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The University of California was chartered in 1868 and established at Berkeley in 1875

The University of California was chartered in 1868 and established at Berkeley in 1875. South Hall, an ivy-covered Gothic-revival building of red brick, is the only survivor of the nineteenth century campus buildings. Today, the Berkeley campus is the senior member of the nine-campus University of California System. Berkeley offers a full range of academic majors in programs. In a national survey published in fall 1992, Berkeley placed highest of all public universities in ranking that included five attributes: reputation, selectivity, faculty resources, financial resources, and student satisfaction. More students who earn bachelor's degrees at Berkeley complete Ph. D's than graduates of any other university in the country. Undergraduate students can choose from more than 5,000 different courses and over 100 majors or they can design their own individual majors. The graduate division offers professional and academic degrees in more than 100 majors. Aiding students in their course work is a campus network of twenty-four libraries, including one especially for undergraduates. There are also many support facilities and services available, such as the Student Learning Center,financial aid counseling, housing assistance, graduate and professional school advising, and career placement assistance. The 1, 200-acre campus stretches from downtown Berkeley through wooded hills that overlook San Francisco Bay. The city of Berkeley (population 105,000) offers the lively background of one of America's more culturally diverse and politically adventurous small cities. The surrounding San Francisco Bay area provides an abundance of recreational and cultural events. 26. In Paragraph One, the author mainly states about______. A. the greatness and wonderfulness of the Berkeley campus B. the Berkeley campus' ranking in all the public universities C. the history and the present situation of the Berkeley campus D. the overall impression of the Berkeley campus 27. More students have graduated from Berkeley than from any other university in gaining ______degree. A. MBA's B. bachelor's C. Ph. D's D. master's
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28. From the essay, we can know that______. A. the Berkeley campus is the University of California B. the Berkeley campus is only an old branch of the University of California C. the Berkeley campus is an absolutely independent university, which is built in California D. the Berkeley campus is an independent college. 29. Which is TRUE according to the essay? A. Now the Berkeley campus is the best public university. B. You can finish bachelor's courses or Ph. D's courses but not master's courses. C. The Berkeley campus does not do well in helping students in their studies. D. The Berkeley campus is not far away from the city of San Francisco. 30. The city of Berkeley is______. A. situated within the Berkeley campus B. found to be a melting pot of various cultures C. a recreational place D. trying to increase its population 26. C 27. C 28. B 29. D 30. B The Laws of Nature

The phrase "A law of Nature" is probably rarer in modern scientific writing than was the case some generations ago. This is partly due to a very natural objection to the use of the word "law" in two different senses. Human societies have laws. In primitive societies there is no distinction between law and custom. Some things are done, others are not. This is regarded as part of the nature of things, and generally as an unalterable fact. If customs

change, the change is too slow to be observed. Later on kings and prophets could promulgate new laws, but there was no way of revoking old ones. The Greek democracies made the great and revolutionary discovery that a community could consciously make new laws and repeal old ones. So for us a human law is something which is valid only over a certain number of people for a certain period of time. Laws of Nature, however, are not commands but statements of facts. The use of the same word is unfortunate. It would be better to speak of uniformities of Nature. This would do away with the elementary fallacy that a law implies a law-giver. Incidentally, it might just as well imply a parliament or soviet of atoms. But the difference between the two uses of the word is fundamental. If a piece of matter does not obey a law of Nature it is not punished. On the contrary, we say that the law has been incorrectly stated, It is quite probable that every law of Nature so far stated has been stated incorrectly. Certainly many of them have. Nevertheless, these inaccurately stated laws are of immense practical and theoretical value. They fall into two classes-qualitative laws such as "All animals with feathers have beaks", and quantitative laws such as "Mercury has 13,596 times the density of water"(at 0°C and 1 atmosphere's pressure). The first of these is a very good guide. But it was probably not true in the past. For many birds which were certainly feathered had teeth and may not have had beaks. And it is quite possibly not today. There are about a hundred thousand million birds on our planet, and it may well be that two or three of them are freaks which have not developed a beak. But have lived long enough to grow feathers. It was thought to be a law of Nature that female mammals (defined as warm-blooded vertebrates with hair) had mammary glands, until Prof. Crew of Edinburgh found that many congenitally hairless female mice lacked these organs, though they could bear young which other females could then foster. And quantitative laws generally turn out to be inexact. Thus water is nothing definite. It is a mixture of at least six different substances. For in the molecule H20, one or both of the hydrogen atoms may be either light or heavy, and so may the oxygen atom. Similarly, mercury consists of several different types of atom. Thus the ratio of the densities of mercury and water is not fixed, though in the case of ordinary samples the variation is too small to be detected. But it can be detected if the water happens to have been taken from an accumulator which has been used for some time. In his theory of Probability (Oxford, 1939) Jefferys has something new to say about induction. Two contradictory theories are in vogue as to the laws of Nature. The older view is that they are absolute, though of course they may have been inaccurately formulated. The extreme positivistic view, enunciated by Vaihinger, is that we can only say that phenomena occur as if certain laws held. There is no sense in making any definite statements, though it is convenient to do so. Now Jeffreys points out that, if a number of observations have been found to conform to a law, it is highly probable that the next one will do so whether the law is true or not. In Jeffrey's words? "A well-verified hypothesis will probably continue to lead to correct inferences even if it is wrong. " Positivists and idealists have made great play with the fact that many laws of Nature, as formulated by scientists, have turned out to be inexact, and all may do so. But that is absolutely no reason for saying that there are no regularities in Nature to which our statements of natural law correspond. One might as well say that because no maps of England give its shape exactly it has no shape. What is remarkable about the laws of Nature is the accuracy of simple approximations. One might see a hundred thousand men before finding an exception to the rule that all men have two ears, and the same is true for many of the laws of physics. In some cases we can see why. The universes is organized in aggregates, with, in many cases, pretty wide gaps between them. Boyle's law that the density of a gas is proportional to its pressure, and Charles' law that the volume is proportional to the temperature, would be exact if gas molecules were points which had no volume and did not attract one another. These laws are very nearly true for gases at ordinary

temperatures and pressures, because the molecules occupy only a small part of the space containing the gas, and are close enough to attract one another only during a very small part of any interval of time. Similarly, most of the stars are far enough apart to be treated as points without much error when we are considering their movements. And most men manage to protect themselves from injury so far as is needed to keep both ears. Whereas trees cannot protect themselves form the loss of branches. It is very rare to see a completely unmutilated, and therefore completely regular tree. Mendel's laws, according to which two types occur in a ratio of 1: 1 in some cases and 3 : 1 in others, are theoretically true if the processes of division of cell nuclei are quite regular, and if neither type is unfit so as to die off before counts are made. The first condition never holds, and the second probably never does. But the exceptions to the first condition are very rare. In one particular case a critical division goes wrong about one in ten thousand times. The effect of this on a 1 : 1 ratio or 3 ! 1 ratio could be detected only by counting several hundred million plants or animals. Differences in relative fitness are more important. But even so the Mendelian ratios are sometimes fulfilled with extreme accuracy, and are generally a good rough guide. Jeffreys points out that in such cases it is often much better to stick to the theoretical law rather than the observed data. For example, if you are breeding silver foxes and a new colour variety occurs which, if crossed to the normal, gives 13 normal and 10 of the new colour, you are much more likely to get a ratio of about 1:1 than 13:10 if you go on with such matting, even though if you breed many thousands the 1: 1 ratio will not hold exactly. The mathematical theory which Jeffreys has developed concerning such cases is particularly beautiful, but can hardly be summarized here. 1. Ordinarily, gas molecules are so close that they attract one another for only a very short time. 2. The statement that atoms in the molecule H2O may be light or heavy is a sample of quantitative laws. 3. Human law is similar to natural law in essence. 4. Charles' law and Boyle's law are based on observations made at ordinary temperatures and pressures. 5. Since cell-division is sometimes irregular and certain types die off early, we sometimes get neither 3 : 1 ratio nor 1 : 1 ratio. 6. Differences in relative fitness are more frequent than irregular cell-division. 7. We must see many human beings before stating the rule that all men have 2 ears. 8. Compared with human laws, laws of nature are accurate because they are expressed in the form of_______. 9. In considering the movements of stars, scientists need not consider their_______. 10. _______laws can serve as good guides. I. Y 2. Y 3. N 4. N 5. Y 6. NG 7. N 8. approxi Gary Finkle had his backbone severely 11 in a

swimming-pool accident seven years ago. A heavy-set, bearded man of 27, he is one of thousands of Americans who have lost 12 all feeling and movement from their shoulders down. He lives with his wife, Micky, and a female monkey named Jo outside the village of Andes, N. Y. Gary is a participant in a remarkable 13 called Helping Hands: Simian Aides for the disabled. The nonprofit organization 14 the disabled with trained monkeys that reduce the disabled person's 15 on family, friends and hired attendants. Using his mouth, Gary controls a small laser pointer mounted on his wheel?chair. With it, he directs Jo to change books or cassette player. She brings him drinks from a refrigerator and 16 away empties. When asked, Jo will fetch the remote control for the TV and place it on Gary's working table where he can operate it with his mouth-stick. The mouth-stick is his 17 tool. It can be used for practically everything: turning the pages of a book, 18 the telephone, changing channels on the TV, working at a typewriter or computer. If Gary's mouth-stick drops to the floor, Jo will pick it up and 19 reinsert it into his mouth. "I can't imagine living without her," Gary says. He will always need 20 assistance for such things as getting in

or out of bed, bathing or changing his clothes. A. human B. dependency C. humble D. virtually E. injured F. clears G. visibly H. agent I. cleans J. supplies K. wounded L. primary M. dialing N. enterprise O. gently
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II. E 12. D 13. N 14. J 15. B 16. F 17. L 18. M 19.

There is evidence that the usual variety of high blood

pressure is, in part, a familial disease. Since families have similar genes as well as similar environments, familial diseases could be due to shared genetic influences, to shared environmental factors, or to both. For some years, the role of one environment factor commonly shared by families, namely dietary salt (i.e., sodium chloride), has been studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These studies suggest that long excess salt intake can lead to high blood pressure in man and animals. Some individuals, however, and some rats consume large amounts of salt without developing high blood pressure. No matter how strictly all environmental factors were controlled in these experiments, some salt-fed animals never developed hypertension whereas a few rapidly developed very severe hypertension followed by early death. These marked variations were interpreted to result from differences in genetic constitution. By mating long successive generations of those animals that failed to develop hypertension from salt intake, a resistant strain (the " R" strain) has been evolved in which consumption of large quantities of salt fails to influence the blood pressure significantly. In contrast, by mating only animals that quickly develop hypertension from salt, sensitive strain (the "S" strain) has also been developed. The availability of these two strains permits investigations possible. They provide a plausible laboratory model on which to investigate some clinical aspects of the human hypertension. More important, there might be the possibility of developing methods by which genetic susceptibility (敏感性) of human beings to high blood pressure can be defined without waiting for its appearance. Radioactive sodium 22 was an important "tool" in working out the characteristics of the sodium chloride metabolism. 21. The study of the effects of salt on high blood pressure was carried out_______. A. as members of the same family tend to use similar amounts of salt B. to explore the long-term use of a sodium based substance C. because it was proven that salt caused high blood pressure D. because of the availability of chemically pure salt and its derivatives 22. The main difference between "S" and "R" rats is their_______. A. need for sodium 22 B. rate of mating C. reaction to salt D. type of blood 23. We can infer from the article that sodium 22 can be used to_______. A. control high blood pressure B. cure high blood pressure caused by salt C. tell the "S" rats from the "R" rats D. determine what a sodium chloride metabolism is like 24. The most beneficial results of the research might be_______. A. development of diets free of salt B. an early cure for high blood pressure C. control of genetic agents that cause high blood pressure D. the early identification of potential high blood pressure victims 25. Which of the statements best relates the main idea of this article? A. When salt is added rats and human beings react similarly.

B. The near future will see a cure for high blood pressure. C. The medical field is desperately in need of research. D. A tendency toward high blood pressure may be a hereditary factor. 21. A 22. C 23. D 24. D 25. D O 20. A m"Culture shock" occurs as a result of total immersion (浸没) in a new culture. It happens to "people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. " Newcomers may be anxious because they do not speak the language, know the customs, or understand people's behavior in daily life. The visitor finds that "yes" may not always mean "yes", that friendliness does not necessarily mean friendship, or that statements that appear to be serious are really intended as jokes. The foreigner may be unsure as to when to shake hands, when to start conversations, or how to approach a stranger. The notion of "culture shock" helps explain feelings of bewilderment and disorientation. Language problems do not account for all the frustrations that people feel. When one is deprived of everything that was once so familiar, such as understanding a transportation system, knowing how to register for university classes, or knowing how to make friends, difficulties in coping with the new society may arise. "... when an individual enters a strange culture, he or she is like fish out of water, " Newcomers feel at times that they do not belong to and feel alienated from the native members of the culture. When this happens visitors may want to reject everything about the new environment and may glorify and exaggerate the positive aspects of their own culture. Conversely visitors may scorn their native country by rejecting its values and instead choosing to identify with (if only temporarily) the value of the new country. This may occur as an attempt to over-identify with the new culture in order to be accepted by the people in it. 26. The expression "he or she is like fish out of water" suggests_______. A. people away from their cultures can hardly survive in a new culture B. a fish can not survive without water C. people away from their culture experience mental isolation D. people away from their culture have difficulties in their studies 27. In order to identify with the new environment, some people may_______. A. give an exaggerated picture of their own country B. criticize the positive aspects of their own country C. abandon their original beliefs
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D. accept a temporary set of values 28. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the author? A. Homesickness results in culture shock. B. A typical symptom of culture shock is confusion. C. Culture shock is the explanation of anxiety. D. Culture shock happens to foreign students only. 29. Newcomers may worry about A. their ignorance of the alien customs B. their knowledge of "yes" in the native language C. their understanding of friendship D. their control of their behavior 30. When the foreign visitor is immersed in new problems he finds hard to cope with, he is most likely to feel_______. A. uninsured B. deprived
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C. alienated D. disappointed 26. C 27. B 28. B 29. A 30. C ation 9. distance 10. Qualitative

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