows and widowers and orphans, taken care of by the collective in five respects (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses) 孤、寡 the orphaned or widowed 老年人 the elderly; senior citizen(s) 无依靠的老人 aged people with no families 老弱病残 the old, the young, the sick, and the handicapped

病残者 the handicapped / disabled or sick 退休者 retiree 军属 dependents of armymen 烈属 families of revolutionary martyrs 敬老院 old folk?s / people?s home; home for the aged/ elderly 老年医院 geriatric hospital 养老金 o ld-age pension 退休金 pension 修身、齐家、治国、平天下 Cultivate individual moral character, run the family in unison, manage the nation in order, and peace will prevail throughout the universe. 三纲(君为臣纲、父为子纲、夫为妻纲) Three cardinal guides (ruler guides subject; father guides son; and husband guides wife) 五常(仁义礼智信) Five constant virtues (benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and fidelity) 核心家庭 nuclear family 直系家庭 stem family 大家庭 extended family 四世同堂 family with four generations living together under one roof 破裂家庭 broken family 家长 family head/ head of the family; patriarch 家长制 patriarchal system 家长统治 patriarchal rule 孝(道) filial piety/ duty 孝顺 to show filial obedience 孝子,孝女 dutiful son/ daughter 终身大事 a great event in one?s life (男女)同居;姘居 cohabitation 媒人 match-maker 配偶 spouse 未婚子女 unwed children 夫妻关系 conjugal relation 患难夫妻 couple who go through thick and thin together 通婚 intermarriage 直系血亲 lineal relative by blood 三代以内的旁系血亲 collateral relative by blood (up to the third degree of relationship) 中国老龄问题全国委员会 China National Committee on Aging 老年学学会 Gerontological Society 中国老年基金会 China Fund for the Elderly 老教授协会 Senior Professors? Association 退(休)教(师)协(会)Association of Retired Teachers 退医协 Association of Retired Doctors 退法协 Association of Retired Lawyers 国际老人节 the International Day of the Elderly

九九重阳节(中国敬老日)the Double Ninth Festival (a day of respecting the elderly in China) 老人法 Old People Law 家庭赡养协议书 family contract on supporting the elderly 五好家庭 the Five-Good Family

UNIT 6 人均可耕地占有量 per capita quantity of cultivated land 公顷 hectare ( 1 mu = 1/ 15 hectare) 对——有直接的影响,直接关系到 to have a direct bearing on 分布不平均 unevenly distributed 人口稠密(稀少) densely(sparsely) populated 人口密度 population density 高原地带 plateau areas 人口普查( 全国人口普查) population census/ national census (男)现役军人 serviceman 城市居民 city dweller / urban resident 子女;后代(复数也可以-s)offspring 缺少劳动力 to be short of manpower 牧区 pastoral region 社会抚养费 social upbringing fees 强制 coercion 避孕;节(制生)育/ 避孕,节育的工具 contraception / contraceptive 不成比例 disproportional to 带薪产假 maternity leave with full pay 优惠待遇 preferential treatment 优先享有——(权利)to be given priority to getting 扶贫救济 aid-the-poor loans / poverty relief 社会救济 social relief 化肥 chemical fertilizer 农药 pesticide 社会保险金 social insurance benefits 退休金补贴 subsidies to one?s retirement benefits 退休养老计划 retirement / pension schemes 对不执行——者实施惩罚 to impose penalties for failing to do sth. (自然现象的)作用过程 mechanism 国民生产总值 Gross National Product (GNP) 经济发展与人口增长之间的矛盾 incompatibility between population growth and economic development 给——造成很大的压力 to exert great pressure on 摆脱贫困落后 to be lifted out of poverty and backwardness 香港特别行政区 Hong Kong SAR(Special Administrative Region) 和——相比 compared with; as against

国民素质 quality of the nation 受教育程度 the educational level 具有大学以上程度 people/ those with a university diploma; people/ those who have had/ received a higher education 具有高中程度 people/ those with(或 those who have had/ received) a senior high school education 具有初中程度 people/ those with(或 those who have had/ received) a junior high school education 具有小学程度 people/ those with(或 those who have had/ received) a primary high school education 文化素质 Cultural / educational level 问题的一个侧面 one side of the story/ coin (政策)落实情况并不统一——not uniformly implemented 采用经济手段 to employ economic incentives 扶贫款项 poverty alleviation funds 考察 to go on an inspection tour 村民委员会 Villagers? Committee 议题的首位 the first item on the agenda 做 B 超检查 to have an ultrasonic scan 有关人口的一些词汇: 人口普查 population census 人口预测 population projection 人口组成 population composition 人口密度 population density 人口分布 population distribution 人口基数 population base 人口爆炸 population explosion 人口衰减 population depopulation 人口负增长 negative population growth (NPG) 人口过剩 overpopulation 人口平衡 population balance 人口老化 aging of population 人口年轻化 rejuvenation of population 人口(统计)学 demography 人口学家 demographer 人口统计 demographic statistics 人口数据 demographic data 人口税 poll tax 人口质量 quality 人口变迁 demographic change 人口概况调查 demographic survey

流动人口 transient / migrant / floating population 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长适应经济和社会发展的计划 The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development 实行计划生育 to practice / implement family planning 国家计划生育委员会 The State Commission of Family Planning 节育 birth control 人口控制 population control 限制、控制人口增长 to curb population growth 人口自然增长率 rate of natural growth 控制人口数量,提高人口质量 to control the size and raise the quality of population 晚婚晚育,少生优生 late marriage and childbirth and having fewer but healthier babies 晚,稀,少 late, spaced and few (deferred marriage, spaced and fewer births) 出生率 birth rate 生育率 fertility rate 死亡率 death / mortality rate 平均寿命 average life span 预期寿命 life expectancy 生育年龄 childbearing age 育龄 reproduction age 适婚年龄 marriageable age 育龄妇女 women of childbearing age 人工流产 induced abortion 计划外怀孕 unwanted pregnancy 不育的 sterile 绝育(手术)sterilization 就业年龄 working age 平均年龄 mean age 出生高峰 birth peak / baby boom 结婚高峰 marriage boom 独子,独女 only son / daughter 独生子,独生女 only-children 独生子女证 one-child / single-child certificate 避孕 contraception 避孕药 contraceptive 口服避孕药 oral contraceptive 避孕工具 contraceptive device 移风易俗 to transform social traditions 早生贵子 to have sons earlier 多子多福 more sons, more blessings

UNIT 7 远古 time immemorial 繁殖;增加; (使)增加 to multiply 出土文物 cultural relics unearthed 作证;证明;表明 to bear witness to 雄辩地;有说服力地 eloquently 英勇的 valiantly 统一的中央集权国家 centralized, unified state 符合/ 为了——的利益 in the interest of (开始)成形,形成 to take shape 阶段 phase 正发芽的;发展中的;初露头角的 budding 发动的;发动派的;反动分子 reactionary 反叛,造反;叛乱 rebellion 播种;散步;激起,煽动 to sow 不和,冲突; (事实、想法等之间的)不协调/不一致 discord 隔阂,疏远 estrangement 暗中破坏;逐渐损害 / 削弱 to undermine / weaken 朝廷 the imperial court (常用复数)战利品,掠夺物 spoils 仇恨 animosity 不变的,一律的 invariably 边(界地)区 border area(s) 成为——的牺牲品 to fall victim to 分裂主义者,分裂主义的 secessionist 挫败 to foil / shatter 分裂阴谋 splitting scheme 进行坚决斗争 to wage resolute struggles 太平天国 the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 新民主主义革命 the New Democratic Revolution 扎根 to take root 长期的,持久的 protracted 不屈不挠的 dauntless 压在身上的三座大山 the three big mountains weighing on their backs 兄弟的;兄弟般的 fraternal 内外部敌人 internal and external enemies 国内外敌人 enemies at home and abroad

(条约、法律等)规定 to provide (that) 煽动;挑起,策划(分裂)to instigate (division) 考虑到 to take account of 大屠杀,残杀 to massacre / slaughter 伊克昭盟 Ikh Zhao League 农奴主 serf-owner 扭转下降趋势 to reverse the downward trend 近海/ 近岸的 offshore 混合,混在一起 intermingle 杂居区 mixed community 聚居区 compact community 使多样化 to variegate 僜人 Dengren 保留,保存 to retain 汉藏语系的 Han-Tibetan family 阿尔泰语系的 Altai family 印欧语系的 Indo-European family 履行职责 to perform function 干部 cadre 伊斯兰教 Islam 佛教 Buddhism 新教,耶稣教 Protestantism 天主教 Catholicism 传教士 missionary 生产方式 mode of production 道德标准 ethical code 使凝固,使团结 to solidify (婚姻 /政治)制度,规定 (marriage/ political) institution 制定;实行 to institute 行政命令 administrative order 向前推进 to propel forward 农奴制 serfdom 痕迹,遗迹,残余 vestige 原始公社 primitive commune 实现强烈的愿望/ 抱负 to realize one?s aspiration 颁布(法令等) to promulgate 法令,成文法 statute 规定; (契约、合同等的)条款 stipulation (充分)发挥——的积极 to bring into (full) play the initiative of --硕士生,博士生 (people) holding a master?s or doctor?s degree 解决温饱问题 to solve the problems of food and clothing 财政补贴 financial subsidy 援藏工程 aid-Tibet project 投入使用 to be put into operation

在政治、经济——方面的发展 to have undergone/ achieved/ attained political, economic …development 猛增到 to soar/ surge/ rocket/ jump to 农业总产值 total agricultural output value 增加——倍 to increase …-fold 出口额 export volume 国家统一、民族团结 ethnic harmony and unification of the country 近十几年来 in the last dozen years or so 扶贫计划 the poverty relief program 摆脱贫困 to be lifted out of poverty 绝对贫困人口 the absolutely poor people 跨世纪发展蓝图 cross-century blueprint of the development 年人均净收入 annual per capita net income 牧民 herdsman 人均国内生产总值 the per capita GDP 为——拨款——元 to allocate …yuan for… 分而治之 to divide and the 别有用心的人 people with ulterior motives 和平协商 peaceful negotiation / consultation 独立自主和平外交政策 independent diplomacy policy of peace 多元化世界 a world of diversity 统一的、多民族的国家 a unified nation of many ethnic groups 中国各民族不论大小,一律平等。All ethnic groups in China, large or small, are equal. 在各少数民族间建立起平等、团结、互助的关系。To establish a relationship based on equality, unity and mutual assistance among various ethnic groups 在维护民族团结的斗争中, 要反对大民族主义, 主要是大汉族主义, 也要反对地方民族主义。 In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nation/ ethnic groups, it is necessary to combat ethnic chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism , and to combat local ethnic chauvinism. 禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。 Discrimination against, and oppression of, any ethnic group are prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the ethnic groups/ peoples or instigates division is prohibited. 民族平等,民族团结,民族区域自治,所有民族共同发展繁荣。 Equality and unity of all ethnic groups, regional ethnic autonomy, and mutual development and prosperity for all ethnic group 国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。 The state assists areas inhabited by minority peoples in accelerating their economic and cultural development according to the characteristics and needs of the various minority ethnic groups. 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。 Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority ethnic groups live in concentrated communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy. 各少数民族都有使用和发展自己语言文字的自由, 都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。 All ethnic groups have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages

and to preserve or reform their own customs. 民族对立 antagonism between ethnic groups 民族压迫 ethnic oppression 强迫同化 forced assimilation 这种事实上的不平等是历史遗留下来的。This “de facto” inequality is inherited from history. 历史遗留下来的问题 problems/ issues left over by history / from the past; legacies from the past 挑起民族矛盾 to provoke conflicts between/ among ethnic groups 破坏民族团结 to undermine the unity of the ethnic groups / peoples 挑拨离间 to sow discord 制造隔阂 to foster estrangement; to cause / arouse/ create/excite/ inflame/ provoke/ foment feelings of estrangement 播种仇恨 to arouse/ create/ sow/ stir up/ promote/ incite hatred 煽动战争 to provoke / bring on wars 提高警惕 to sharpen / heighten/ enhance one?s vigilance 少数民族聚居的地方 areas where people of the minority ethnic groups live in compact communities 少数民族杂居的地方 areas where a number of ethnic groups live together / in mixed communities 汉族地区城市中少数民族聚居区 Districts inhabited by minority peoples within cities populated mainly by Hans 散居的少数民族成分 Scatteded members of minority ethnic groups; ethnic minority elements living among other ethnic groups 种族集团 ethnic group 民主改革 democratic reform 社会主义改造 socialist transformation 封建农奴社会 feudal serf society 农奴制度 serfdom; serf system 奴隶占有制度 slave-owning system 民族区域自治 regional ethnic autonomy 地方自治政府 local autonomous government 自治区 autonomous region 自治州 autonomous prefecture 自治县(旗)autonomous county (banner) 自治机构 self-government organization 管理 自己内部的事务 to administer its own internal affairs 边疆地区 border/ frontier area/ region 林区 forest area/ region 牧区 pasture/ pastoral area 山区 mountainous area 平原地区 plains area

UNIT 8 思想史 intellectual history ——的一个主要部分 an integral part of … 控制——的思想 to control the thoughts of (政治、宗教性质的)迫害行动,大迫害 persecution 镇压,制裁 crackdown 多灾多难的 calamitous 密教(中国佛教宗派之一)Esoteric Buddhism 大乘(佛教宗派之一)Mahayana/ Greater Vehicle 小乘(佛教宗派之一)Theravada/ Hinayana/ Lesser Vehicle 土生土长的 indigenous 苯教 Bon religion 门徒,信徒,追随者 disciple 达赖 Dalai 班禅 Bainqen (Panchen) 菩提达摩,简称达摩,印度僧人 Bodhidharma 法显 Faxian 玄奘 Xuanzang 【印度教,佛教】律法,教规;达摩 dharma 鉴真 Jianzhen 拥有,所有权 possession 地产 land property 政教分离 separation of religion from politics 废除(法令等) ;取消 to abrogate 巫术 sorcery 永生 immortality 成员有组织,而不死单独行动的宗教 organized religion 教规;教会某团体/权威制定的具体法规 canon 使升华,使净化 ,使理想化 to sublimate 假定——是真的/必要,视——为当然 to postulate 自我修养 self-cultivation 精神支柱 spiritual prop(s) 农民的,农业的 agrarian 起义,暴动 uprising 白云观 Baiyun Monastery 成吉思汗 Genghis Khan 征募 to conscript 工匠,手工业工人 artisan 忽必烈汗 Kublai Khan 饮食的 dietary 麦加(伊斯兰圣地)Mecca (天主教)耶稣会会士 Jesuit 利玛窦 Matteo Ricci 奏乐钟 chime clock

礼部尚书 Director of the Board of Rites 天文学 astronomy 历法 calendar-study 教团,修道会 order 鸦片战争 the Opium War 解除对??的禁令 to lift/ remove/ withdraw the ban on / against 主管教区 diocese (政治,组织等的)普通成员;普通群众,老百姓 rank and file (会议等的)决议 resolution 阻碍,阻挠 to obstruct [安魂弥撒] requiem mass (有烧香,奏乐等的)大弥撒 high mass (无烧香,奏乐等的)小弥撒 low mass 使改变宗教或政治信仰,意见等 to proselyte 使改变信仰,使皈依,使改信基督教 to convert 皈依者,改变信仰者 convert 教区,教区的全体居民 parish 教区居民 parishioner (与教士、僧侣等相对的)俗入 laity 福音(传递者)的 evangelical 及时响应 prompt response 触发,引起 to touch off 全国规模的 on a nationwide scale 金陵神学院 Nanjing Union Theological Seminar 政府工作人员 functionary of the government 非法剥夺 to illegally / unlawfully deprive sb. of … 应有的权利 due rights 发生、发展和灭亡的规律 law of birth, development and death 协作,合作;勾结,通敌 to collaborate 在宪法规定的范围内 within the scope of the constitution 中国社会科学院 Chinese Academy of the Social Science 世界宗教研究所 Institute of Research on World Religion 圣公会 Anglican Church 宗教研究所 Institute of Religious Studies 极左分子 ultraleft extremist 授以神职的牧师 ordain minister 惯例 longstanding practice 捐献和捐赠物 offerings and gifts 租金收入,出租 rentals 闲置财产 idle properties 免除??纳税 to exempt … from taxation 树立中国形象 to take on a Chinese image 分成??类 to fall/ to be divided into … categories

明确的职责 well-defined duties/ responsibilities 尊称 honorific title 财神 god of wealth 蜀国 the kingdom/ state of Shu 公民有信仰宗教的自由和不信仰宗教、宣传无神论的自由。 Citizens enjoy freedom to believe in religion and freedom not to believe in religion and to propagate atheism. 任何国家机关、社会团体和个人,不得强制公民信仰或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的 公民和不信仰宗教的公民。 No state organ, mass organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion. 国家保护正常的宗教活动 the state protects normal religious activities. 任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。 Nobody may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state. 宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。 Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination. 有神论;有神论者 theism; theist 无神论;无神论者 atheism; atheist 泛神论 pantheism 多神论;多神论者 polytheism; polytheist 一神教 monotheism 神学 theology 神学家 theologian 神权统治 thearchy 神权政治 theocracy 等级制度 hierarchy 释迦摩尼 Sakyamuni 如来(释迦摩尼的十种称号之一)Tathagata 佛(陀) Buddha 菩萨 Bodhisattva; Buddha; Buddhist idol 观音菩萨 the Guanyin Bodhisattva; Avalokitesvvra; the Goddess of Mercy 弥勒 Maitreya 玉皇大帝 Jade Emperor 灶神 Kitchen God 龙王 Dragon King 南极寿星 South Pole Star of Longevity 太上老君 Supreme Old Lord 赵公元帅 General Zhao 安拉,真主 Allah 上帝 God, the God 三位一体 Trinity

圣父 the Father 圣子 the Son (of god) 圣灵 the Holy Ghost; the Holy Spirit 地狱 hell; inferno 阴曹 hell 圣地(指巴勒斯坦)the Holy Land 圣城(指耶路撒冷、罗马、麦加等地)the Holy City (Jerusalem, Rome, Mecca) 中国佛教协会 Chinese Buddhist Association 中国道教协会 Chinese Taoist Association 中国伊斯兰教协会 Chinese Islamic Association 中国天主教主教团 China Catholic Bishop College 中国天主教爱国会 Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association 中国天主教教务委员会 National Administrative Commission of the Chinese Catholic Church 中国天主教神哲学院 Chinese Catholic Academy of Theology and Philosophy 中国基督教三自爱国运动委员会 Chinese National Christian Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee 三自 (自治、 自养、 自传) 原则 the principles of self-government, self-support and self-propagation 宗教事务局 Bureau of Religious Affairs

宗教派别 religious sect 佛教 Buddhism 喇嘛教 Lamaism 道教 Taoism 伊斯兰教 Islam 基督教 Christianity 天主教 Catholicism 新教 Protestantism 东正教 (Eastern) Orthodox Church 希腊正教 Greek Orthodox Church 萨满教 Shamanism 宗教活动 宗教仪式 religious rites; ritual 洗礼 baptism 受洗 to receive baptism; to be baptized 忏悔 confession 圣餐 Holy Commission 宗教仪式,礼拜 religious service 做礼拜 to attend religious service; to go t o church 做弥撒(天主教)to attend Mass 念经 to recite/ chant sutras/ scriptures 念佛 to chant the name to/ to pray to Buddha 烧香 to burn joss stick(s) (before an idol); to burn incense

朝圣(基督教) ;朝圣者 pilgrimage; pilgrim 朝觐(伊斯兰教) ;朝觐者 pilgrimage; pilgrim 朝山进香 pilgrimage 主日学(星期日学校)Sunday school; Sabbath School 讲道,布道 sermon 传教,传道 to preach; to deliver a sermon (基督教)传教 to do missionary work 宗教活动场所 神学院 seminary 庙宇、寺(佛、道教)temple 喇嘛庙 lamasery 清真寺(伊斯兰教)mosque 寺院;修道院 monastery 庵(尼姑庵)Buddhist nunnery (女)修道院 convent, nunnery 教堂(基督教)church 大教堂(天主教)cathedral 神殿,神祠 shrine 祭坛,圣坛;圣餐台 altar 经书 《道德经》Dao De Jing (The Classic of the Way and Its Power) 《圣经》 (基督教)the Bible 佛经(统称)Buddhist scriptures 《古兰经》 (伊斯兰教)the Koran 信徒 believer; follower 基督教徒 Christian 天主教徒 Catholic 新教/ 耶稣教徒 Protestant 佛教徒 Buddhist 穆斯林 Muslim; Moslem 拜物教;拜物教徒 fetishism/ fetishist 僧侣,神职/ 教职人员等 僧侣,教士,牧师<集合词>clergy 和尚 Buddhist monk 喇嘛 lama 活佛 Living Buddha 尼姑 Buddha nun 道士 Taoist priest 道姑 Taoist nun 教士,牧师 clergyman 教皇 Pope/ the Holy Father

红衣主教 cardinal 大主教 archbishop 主教 bishop 神父(天主教)priest 修女(天主教)nun 牧师(新教)pastor, minister 传教士 missionary UNIT 9 保健 health care 医疗 medical care 社会医疗保险规划/ 方案 social medical insurance scheme 公费医疗制度 free medical care system 国家机关 state organs 科学,文教部门/单位 scientific, cultural and educational institutions 支付机制 pay mechanism 临床经验 clinical experience 药学 pharmacology 心血管的 cardiovascular 脑血管的 cerebrovascular 互补的 complementary 本性不相容的,相克的 antipathetic 相生相克的 to oppose and complement each other 相互依存的 interdependence 相互制约 inter-restraint 麻醉术(药)anesthesia 康复期 convalescence 辩证的 dialectical 诊断的 diagnostic 五行:金、木、水、火、土 five elements of metal, wood, water, fire and earth 病理的 pathological 经络 jing and luo 疗效 therapeutic effect 气 qi 纵向地 longitudinally 横向地 latitudinally 《黄帝内经》The Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine 解剖学 anatomy 生理学 physiology 《神农本草》Shen Nong’s Canon of Herbs (文件、书籍等)尚存的 extant 《急备千金药方》Golden Prescriptions for Emergence 《千金翼方》Supplementary Golden Prescriptions 《本草纲目》Compendium of Materia Medica

药物学家;药理学家 pharmacology 药典 pharmacopoeia 四诊:望闻问切 four methods of diagnosis: observing, listening and smelling, inquiring and palpating 舌苔 tongue coating 《外台秘要》Secret Prescriptions Revealed by a Provincial Governor 黄疸 jaundice 消毒 to sterilize 甲骨文 oracle bone inscriptions 医技科室 medico-technical departments 呼吸内科 department of respiration medicine 热带病科 department of tropical medicine 感染急救 infection emergency 麻风病 leprosy 振兴 rejuvenation 发病率 morbidity 血吸虫病 schistosomiasis / snail fever 疟疾 malaria 优惠的财政政策 preferential financial policies 漏洞 loophole 回扣 kickback 补充规定 supplementary regulation 大额医疗费用互助基金 large- sum medical expenditure mutual aid fund 重症监护病房 intensive care unit (ICU) 试管婴儿 test-tube baby 阴阳调和平衡 proper circulation and balance of the yin and yang 不调 disequilibrium 失衡 disharmony 不平衡 imbalance 陶冶性情 to mold a person?s temperament 古为今用,洋为中用 to make the past serve the present and foreign things serve China 把医疗卫生工作的重点放到农村去 In health/ medical work , put the stress on the rural areas 救死扶伤,实行革命的人道主义 Heal the wounded, rescue the dying, practice revolutionary humanitarianism 改变缺医少药的状况 to overcome the shortage of medical services and medicines 预防为主 to put prevention first 中国医药学是一个伟大的宝库,应当努力发掘,加以提高 Chinese medicine and pharmacology are a great treatment-house, efforts should be made to explore them and raise them to a higher level. 中西医结合 to combine traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine; The integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine 中西医结合治疗

Therapy of combining traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine; Combined methods of treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine 吸收中西医之精华,弃其糟粕 To absorb the best of both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine and weed out the obsolete and worthless 享受免费医疗 to enjoy / receive/ have free medical care/ treatment service; To be eligible for free medical care/ treatment service 送医送药上门 To bring medical service and medicines to the patients? homes; To bring medical care right to the patients? homes 挨家逐户为患者治病 to go from house to house giving medical treatment to the patients 开展爱国卫生运动 to conduct/ start/ launch patriotic public health campaign 除四害 to get rid of / wipe out the four pests (mosquitoes, flies, rats and bedbugs) 个人卫生 personal hygiene 公共卫生 public health 改善环境卫生 to improve environmental sanitation 卫生检查 sanitary inspection 普及卫生知识 popularize/ spread knowledge of hygiene/ hygienic knowledge 保健事业 public health work 保健网 health care network 医疗机构 综合医院 general hospital 妇产医院 obstetrics and gynecology hospital 产科医院 maternity / lying-in hospital 口腔医院 stomatological hospital 保健机构 health institute 医疗保健站 health center; medical station 妇幼保健站 health center for women and children; maternity and child care center 爱婴医院 Baby-Friendly Hospital 卫生防疫站 sanitation and anti-epidemic station 防疫站(检疫站)quarantine station 医院部门、科室及医务人员、病人 内科 dept. of internal medicine, medical dept.; internist, physician 外科 dept. of surgery, surgical dept.; surgeon 小儿科 dept. of pediatrics; pediatrician 妇产科 dept. of obstetrics and gynecology; obstetrician; gynecologist; ob/ gyn specialist 眼科 dept. of ophthalmology; ophthalmologist 口腔科 dept. of stomatology; stomatologist 牙科 dept. of dentistry, dental dept.; dentist 耳鼻喉科 ENT (ear-nose-throat) dep.; ENT specialist 皮肤科 dept. of dermatology; dermatologist

泌尿科 dept. of urology; urologist 神经科 dept. of neurology; neurologist 精神病科 dept. of psychiatry; psychiatrist 骨科 dept. of orthopedics; orthopedist 心脏病科 dept. of cardiology; cardiologist, heart specialist 中医科 dept. of traditional Chinese medicine; doctor of traditional Chinese medicine 保健科 health dept. 放射科 dept. of radiology, X-ray dept.; radiologist 病理科 dept. of pathology; pathologist 理疗科 dept. of physical therapy; therapist 药房 pharmacy, dispensary; pharmacist, druggist 化验室 laboratory; laboratory technician 血库 blood bank 门诊部 outpatient dept. 住院部 inpatient dept. 护理部 nursing dept. 住院处 admission office 挂号处 registration office 病历处 medical care division/ room 急诊部 emergency unit; emergency case 急诊室 emergency room 诊室 consulting room 候诊室 waiting room 手术室 operation room/ theater 病房 ward 内科/ 外科病房 medical / surgical ward 内科/ 外科病人 medical / surgical patient 产科病房 maternity ward 隔离室/ 病房 isolation ward 观察室 observation ward 医务工作者 medical personnel/ staff/ worker 医院院长 director 主任 dept. head 主治医生 doctor/ physician in charge 住院医生 resident (physician) 实习医生 intern(e) 护士长 head nurse 门诊病人 outpatient 住院病人 inpatient 患者;病例 case 产妇 lying-in woman; expecting mother 疾病 发病率 incidence

常见病 common disease 多发病 frequently occurring disease 急性病 acute disease 慢性病 chronic disease 顽疾 stubborn disease 流行病 epidemic disease 地方病 endemic disease 职业病 occupational disease 传染病(空气)infectious disease 传染病(接触)contagious disease 寄生虫病 parasitic disease 肺病 lung trouble 肺结核 TB, tuberculosis (小儿)肺炎 (infantile) pneumonia (慢性)支气管炎 (chronic) bronchitis 哮喘 asthma 肾脏病 kidney trouble 肾结石 kidney stone 肝病 liver trouble 肝炎 hepatitis 胆结石 gall stone 胃病 stomach trouble 胃溃疡 gastric ulcer 胃炎 gastritis 阑尾炎 appendicitis 心脏病 heart trouble; cardiac disease 高血压 high blood pressure; hypertension 低血压 low blood pressure; hypotension 关节炎 arthritis 风湿性关节炎 rheumatic arthritis 妇女病 gynecological disease 流产(自然的)miscarriage 流产(人工的)abortion 皮肤病 skin disease; dormatosis 恶性 malignant 良性 benign 性病 venereal disease 艾滋病(获得性免疫缺乏综合症)AIDS/ Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome 伤寒 typhoid 霍乱 cholera 流感 influenza; flu 百日咳 whooping cough; pertussis 猩红热 scarlet fever 白喉 diphtheria

痢疾 dysentery 疟疾 malaria 鼠疫 the plague 天花 smallpox 水痘 chicken-pox 麻疹 measles 小儿麻痹症 infantile paralysis 脊髓灰质炎 polio 破伤风 tetanus 贫血 anemia 糖尿病 diabetes 脑溢血 cerebral hemorrhage 中风 apoplexy; stroke 骨折 fracture 骨刻 spur 烧伤 burns 冻疮 chilblain 痔疮 hemorrhoids; piles 检查 验血(大、小便等)to have one?s blood (stool, urine, etc. ) tested 血型 blood group/ type (AB, A, B, O) O 型 Group O 做心电图 to have an electro-cardiogram B 超/ CT an ultrasound/ a CAT scan of… (病人)做 B 超/ CT to have/ undergo an ultrasound/ a CAT scan of… (医生)做 CT / B 超 to do/perform a CAT / an ultrasound scan on sb./ an organ, To give sb. a CAT / an ultrasound scan (医生)诊断 CT / B 超 to read/ analyze/ interpret a CAT / an ultrasound scan… 全身检查 general checkout 内服 to be taken orally 外敷 for external application 预防注射 to inoculate; protective inoculation 打针 to give/ have an injection 传染 infection 种牛痘 to vaccinate; vaccination 输血 blood transfusion 输液 fluid infusion 输氧 oxygen therapy 打点滴 to have an intravenous drop 给某人点滴 to administer an I.V. 放疗 radiotherapy 化疗 to give/ receive chemotherapy 理疗 physiotherapy

超声波疗法 electrotherapy; electrical treatment 疗程 course of treatment 治疗见效 to respond well to treatment 治疗无效 to fail to respond to any medical treatment 实行手术 to perform an operation 大/小手术 major/ minor operation 给病人开刀 to operate on a patient for… 接受手术 to have/ undergo an operation 愈合 to heal 病愈后没有后遗症 to recover without any after-effect (病)复发 to recur; recurrence of a disease; to have a relapse 中医、中医疗法 对症下药 to suit the medicine to the illness; to suit the remedy to the case 去邪扶正 to expel pathogenetic factors and re-enforce antipathogenetic qi 切脉 to feel/ take one?s pulse; pulse-feeling 针灸 acupuncture and moxibustion 按摩 massage 拔罐 cupping 耳针 ear acupuncture 穴位 (acupuncture) points 扎针 to give/ have an acupuncture treatment, to insert the needle 气功疗法 traditional Chinese breathing exercise; breathing technique therapy 西药药物 滴鼻剂 nasal drops 滴眼剂 eye drop 止痛剂 pain-killer 镇静剂 sedative 磺胺类药物 sulfa drugs 避孕药 contraceptive drugs 口服避孕药 oral contraceptive; the pill 胶囊 capsule 中药 草药 汤剂 散剂 冲剂 针剂 片剂 药丸 糖浆 药膏

herbal medicine herb soup; medicinal broth; decoction powder instant herbal mixture; medicine to be taken after being mixed with boiling water/ wine, etc. injection pill pellet syrup medical ointment

软膏 ointment, paste 膏药 plaster 秘方 home prescription 偏方 folk prescription; traditional popular prescription 人参 ginseng 西洋参(花旗参)American ginseng 蜂王浆 royal jelly 药酒 medicinal liquor, medicated wine UNIT 10 固定资产 fixed assets 工业品 manufactured goods 消费品 consumer goods 仪器仪表 instruments 自主权,决策权 decision-making power 企业承包责任制 enterprise contract responsibility system 【化】乙烯 ethylene 平板玻璃 plate glass 生产资料 means of production 从零做起,白手起家 to start from scratch 组合音响 compact stereo set 程控交换机 program-controlled switching system 现代企业制度 modern corporate system 企业集团 enterprise group 兼并 merger and acquisition 重组 reorganization 集约型 intensive type 多种经营 diversified operation 【矿】矿床 deposit 陆上/ 海上 onshore/ offshore 装机容量 installed capacity 电网 power grid 冷轧钢板 cold-rolled steel plate 冷轧硅钢板 cold-rolled silicon steel plate 镀锌钢板 zinc-plated steel plate 钢管 steel pipe/ tube 石油开采 petroleum extraction 石油钻机 oil drill 石油勘探 petroleum prospecting 机床 machine tool 联手,合作 to joint hands 先进仪器,尖端设备 sophisticated equipment 高炉 blast furnace 发电机; (煤气、蒸汽等)发生器 generator

炼油厂 合成氨 硫酸 纯碱

oil-refining plant synthetic ammonia sulphuric acid soda ash

以市场为导向的,面向市场的 market-oriented 认证 to certify 上市 to go public/ get listed 联合大企业 conglomerate 专业人才 professional talent 家用电器 household electric appliance 派遣,发送 to dispatch 公众知名度,名声 public recognition 销售网点 sales outlet 洛桑国际管理学院 Lausanne Institute of Management and Development 工业综合实力 overall industrial strength 营业额 business volume “九五”计划 the 9th Five-Year Plan 利税 profit and tax 产品门类品牌价值 product line brand value 出口创汇 export earnings 质量检验,质量管理 quality control 针对特定目的/ 对象做修改; 使适应 to tailor … to / to do… 海外业务 overseas operations 工业类别 重(工业)heavy 轻 light 手 handcraft 石化 petrochemical 采矿 mining 煤炭 coal 冶金 metallurgical 钢铁 iron and steel 黑色金属 ferrous 有色金属 non-ferrous 稀有金属 rare metals 加工 processing 制造 manufacturing 飞机制造 aircraft 汽车制造 automobile 机械制造 machine-building/ making 重型机械制造 heavy machine-building 农业机械制造 agricultural machinery

纺织机械制造 textile machinery 化学 chemical 机床制造 manufacture of machine tools 冶金、矿山设备制造 manufacture of metallurgical and mining equipment 运输机器制造 transportation equipment/ machine 发电设备制造 power equipment 通讯器材 communication equipment 电力 power 无线电 radio 电视机 TV 电子 electronics 建筑 building 橡胶 rubber 塑料 plastics 纺织 textile 造纸 paper-making 家具制造 furniture-making 食品 food 罐头 canning 制糖 sugar-refining 乳品 diary 酿酒 wine 肉类加工 meat-packing/ meat-processing 卷烟 cigarette-making 制革 leather/ tanning 制陶 ceramics 服装 clothing 印染 printing and dyeing 企业类别 国有企业 state-owned enterprise(SOE) 非国有企业 non-state enterprise 中外合资企业 Sino-foreign joint venture 独资企业 wholly foreign-owned enterprise 外资企业 foreign-funded enterprise 职业 熟练工人 skilled worker 老工人 veteran worker 学徒工 apprentice 实习生 trainee 试用人员 person on probation; probationer 厂长 factory director; head of factory 车间主任 workshop director; head of workshop

总裁 president 工艺员 technologist 技术员;技师 technician 产权明晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学 clearly defined property rights, clearly specified power and responsibilities, separation from government as well as scientific management 工业机构不合理 irrational industrial structure 地区发展不平衡 unbalanced regional development 建立独立的工业体系 to build up independent industrial system 严格质量检查制度 to observe strictly quality control rules 提高劳动生产率 to raise labor productivity 降低废品、次品 to reduce the number of rejects and seconds 二级品,二等货;等外品 seconds 次品 substandard product; defective goods 劣等品 low grade/ inferior goods 优等品 quality/ first-rate product 名优产品 famous-brand and high-quality product 面向市场需求 to be oriented towards the market demand 扩大生产能力 to expand productive capacity 扩大再生产 to expand reproduction 成套设备 whole sets of equipment 充分发挥现有设备的生产能力 to tap fully the productive capacity of the existing equipment to use the existing equipment to its maximum capacity 更好地利用地方资源 to make fuller use of local natural resources 超额完成国家计划 to over fulfill the state plan 世界先进水平 advanced international standards 成批生产 to produce by batch; serial production 大量生产 mass production 生产批量 production lot 试制 to trial produce/ manufacture; trial production 新产品试制 trial-production of new items 成品 finished product 半成品 semi- finished product 代用品 substitute (半)自动化(semi-) automation; (semi-) automatic (半)机械化(semi-) mechanization; (semi-) mechanized 投产 to go/ put into production 投标 to call for / invite tenders 国家指标 state quota 生产指标 production target 生产定额 production quota 生产能力 production capacity 生产潜力 productive potentialities; latent productive capacity

生产效率 efficiency 生产总值 gross output value 生产销售一体化 integration of production and marketing; vertical integration 自负盈亏 to be responsible for one?s profit or loss 中外驰名企业集团 中国石油天然气集团公司 China National Petroleum Corporation(CNPC) 中国石化公司(集团)China Petrochemical Corporation 上海宝山钢铁集团 Shanghai Baoshan Iron and Steel Group 长虹(电器公司)Changhong 康佳(电器公司)Konda 科龙(电器公司)Kelon TCL(电器公司)TCL 长春第一汽车集团公司 Changchun First Automobile Group 上海汽车工业集团 Shanghai Automobile Industry Group 海尔(中国著名电器制造商)Haier 利勃海尔公司(德)Liebherr Corp. 丰田公司(日本) Toyota 索尼公司(日本) Sony UNIT 11 家庭 (联产计酬) 承包制 household contract responsibility system (with income linked to output) “大跃进” the Great Leap Forward 自留地 family/ private plot 抑制/ 挫伤(积极性)to dampen (enthusiasm) 《关于加快农业发展若干问题多的决定》 The Resolution on Certain Questions in Order to Speed Up the Development of Agriculture 《进一步活跃农村经济的十项措施》 Ten Measures Concerning the Further Vitalization of the Rural Economy 《九十年代中国食物结构改革与发展纲要》 人均占有量 per capita availability 是??的四倍,翻两番 to quadruple 基础设施 infrastructure 调动农民的积极性 to rouse the enthusiasm of farmers 统分结合的双层经济机制 the two-layer management system featuring the integration of centralization and decentralization 动物性食物 food of animal origin 主食/ 副食 staple food / non-staple food 单产,单位面积产量 yield per unit area 中低产田 medium and low-yielding land 水利工程 water conservancy works 开垦荒地 to reclaim wasteland 复种指数 multiple cropping index 粮食品种和丰歉年调剂 to diversify food varieties and provide backup in case f crop failure

乡镇企业 township enterprise / township and village enterprises(TVE) 餐饮业 the catering trade 农村剩余劳动力 surplus rural labor UNIT 14 社会主义的主要目标是解放发展生产力, 消灭剥削, 消灭贫富两极分化, 最终达到共同富裕。 The main goals of socialism are the liberation and development of productive forces, the elimination of exploitation and polarization between the rich and the poor and final achievement of common prosperity. 逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的现代化,把我国建设成为富强、民主、文明的社会 主义国家。 To modernize the country?s industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology step by step to turn China into a strong and prosperous socialist country with a high level of culture and democracy. 全面建设小康社会,开创中国特色社会主义事业新局面。 To build a well-off society in an all-round way and create a new situation in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. 继往开来,与时俱进,全面艰涩小康社会,加快推进社会主义现代化。 To carry forward our cause into the future, keep pace with the times, build a well-off society in an all-round way, and speed up socialist modernization. 全面建设小康社会,最根本的是坚持以经济建设为中心,不断解放和发展生产力。 In building a well-off society in an all-round way, it is of vital importance to take economic development as the central task and keep releasing and developing he productive forces. 坚持以经济建设为中心,用发展的办法解决前进中的问题。 To keep economic development as the central task and solve problems cropping up on our way forward through development 发展是硬道理 Development is the fundamental principle. 发展经济的根本目的是提高全国人民的生活水平和质量。 The fundamental goal of economic development is to uplift the living standards and quality of life of the people. 大力实施科教兴国战略和可持续发展战略 To implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education and that of sustainable development 走新型工业化道路,必须发挥科学技术作为第一生产力的重要作用 In taking a new road to industrialization, we must give free play to the important role of science and technology as the primary productive force. 必须把可持续发展放在十分突出的地位,坚持计划生育、保护环境和保护资源的基本国策。 We must give top priority to sustainable development, adhere to the basic state policies of family planning and environmental and resources protection. 坚持改革开放,不断完善社会主义市场经济体制 To persevere in reform and opening up and keep improving the socialist market economy 坚持“引进来”和“走出去”相结合,全面提高开放水平 To do a better job in opening up by “bringing in (foreign investments and technology)” and

“reaching out (for foreign markets, including investment acquisitions and sales) 以开放促改革促发展 To expand the space for development and accelerate reform and development by opening up 坚持物质文明和精神文明两手抓 To attach equal importance to both material and spiritual civilization 实行依法治国和以德治国相结合 To run the country by combining the rule of law and the rule of virtue 积极推进西部大开发,促进区域经济协调发展 To promote the development of the western region and bring about a coordinated development of regional economies 西部大开发 the development of western China 西气东输工程 the West-East Gas Pipeline Project 西电东送工程 West-East Power Transmission Project 南水北调工程 South-North Water Diversion Project 个体、 私营等各种形式的非公有制经济是社会主义市场经济的重要组成成分, 对充分调动社 会各方面的积极性,加快生产力发展有重要作用。 The non-public sector of self-employed, private and other forms of ownership is an important component part of the socialist market economy. They play an important role in mobilizing the initiative of all quarters of the society to quicken/ speed up the development of the productive forces. 充分发挥个体、 私营等非公有制经济在促进经济增长、 扩大就业和活跃市场等方面的重要作 用。 We must give full scope/ play to the important role of the non-public sector of self-employed, private and other forms of ownership of the economy in stimulating economic growth, creating more jobs and activating the market. 国有企业是我国国民经济的支柱。 State-owned enterprises are the pillar of the national economy. 建立产权明晰、权责明确、政企分开、管理科学的现代企业制度 To set up a modern corporate system featuring clearly defined property rights and clearly defined power and responsibilities, separation of government functions and enterprise management, and scientific management. 健全现代市场经济的社会信用体系 To establish a social credit system compatible with a modern market economy 扩大内需是我国经济发展长期的、基本的立足点 Simulating domestic demand is an essential and long-standing factor underlying China?s economic growth. 建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障体系,是社会稳定和国家长治久安的重要保证。 Establishing and improving a social security system compatible with the level of economic development constitutes an important guarantee for social stability and long-term peace and order in the country. 健全失业保险制度和城市居民最低生活保障制度。多渠道筹集和积累社会保障基金。 We should improve the systems of unemployment insurance and subsistence allowances for urban residents. We should try various channels to raise and accumulate social security funds 建立农村养老、医疗保险和最低生活保障制度。

To establish systems of old-age pensions, medical insurance and subsistence allowances in rural areas 加强社会主义精神文明建设 To advance socialist ethical and cultural progress; to improve socialist culture and ethnics 社会主义民主政治和精神文明建设成果显著 Notable progress has been achieved in improving socialist democracy and spiritual civilizations 合理调节收入分配关系 to rationally regulate income distribution relationship 各尽所能,按劳分配 From each according to his ability, to each according to his work 坚持公有制为主体 to insist on the primacy of public ownership 一个以公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的格局 an economy pattern featuring mutual development of diversified ownerships with the public ownership as the mainstay 轻工业和重工业比例失调 disproportionate development of light and heavy industries 初步建立 社会主义市场经济体制 establish a preliminary basis for a socialist market economy 形成比较完善的社会主义市场经济体制 To create a more or less complete socialist market 适应市场经济需求 to suit the requirements of a market economy 开源节流 to open up new sources of revenue and cut back on expenditure 资本重组 capital recombination 公开上市 public offerings / to go public 公积金 accumulation fund 政府拨款 government appropriation 国家税收 state tax revenue 逃税,偷税 to evade tax 退税 tax rebate/ reimbursement 分红/ 红利 dividend 内部收益率 internal rate of return (IRR) 自由/非自由兑换货币 convertible / inconvertible currency UNIT 15 提高能源利用效率 to raise energy utilization efficiency 治理、开发长江的跨世纪工程 trans-century project for harnessing and tapping the Yangtze River “中华环保世纪行”Trans-Century Cross-China Environmental Protection Tour 以粮代赈 to provide grain as relief 配套政策 supporting policies 沼气 biogas, marsh gas 微水电 small hydropower stations 经济发展应与环境保护齐头并进 Economic development should go hand in hand with environmental protection/ conservation 国际合作应当建立在尊重国家主权的基础上 International cooperation should be based on respect for state sovereignty 所有国家,不论大小、贫富、强弱,都有权平等地参与有关环境与发展的国际活动。 All countries, large or small, rich or poor, strong or weak, are entitled to participate in international activities relating to environment and development on an equal footing. 有关全球环境与发展的问题应该用不给国家独立造成威胁, 不损害其主权的方式来解决。 没

有世界和平和稳定,也不可能做到保护环境和发展经济。 Issues concerning global environment and development should be solved in such a manner as not to threaten a state?s independence or impair its sovereignty. Without world peace and stability, environmental protection/ conservation and economic development would be impossible. 战争、动乱不仅带来生命和财产的重大损失,也造成生态环境的恶化。 Wars and turbulence will not only incur great loss of life and property, but also cause degradation of ecological environment. 在解决环境问 问题时,不仅要考虑各国的眼前利益,还要考虑全世界的长远利益。 When we tackle environmental problems, consideration should be given to both the immediate interests of various countries and the long-term interests of the whole world. 经济建设、城乡建设和环境建设同步规划、同步实施、同步发展 To synchronize planning, implementation and development of economy, urban and rural construction, and environmental conservation 实现经济效益、社会效益、环境效益相统一 To integrate economic, social and environmental benefits “预防为主,防治结合”putting prevention first and combining prevention with control “谁污染谁治理” whoever causes pollution must remedy it “强化环境管理” tightening up environmental management 把环境保护纳入国民经济和社会发展计划 incorporate environmental protection into the plans for national economic and social development 实施国家指导下的宏观调控与管 exercise macro control and management under state guidance 提高全民族的环境意识 to raise the whole nation?s environmental awareness 使环境保护与各项建设事业统筹兼顾、协调发展 to facilitate coordinated development of environmental protection and other undertakings 发展经济,消灭贫困 to develop economy and eliminate poverty 禁止任何组织或者个人用任何手段侵占或者破坏自然资源 Appropriation or damaging of natural resources by any organization or individuals by whatever means is prohibited 过度消耗自然资源 excessive consumption of natural resources 保障自然资源的合理利用 to ensure the rational use of natural resources 防止污染和其他公害 to prevent and control pollution and other public hazards 大量排放污染物 massive discharge of pollutions 高级的环境保护技术 sophisticated technologies for environment(al) protection and conservation 生态灭绝 ecocide 生态系统 ecosystem 野生动物 wild animal; wild life 野生植物 wild plant 野生生物 wile life 自然保护 nature conservation; conservation of nature 自然保护区 natural reserve 海洋动物保护区 marine protection zone 禁猎地 preserves 常用复数 环境规划 environmental program 环境监测 environmental monitoring

环境检测 environmental testing 综合防治 integrated control 粉尘污染 dust pollution 可吸入颗粒 inhalable particle 沙尘暴 dust storm 降尘 dustfall 煤烟、油烟 soot 洗涤剂污染 detergent pollution 农药残留 pesticide residue 农药污染 pollution by pesticide 化学污染 pollution by chemical fertilizer 热污染 thermal pollution 污染物 pollutant 一次污染物 primary pollutant 二次污染物 secondary pollutant 公害 public nuisance 工业固体废物 industrial waste solid matters/ industrial solid wastes 煤渣 cinder 粉煤灰 fly ash 废水处理 waste water/ sewage treatment 城市污水 municipal refuse 生活污水 domestic sewage 城市排污系统 urban sewage system 城市垃圾 municipal refuse 垃圾/ 废物处理 garbage recycling 污泥 sludge 闭路循环 closed-circuit circulation 电解处理 electrolytic treatment 过滤 filtration 消毒 disinfection 焚化 incineration 降解 degradation 可生物降解的物质 biodegradable substance 森林面积 forest acreage 盐碱化 salinization (of soil) 沙漠化 desertification 臭氧层损耗 ozone layer depletion 能源消耗 energy consumption 公约 convention 《21 世纪议程》Agenda 21 局 administration/ bureau 《联合国人类环境会议宣言》Declaration of United States Conference on Human Environment

UNIT 16 对??有影响,和??有关 to bear on 对??有直接影响 to have a direct bearing on 事关各国人民的福利 to bear on the well-being of all nations 不可阻挡的历史潮流 an irresistible trend of history 世界多极化 world polarization 经济全球化 economic globalization 单极世界 monopolar world 可预见的未来 the foreseeable future 不确定因素 uncertainties 相互交织 to intertwine (用作刑具的)鞭子;灾难 scourge 霸权主义 hegemonism 顺应历史潮流 to go along with the historical tide 有利于 conductive to 标本兼治 to address both the symptoms and root causes 汇合点 converging points 不可战胜的 invincible 坚定地 unswervingly 采取主动 to take the initiative 是非曲直 merits 推动力,刺激 impetus 把??强加于 to impose 不对??造成威胁 to pose no threat to… 全方位的 all-dimensional 实体 entity 坚定的;坚固的 staunch 《全面禁止核试验条约》Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 《禁止化学武器公约》the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 不懈的努力 unremitting efforts (对权利等的)侵犯 to make inroads (into, on, upon) 新干涉主义 neo-interventionism 侵犯 to infringe upon 贫困的 impoverished 一致要求 unanimous demand 实现 to materialize 不以人们意志转移 independent of people?s will 借助;凭借 by virtue of 与??相违背 in contravention of 占统治地位,有支配力量 to hold sway (对??)造成严重破坏 to wreak/ play/ raise/ work/ make havoc 广阔的前景和巨大的潜力 vast prospects and tremendous potential 开始,初期 inception 悠久的历史 a time-honored history

不可磨灭的 indelible 典范 role-model 历史进程 historical process/ course 通道 passage of interflow 合同外资金额 contractual foreign capital 协议投资金额 contracted investment 实际投入 paid-in/ actual investment 良好增长势头 a good growth momentum 动乱 turbulence/ turmoil 中美联合公报 Sino-US Joint Communiqué s 中俄睦邻友好合作条约 China-Russia Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation 对发展做长远规划 to charter a long-term development course 缔约双方 two signatory parties 集中体现广泛的共同利益 a crystallization of the broad common interests 不针对第三国 to be not targeted against any third country 世代友好,永不为敌 to be each other?s friends from generation to generation and never turn against each other 用法律形式固定 to lend legal force to 台湾同胞 Taiwan compatriot(s) 承诺 to commit oneself to … 销售军火 arms sales; sales of arms 先进武器 sophisticated weapon(s) 性能和数量上 in both quantitative and qualitative terms 和平与发展是当今世代的主题 Peace and development remain the themes of our era. 和平与发展仍然是当今世界的两大主题 Peace and development remain the overriding themes of our times. 中国奉行独立自主的和平外交政策。 China pursues an independent diploma policy of peace. 在国际事务中,中国根据事情本身的是非曲直决定自己的立场。 In international affairs, China will its position and policy by judging each case on its own merits. 中国愿意在互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处的五 项原则的基础上同所有国家发展关系。 China is ready to develop relations with all countries on the bases of five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territory integrity, mutual nonaggression, noninterference in each other?s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful coexistence. 中国认为社会制度、思想意识、文化传统、宗教信仰的不同不应妨碍国家之间建立正常的关 系。 China maintains that differences in social system, ideology, cultural tradition and religious belief should not be an obstacle to establishing and developing normal relations between states. 世界 是多样化的。 The world is a diversified community. 世界是丰富多彩的。

Ours is a colorful world. 国家不分大小、强弱、贫富,应该一律平等。 All countries, big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, should be equal 中国绝不去屈从与任何大国的压力。 China will never yield to ny big power. 中国现在不是,将来也永远不做超级大国。 China is not and will never be a superpower. 中国不建立军事集团,不参加军备竞赛,不搞军事扩张。 China will never establish any military bloc, join in the arms race or seek military expansion. 中国永远不称霸,永远不搞扩张。 China will never seek hegemony and never go in for expansion. 各国都有权选择适合本国国情等的社会制度和发展道理。 All countries have the right to choose a social system and road to development suited to their actual conditions. 各国人民自己有权处理各国的内部事务。 The people of various countries are entitled to handle their own internal affairs. 各国的事情应由各国人民自己解决,世界上的事情应有各国平等协商。 The affairs of each country should be left to the people of that country to decide. World affairs should be determined by all countries concerned through consultations on the basis of equality. 国与国之间应当相互尊重,平等相待,坚持通过和平谈判解决国与国之间的争端。 Countries should respect each other, treat each other as equals and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations. 新的世界大战在可预见的时期内打不起来。 A new world war is unlikely in the foreseeable future. 不公正不合理额国际政治经济旧秩序没有根本改变。 The old international political and economic order, which is unfair and irrational, has yet to be changed fundamentally. 霸权主义和强权政治有新的表现。 Hegemonism and power politics have new manifestations. 南北差距进一步扩大。 The North-South gap is widening. 世界还很不安宁,人类面临着许多严峻挑战。 The world is far from being tranquil and mankind is faced with many grave challenges. 不管国际风云如何变幻,我们始终不渝地奉行独立自主的和平外交政策。 No matter how the international situation changes, we will always pursue the independent foreign policy of peace. 各国政治上应相互尊重,共同协商,而不应把自己的意志强加于人。 Politically all countries should respect and consult one another and should not seek to impose their will on others. 经济上应相互促进,共同发展,而不应造成贫富悬殊。 Economically they should complement one another and pursue common development and should not create a polarization of wealth. 文化上应相互借鉴,共同繁荣,而不应排斥其他民族的文化。 Culturally they should learn from one another and work for common prosperity and should not

exclude cultures of other nations. 道路是曲折的,前途是光明的。The road is tortuous, but the future is bright. 恐怖主义危害上升。The scourge of terrorism is more acutely felt. 我们主张反对一切形式的恐怖主义。We stand for fighting against terrorism of all forms. 要加强国际合作,标本兼治,防范和打击恐怖活动,努力消除产生恐怖主义的根源。 It is imperative to strengthen international cooperation (in this regard), address both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism, prevent and combat terrorist activities and work hard to eliminate terrorism at root. 我们将以各国人民的根本利益为重, 不计较社会制度和意识形态的差别, 在和平共处五项原 则的基础上,扩大共同利益的交汇点,妥善解决分歧。 Proceeding from the fundamental interests of the people of all countries concerned, we will broaden the converging points of common interests and properly settle differences on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, notwithstanding the differences in social system and ideology. 维护世界和平为国家的现代化建设创造和平的国际环境 To maintain world peace and create a peaceful international environment for the nation?s modernization efforts. 同周边国家发展睦邻友好关系 To develop good-neighborly relations with surrounding countries 建立以和平共处五项原则为基础的,以承认世界多样性和各国之间种种差异为前提的和平、 稳定、公正、合理的国际政治经济新秩序。 To establish a new international political and economic order of peace, stability, justice, and rationality based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and on the recognition of the diversity of the world and difference among states. 树立互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观 To foster a new security concept featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation 推动多种力量和谐共存 to promote a harmonious coexistence of diverse forces 趋利避害 to draw on the advantages and avoid the disadvantages 求同存异 to seek consensus/ common ground(s) while reserving/ shelving differences/ while putting / setting aside differences 求大同,存小异 to seek common ground on major issues while putting aside minor differences 从大处着眼,从长远考虑 to look at the larger picture and take a long view 在竞争比较中取长补短 to draw upon one another?s strong points through competition and comparison 取长补短,相得益彰 to complement and benefit each other 取长补短 to make up (for) each other?s deficiencies 互谅互让 mutual understanding and mutual accommodation 互利互惠 mutual benefit and reciprocity 互通有无 to supply each other?s needs; accommodation of each other?s needs; each supply what the other needs; to help supply each other?s needs 相互借鉴 to draw on each other?s experiences 加强睦邻友好,坚持与邻为善,以邻为伴 to cement our friendly ties with our neighbors and persist in building a good-neighborly relationship and partnership with them 拓宽合作领域,提高合作效果 to enlarge areas of cooperation and make it more fruitful

支持发展中国家维护自身的正当权益 support other developing countries in their efforts to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests 广泛开展民间外交 to carry out extensive people-to-people diplomacy 扩大对外文化交流,增进人民之间的友谊,推动国家关系的发展 to expand cultural exchanges with the outside world, enhance the friendship between people and propel the development of state-to-state relations 言行一致 to match one?s deeds with one?s words 独立权、生存权、发展权 the rights to independence, subsistence and development 民族自决权 right to national self-determination 前事不忘,后事之师 the past, if not forgotten, can serve as a guide for the future. 一衣带水的邻邦 neighbors separated only by a strip of water 国际组织: 组织 organization 委员会 commission/ council 体 community 联盟 association UNIT 17 九龙 Kowloon 河口湾,河口 estuary 恢复对??行使主权 resumption of sovereignty over … 总体上,一般说来 by and large 不可剥夺的,不可分割的 inalienable 立法的 legislative 司法的 judicial 裁定,判决 adjudication 终审 final adjudication 作为协商或行动基础的方案 formula 前提 premise 缔结(条约等)to conclude 派遣 to dispatch 骨肉相残 fratricide 团结,凝聚力 cohesion 在??期间,在??以前 pending 遵从,符合 in conformity with 认为 to deem 做出承诺 to undertake commitment 名称,命名 designation 自制以避免 to refrain from 破坏,不履行;对他人权利等的侵害 breach 身份,地位,职位 capacity 与??相背 in contravention of

台湾是中华人民共和国的神圣领土的一部分。 Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People?s Republic of China. 实现祖国的完全统一,是海内外中华儿女的共同心愿。 To achieve complete reunification of the motherland is a common aspiration of all sons and daughters of the Chinese nation both at home and abroad. 发展两岸关系,推进祖国和平统一进程的八项主张 The eight-point proposal on the developing cross-straits relations and advancing the processes of peaceful national reunification 完成祖国统一大业 Accomplishment of the great cause of national reunification 台湾分裂势力的分裂活动不得人心 The splitting activities by Taiwan separatist forces are unpopular. 实现和平统一 realization of peaceful reunification 暂时搁置某些政治争议 to shelve for now certain political disputes 尽早恢复两岸对话与谈判 resume the cross-straits dialogue and negotiations as soon as possible 正式结束两岸敌对状态 to end the cross-straits hostility formally/ officially 台湾问题不能无限期地拖延下去 Taiwan question must not be allowed to drag on indefinitely 为列祖列宗争光 to win glory for our ancestors 为子孙后代造福 to bring benefit to our posterity 当家作主 to participate in government/ the governance of one?s own affairs 海峡两岸人民 people on the both sides of the Taiwan Straits 炎黄子孙 descendents of the Yellow Emperor 海外、国内侨胞 Chinese national residing abroad / in foreign countries 中国血统的?? …of Chinese origin 亲属 kith and kin 亲人团聚 reunite with one?s family and relatives 回大陆定居 to come and settle on the mainland 各界人士 public figures of all circles 各界代表 representative personages of various circles 广泛交换意见 an extensive / exhaustive exchange of views 三民主义 Three People?s Principles 三通-直接通邮、通航、通商 direct links of mail, air and shipping, services and trade 互通音讯 to communicate with each other 海(峡两岸关系)协会 associations for Relations across the Taiwan Straits (ARTS) (财团法人)海(峡交流)基(金)会 Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF) 大陆委员会 Mainland Affairs Council 台湾共同防御条约 Taiwan Mutual Security Treaty 第七舰队 the Seventh Fleet

UNIT 18 Beijing Opera 举办(一次展览)stage an exhibition 步法,脚法 footwork 手势,身段 gesture 位于??的侧面 to flank 马鞭 horsewhip 缨穗 tassel(s) 提琴类乐器 fiddle 簧片 reed 管乐器(如长笛、单/ 双簧管等)pipe 曼陀林(琴)mandolin 诗琴,鲁特琴(14 到 17 世纪使用较多的一种类似吉他的半梨形弹拨乐器)lute (铜)锣 gong 常用复数 响板(用硬木或象牙制成,套在拇指上,跳舞时合击发音)castanet(s) 20 个 a score of (涂在脸上的)一块(油彩)patch 不重要的 frivolous 威严 sternness 鲁莽,轻率 rashness (性格)暴躁 fieriness 狡猾 cunnings 箭衣 padded armor 龙袍 dragon robe 头饰,头巾,扎巾, (尤指妇女花哨的)发式 headdress 镶有宝石的腰带 jeweled girdle 头发上插的装饰 hair ornament Chinese Music 奇特拉琴(古代拨弦乐器)zither 吉他;六弦琴 guitar 《颂》the Odes 进攻,冲锋 charge 【音】音色 timbre 葫芦 gourd 容器; (笙)斗子 vessel 圆筒形的 cylindrical 双簧管,欧巴 oboe 笛 flute 和声,和弦 harmony 旋律,曲调 melody

Chinese Literature 选集 anthology 《离骚》Li Sao (The Lament) 《诗经》The Book of Songs 《史记》Records of the Historian 《孔雀东南飞》”The Peacock Flies to the Southeast” 学者,文人,作家 man of letters 柳永、李清照为代表的“婉约派””gentle school” represented by Liu Yong and Li Qingzhao 苏轼、 辛弃疾代表 “豪放派” “bold and unconstrained school” represented by Su Shi and Xin Qiji 关汉卿的《窦娥冤》《六月雪》 ( )Snow in Midsummer (The Wrongs Suffered by Dou E) 王实甫的《西厢记》 The Western Chamber 罗贯中的《三国演义》The (Romance of the ) Three Kingdoms 施耐庵的《水浒传》Outlaws by the Marsh (Heroes of the Marshes; Water Margin) 吴承恩的《西游记》Journey to the West 曹雪芹的《红楼梦》A Dream of Red Mansions/ The Story of the Stone 新文化运动 the New Cultural Movement 鲁迅的《狂人日记》和《阿 Q 正传》The Diary of a Madman; The True Story of Ah Q 郭沫若的《女神》The Goddesses 茅盾的《子夜》Midnight 巴金的《家》 《春》 《秋》三部曲 Family, Spring, Autumn 老舍的《骆驼祥子》 Camel Xiangzi / Rickshaw Boy 曹禺的《雷雨》和《日出》Thunderstorm Sunrise 标志 signpost 歌颂,颂扬 to eulogize 罗广斌、杨益言的《红岩》Red Crag 杨沫的《青春之歌》Song of Youth 周立波的《暴风骤雨》The Hurricane 柳青的《创业史》Builders of a New Life 荒废的 desolate 卢新华的《伤痕》 The Wound 从维熙的《大墙下的红玉兰》The Bloodstained Magnolia 张贤亮的《绿化树》Mimosa 古华的《芙蓉镇》A Small Town Called Hibiscus 梁晓声的《今夜有暴风雨》The Snowstorm Tonight “寻根文学”works “seeking the roots” 莫言的《红高粱》Red Sorghum 张承志的《黑骏马》Black Steed 邓友梅的《烟壶》Snuff-Bottle Chinese Painting and Calligraphy 新石器时代 the Neolithic or New Stone Age Pottery ['p? t?ri] n. 陶器;陶器厂;陶器制造术 porcelain ['p? :s?lin, -lein] n. 瓷;瓷器 adj. 瓷制的;精美的 ceramic adj. 陶器的;陶瓷的;制陶艺术的 n. 陶瓷制品;陶瓷

写意派 the xieyi school 工笔派 the gongbi school 以形绘神,以形求神 making the form show the spirit 透视 perspective 寓神似于不似之中 likeness in spirit resides in unlikeness 焦点 focal point 线条笔画(描)lines and strokes 轮廓 contour 草写体的,信手写来的 cursive 非常注意细节的 meticulous 充满活力的,强劲的 vigorous 柔韧的 supple 被??浸透的 to be saturated with … (地位、学识、品味)出众的;杰出的 eminent 擅长于;在某方面表现杰出 to excel at… “书圣”王羲之 the “Sage Calligrapher” Wang Xizhi 草书 cursive script Acrobatics 钻地圈 jumping through hoops 抖空竹 diabolos 走钢丝 tightrope walking 蹬技 juggling with the feet 耍花坛 juggling the jar 转碟 plate spinning 顶碗 a pagoda of bowls 地方特色 local specialty Arts and Crafts (成品的)工艺; (工匠的)手艺,技艺 workmanship (雕刻的)品种 item (caved) 花篮 floral basket 光泽 luster 生动地表现(思想、感情、性格、品质等)to project 壁 bi (pierced disc) 坠 zhui (pendent) 耳坠 earring(s) 香炉 incense burner 年号 reign title 嵌铜丝 to mount copper strips 镀金银 to plate gold and silver on the furnace of .. 铜胎 copper roughcast (一套)文具 desk set 台灯座 table lamp base

泥人张,即张明山(1826-1906)Ni Ren Zhang (“Clay Figure” Zhang) Mass Media in China 年发行量 yearly circulation 《光明日报》 Guangming Daily 《文汇报》Wen Hui Bao 《新民晚报》Xinmin Evening News 24 小时不间断的 round the clock 客家方言 Hakka dialects 常驻记者 resident correspondent 播送/ 放节目 to beam to … 广东话 Cantonese 洲 delta 美国泛美公司 Pan-American Corporation 新闻出版署 the Press and Publications Administration of China 《 “九五”国家重点音像制品出版规划》 State Plan for Publishing Key Audio-Video Products During the Ninth Fie-year Plan Period 检索引用率的排名 rankings of retrieval and quotation rates 石窟 grotto 京剧 四大微班进京 the four big opera troupes from Anhui Province entered the capital 唱、念、做、打 stylized action, singing, dialogue and mime/ pantomime, acrobatic fighting and dancings 生、旦、净、丑 sheng (male roles), dan (female roles), jing (roles with painted face), and chou (clown) 老生 laosheng (a middle-aged or old man) 小生 xiaosheng (a young man) 武生 wusheng (a man with martial skills) 青衣 qingyi (a woman with a strict moral code) 花旦 huadan(a vivacious woman) 武旦 wudan (a woman with martial skills) 老旦 laodan (an elderly woman) 文净 wenjing (a civilian with a painted face) 武净 wujing (a warrior with a painted face) 文丑 wenchou (a civilian clown) 武丑 wuchou (a clown with martial skills) 西皮 xipi tune 二黄 erhuang tune 汉剧 Hanju (Hubei Opera) 昆曲 Kunqu (Kunshan Opera) 韵白 yunbai 京白 jingbai

传统剧目 霸王别姬 Conqueror Xiang Yu Parts with His Concubine 天女散花 The Fairy Scattering Flowers 贵妃醉酒 The Drunken Beauty 游园惊梦 A Startling Dream of Wandering through the Garden 宇宙锋 Beauty Defies Tyranny 穆桂英挂帅 Mu Guiying Takes Commands 杨门女将 Women Generals of the Yang Family 打渔杀家 The Fishman?s Revenge 凤还巢 Phoenix Returns to Its Nest 群英会 The Gathering of Heroes 空城计 Empty City Ruse 拾玉镯 The Jade Bracelet 大闹天宫 Havoc in Heaven 白蛇传 The White Snake 梁山伯与祝英台 Romance of the Butterflies 音乐 交响乐 symphony 爵士乐 jazz 弦乐器 stringed instrument(s) 弹拨乐器 plucked instrument(s) 打击乐器 percussion instrument(s) 管/吹奏乐器 wind instrument(s) 笙 sheng (reed pipes) 琵琶 pipa (the Chinese lute) 京胡 jinghu (two-stringed fiddle) 二胡 erhu 月琴 yueqin (a Chinese mandolin in the shape of a full moon) 唢呐 suona (the Chinese clarinet) 抬鼓 taigu or carried drum 马头琴 horsehead fiddle 芦笙 lusheng, a multiple reed wind instrument made of bamboo 笛子 di, flute 三弦 sanxian guitar 录音带 tape 盒式录音磁带 audio-cassette 录音机 tape / cassette recorder; recorder 录像带 videotape 盒式录像带 videocassette 录像机 video recorder; video; video tape recorder 激光视盘 video compact disk; VCD 数码激光视盘 digital video disk; DVD

唱片 gramophone record 先秦散文 pre-Qin prose 汉赋 Han fu (rhymed prose) 汉末乐府民歌 yuefu folk songs of the end of the Han dynasty 唐诗 Tang Poems 宋词 Song ci (lyrics) 元杂剧 Yuan zaju or the poetic drama set to music 明清小说 novels of Ming and Qin dynasties 名篇、名著 木兰诗 The Ballad of Mulan 全唐诗 The Complete Collection of Tang Poetry 赵氏孤儿 The Orphan of Zhao 琵琶记 The Tale of The Lute 牡丹亭 The Peony Pavilion 长生殿 Palace of Eternal Youth 金瓶梅 Jing Ping Mei 儒林外史 Scholars 聊斋志异 Strange Tales of Liaozhai 呐喊 Call to Arms 彷徨 Wandering 白毛女 The White-Haired Girl 林海雪原 Tracks in the Snow Forest 茶馆 Teahouse 蔡文姬 Cai Wenji 绘画 人物画 figure painting 山水画 landscape painting 仕女 paintings of beautiful women, a genre in traditional Chinese painting 油画 oil painting 版画 woodcut 水彩画 water colors 篆刻 seal engraving 年画 New Year picture (esp. popular in rural China) 北宋画家张择端的清明上河图 Riverside Scenes at the Qingming Festival by Zhang Zeduan ( the Northern Song Dynasty) 王维的水墨山水 Watercolor paintings by Wang Wei 手工艺 特种工艺 special arts and crafts 民间工艺 folk arts and crafts

牙 /玉/石雕 ivory/ jade/ stone carving 剪(剪纸、刻纸、剪影、折纸、纸塑、皮影) cutting (paper cuts, paper-engravings, paper cut silhouettes, origami, paper sculpture, shadow puppets) 扎(用纸、帛、竹、丝扎编的风筝和彩灯) Bundling (kites and colored lanterns bundled up with paper, silk or bamboo) 编(包括各色的草编和线编结,有布老虎、耳枕、针插、香包、彩球、鞋垫和绒花鸟等) Plaiting, weaving, basketry (includes various straw or thread plaited articles such as cloth tigers, wicher pillows, cushions, tin sachets, colored silk balls, inner-soles, and velvet flowers and birds) 织(蜡染彩印、抽纱、挑花等,或编、或织、或补) Batik (or wax printing), color printing, drawn work ad cross-stitch, all created by weaving, knitting or stitching 绣(织锦和印、染、绣等) Embroidering (pictures weaving in silk, printing and dyeing) 中国的四大名绣——苏绣、湘绣、粤绣和蜀绣 China?s four famous styles of embroidery—those of Suzhou, Hunan, Guangdong and Sichuan 雕(竹、木、果核、玉、石、角骨等,作品有面具、木偶头、人物、动物等) Carving (masks, puppet heads, figures, animals and flowers out of bamboo. Wood, jade, or horn) 塑(面塑、泥塑、酥油花塑、烧陶) Molding (dough modeling/ figurines, clay sculpture, butter sculpture and pottery sculpture) 绘(手绘、刻印、拼贴、烙烫) Painting (hand painting, seal-carving, wood-block print, patchwork, and pyrograph) Never intervene in the affairs of HKSAR 中国政府对香港恢复行使主权 China will recover its sovereignty over Hong Kong. 863 计划 The March 1986 High-tech program 五讲四美三热爱 五讲: “讲文明、讲礼貌、讲卫生、讲秩序、讲道德” ; 四美: “心灵美、语言美、行为美、环境美” ; 三热爱: “热爱祖国、热爱社会主义、热爱中国共产党”“ ; Stress on decorum, manners, hygiene, discipline and words Beauty of the mind, language, behavior and the environment Love of the motherland, socialism and the Communist Party 三讲“讲学习、讲政治、讲正气” Emphasis on three things: study, politics and integrity “三个代表”Three Represents The Communist Party of China represents the trend to develop advanced productive forces, an orientation towards advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people.


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