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高二英语下学期Book-8-Unit-5


Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors
Reading: Language points

Explanation
1. alternative n.

something that you can choose to do
or use instead of something else 替换物 There are some alternatives to our plan.
有几种方案可以代替我们的计划。

He had no alternative but to go there alone.
他别无选择, 只好一个人去那儿。

2. You must be aware that it's here that we've found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world.
想必你们知道, 正是在这儿我们找到 了居住在世界这个部分最早人类的证据。

a. You must be aware that…主句后接由强 调句和定语从句组成的宾语从句。 must是作为情态动词表示肯定推测, 译 作“一 定, 肯定”。只用于肯定推测。 对 现在或将来事实推测,用 “must do”。 You must be hungry after a long walk. 走了很长的路, 你一定很饿。 对正发生或进行的事进行推测, 用“must be doing”。

The light is on. He must be doing his homework now.
灯亮着, 他一定正在做作业。 对过去的事进行推测, 用“must have

done”。 The ground is wet. It must have rained last night.
地是湿的, 昨晚一定下雨了。

此时, 应注意反意疑问句的构成。如果句 中有表示过去的时间状语, 反意疑问句用 “didn’t+主语”; 如果句中无表示过去的时 间状语, 反义疑问句用 “haven’t/hasn’t+主 语”。 He must have arrived here last night, didn’t he? 他一定昨晚就来这儿了, 不是吗? He must have arrived here, hasn’t he? 他一定来这儿了, 不是吗?

b. aware adj.意识到的, 知道的。通常用 作表语。 We should be aware that a lot of animals are becoming endangered.
我们必须清楚地认识到许多动物正濒临灭 绝的危险。

be aware of sth. 知道;意识到 Though most smokers are aware of the dangers of smoking, they won't given up. c. it’s here that we’ve… 是强调句,其基 本句式是It is (was)+被强调部分+that (who)+句子其他部分。此结构强调的成 分仅限于主语,宾语和状语。

It was your mother whom I met in the street.
我在街上碰到的是你的母亲。

It was in the street that I met your mother.
我是在街上碰到你母亲的。

It was she who had been wrong.
错的是她。

It is what you do rather than what you say ___ matters. (2005天津高考) A. that B. what C. which D. this 本题强调主语, 此时应用that来引导。

d. “Who lived in this part of the world”
是定语从句修饰先行词 people。people

在定语从句作主语, 故用关系代词who来
引导定语从句。

3. I’m sorry to interrupt you but how could they live here? 很抱歉打扰你, 我想问问他们是怎么 在这里生活的?
句型“I’m sorry...but...”是口语中委婉的

表达, “but”表示语义上的转折。

— Are you free this weekend? — I’m sorry, but l have lots of work to do. --- 周末有空吗? --- 对不起, 我有大量的事要做。

1)阻断, 中断 His studies were interrupted by the war. Don’t interrupt him, for he hasn’t finished yet.
2) 打岔; 插嘴 It is rude to interrupt. “Don’t interrupt,” he said.

区别: interrupt 和disturb interrupt v. 打扰,打断,阻碍。常有 “使……停止(中断)”的意思。 His speech was constantly interrupted by applause. disturb v. 打扰, 妨碍。常指失去了正常 的状态或导致困难产生。 Bad dreams disturbed her sleep.

4. We have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and ornaments. 我们在山的 比较高的洞穴里发现了动物和人类的骨 头以及工具和装饰品。 as well as 1) conj. as well as 可以用来连接两个相 同的成分, 如名词, 形容词, 动词, 介词, 通 常不位于句首。意为“不但......而且”。

She sings as well as playing the piano. Helen as well as I is eager to see the performance. 2) prep. 相当于besides, in addition to, 意为“除......之外”, 后面通常接名词或 动词。 As well as eating five course meals, they drank two bottles of wine.

5. So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold.
因此我们有理由认为他们不顾寒冷住在 这些洞穴里。

regardless of the cold 不顾寒冷

assume vt.
1) to think that something is true

although you have no proof of it 假定:
设想

The scientists assume that there are
no animals on the moon.
科学家设想月球上没有动物。

2) to pretend 装作 She assumed a look of surprise.
她装出一副吃惊的样子。

6. regardless of prep. 1) without being affected by different situations, problems, etc. 不管; 不顾 He climbed the building, regardless of the danger.
不管有多危险, 他还是爬上了大厦。

2) in spite of
We will persevere regardless of past failures.
尽管以前我们失败过, 但仍要坚持下去。

7. cut up: cut something into small pieces 切碎 The worker cut up the wood.
工人将木头劈碎。

8. That would have kept them warm, cooked the food and scared wild animals away as well.
他们用这火取暖、做饭, 还能用火吓跑野 兽。

1) would 表示猜测, 译为“想必……”、
“肯定会……”。

2) keep them warm为keep+宾语+宾语 补足语的结构意为 “使......处于某种状 态(情况)”。用作宾语补足语常见的 词有现在分词、过去分词、形容词、副 词以及介词短语。 He kept me waiting for half an hour. Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.

9. We have been excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter.
我们一直在挖掘一层层的积灰, 几乎有六 米厚, 这说明他们可能整个冬季都在烧火。

a. “have been excavating”是现在完成进
行时, 表示从过去开始一直延续到现在, 强调 动作的继续。

I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still haven’t found it.
我已经找了三天我丢的书, 但仍没找到。

b. 句中 “ which” 用来引导非限制性定语 从句, 先行词为其前的句子。 c. suggest vt. to make evident indirectly; imply 意为“暗示, 意味, 表明” Her pale face suggests that she was ill. 她苍白的脸色表明她病了。 The handwriting of the letter suggests that the letter might be from a lady. 从书信的字体上看, 写信人是一位女性。

A silence that suggested disapproval. 沉默暗示着反对。 His face suggest she is happy now. 从他脸上能看出他现在很幸福。 His bad manners suggest a lack of family education. 他的无礼反映了他缺乏家教。

但当suggest作“建议”讲时, 其用法为:

(+doing) I suggest her going home at once.
我建议她马上回家。

+(that)… should do…
I suggested (that) she (should) go home at once. 我建议她要马上回家。

---How do you ___we go to Beijing for our holidays? ---I think we’d better fly there. It’s much more comfortable. (2004福建高 考) A. insist B. want C. suppose D. suggest

d. might have done A: Where was your sister? I didn't see her at the party. B: She might have gone swimming with some friends. A: 你姐姐上哪儿去了? 聚会时我没见到她。 B: 她可能和朋友游泳去了。

10. Yes and so well preserved.
……还保存得如此完好。

这是省略的句子, 完整句应是: …and it
is so well preserved (it指necklace)

11. Yes, indeed, as the botanical

analyses have been specifically showing
us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake.
确实, 正如植物学分析具体显示给我们的 那样, 附近所有的土地都曾是大型浅湖的一 部分。

a. as引导的非限制性定语从句常译作“正
如 —— 那样”。

As the proverb goes, “The enemy in disguise is just like the wolf in sheep’s clothing.”
正如谚语所说的那样, 伪装的敌人就像是 披着羊皮的狼。

b. part 前无 adj. 修饰时为不可数名词, 前面 不用冠词;其前有adj. 修饰时为可数名词,
要用冠词。

The blues has been part of African American culture since then and it is still an important part of American culture.
自从那以后布鲁斯就已经是非美文化的一 部分, 而且现在仍是美国文化的重要部分。

12. Undoubtedly there were fish swimming in it.
毫无疑问, 湖里当时是有鱼的。

undoubtedly = it is true that..., it is undoubted that....

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