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定语从句语法复习及在广东高考中应用


定语从句 Attributive Clause

定义及相关术语
1.定语从句:

修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语 从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修 饰的先行词之后。

2.先行词:

被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:
引导定语从句的词叫关系词。

who/ that The man _________ is over there is my brother. 先行词 关系代词 when I still remembered the day ____ we study together. 先行词 关系副词

Tips: 形容 定语从句属于____词性从句,用于修饰 名词 代词 ____或_____。引导定语从句的关系词可分 关系代词 关系副词 为________和_________。

关系词的作用 关系词

This is the best film that I have seen.
1) 2) 3)

引导定语从句
代替先行词 在从句中担当一个成分

关系代词 (6个)
which, who, whom, that, whose, as

关系副词 (3个)
when, where, why

分类 限制性/非限制性定语从句

熟练掌握关系代词的用法:
关系代词 which that 指代 充当成分

who
whom

物 物/人 人 人

主语或宾语 宾语

Tips: 宾语 1 关系代词充当______时通常可以省略; whom 2 介词提前时, 指人只能用______, 指物只 省略 which 能用______, 而且关系代词不能_____。

用适当的关系代词填空 (which/ that/ who/ whom): 1. A person __________ steals things is called a who/ that thief. 2. The man _________________ I nodded to is Mr. (who/ whom/ that) Li. 3. The man with ______ you shook hands just now whom is our headmaster. 4. These are the trees ___________ were planted which/ that last year. (which/that) 5. This the book ____________ you talked about last night. 6. This is the library from ______ you can borrow which books.

以下情况只能用that
1 先行词既有指人又有指物

2 当先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级时,
或者有the only, the very 等修饰时

3 先行词是all, much, anything, something,
nothing等不定代词 4 主句是以who/which开头的特殊疑问句时 5当先行词在定语从句中作表语时

1.He did all / everything _______he could to help me. that that 2.This is the very thing _______ I am after. that 3.We talked about the men and the things _______ we remembered at school. that 4.He is the only man _______ can do the work. that 5.This is the first thing _______ I want to say. 6.He is the finest man _______ I have ever worked that with. that 7.Who is the man _______ spoke to you at the gate. 8.Which is the star _______ is nearest to the earth. that

以下情形用which不用that:
① 在介词之后;

This is the house in which Marx used to live.
②引导非限制性定语从句; His English, which used to be very poor, is now excellent. ③当定从修饰的是整个主句的意思时,通常用非限 制性定语从句。 He was always speaking highly of his role in the

play, which, of course, made the others unhappy

关系代词 whose

指代

充当成分

物/人

定语

Tips: 定语 1 关系代词whose只能充当_____; 2 指人时可以和of whom _____替换, 指物时可以 which 和of ______替换。 用适当的关系代词填空: He is the boy ______ father is a doctor. whose whom He is the boy of ______ the father is a doctor. I lost that book ______ cover is blue. whose which I lost that book of ______ the cover is blue.

用适当的关系代词填空:
You have the same opinion ____ I have. as Such books ____ you want are sold out. as
关系代词 as 指代 充当成分

物/人

主语/ 宾语/ 表语

Tips: 省略 1 as在定语从句中永远不能______; the same such 2 在限制性定语从句中常与________, ____, so, as等连用。

选择as或which填空并翻译句子: as He saw the girl, _______ he hoped. which He said he had never seen her, ______ was not true. As ______ he had expected, he failed the exam. Tips: 区别as与which引导非限制性定语从句 1 意思: as有“__________”之意, which没有; 正如, 好像 主句 2 位置: as 引导的定语从句可位于____之后 句首 或____, 而which引导的定语从句只能位于 主句 ____之后。

用适当的关系词填空:
I’ll never forget the day on which I joined the _____ when army.

where This is the house in which I lived two years _____ ago. why I don’t know the reason for which she was _____ late.

熟练掌握关系副词的用法:
关系副词 when 指代 充当成分

where
why

时间 地点 原因

状语

Tips: 状语 1 关系副词只能充当_______; which 2 相当于适当的介词+______的用法。

“介词+关系代词” 即“介词+whom/which”引导定语从句 应注意:
1介词的选用至少要考虑以下的两个因素 A.与先行词的搭配关系 on which 1)I will never forget the day _____________ I joined the army. during which 2) I will never forget the days ____________ I worked in the school. in which 3) I will never forget the year ____________ my son went to college. by which 4) I got home at 7:00 p.m. yesterday, ____________ most people had had supper.

B. 与谓语动词的搭配习惯
for which 1)Have you found the book ____________ I paid 29 US dollars? on which 2) Have you found the book _____________ I spent 29 US dollars? from which 3) Have you found the book _____________ we learnt a lot? about which 4) Have you found the book ____________ she often talks?

2. “介词+whom/which”与 “whom/which/ that+介词”的转换。
1)The chair on which she is sitting is made of wood. The chair (which/that) she is sitting on is made of wood. 2) Is this the book which you are looking for? 介词for不能与 look分开。

3. way作先行词
1)The way (in which/that/不填) he looks at the problems is wrong.

4. 表所有关系及整体中的一部分或全部时,用介 词of + which / whom, 有时可用whose转换。 of whom 1) There are 100 teachers in our school, __________ 60 are women teachers. of whom 2) He has three children, two ___________ work as teachers. of which 3) That table has four legs, all _____________ are very short. of which 4) I’m painting a house, the roof _____________ is round. I’m painting a house whose roof is... 5) They live in a house ,_________ windows face whose They live in a house, the windows_____ south. of which _________ face south.

用介词+关系代词填空 from whom 1. He’s the man ____________ I learnt the news. 2. Who’s the comrade ____________ you just shook with whom hands. 3. There are 52 students in our class, ___________ of whom nearly 40 are League members. of whom 4. I know a lady the husband ____________ is a Nobel Prize winner. 5. Do you know the driver who caused the traffic accident ____________ a man was killed. in which in which/that/不填 6. This is the way _________________ she studies English.

for which 7. The 5 yuan_____________ he bought the book was given by his friend. of which 8. The story about Shakespeare, _________ this is one example , is well written. 9. The old man always wears his glasses _________ without which _________ he can’t see anything. with which 10.The key_________ she was opening the door broke. 11. The library ___________ we often go on Sundays to which/where is not far from our school. for which/why 12. No one know the reason _____________ she is leaving so early. over which/where 13. At last they came to a river __________________ a new bridge is being built.

分类:
Anything that is worth doing should be done well. 限制性定语从句 I invited Helen, who lives in the next flat.

非限制性定语从句 Tips: 主句 1 非限制性定语从句和____关系不很密切; 逗号 2 从句与主句有_____分开。

Correct the mistakes: I invited Helen, who lives in the next flat. that Peter, who/ met inyou met inis now back Peter, you whom London, London, is in Paris. in Paris. now back

Tips: that 1 关系词_____不能引导非限制性定语从句; 2 关系词在非限制性定语从句中永远不能 ____。 省略

where ? This is the factory _______I once worked. that/which ? This is the factory_________ I’ve visited. that/which ? The day _________I always remember is Oct.1 when ? The day _____Nanjing was liberated is Sep.11. why ? The reason ____he hasn’t come is that he has been ill. Don’t believe the reason that/which ________he gave you.

历年高考试题重现:
…While she was getting me 34 settled (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to 35 a small town some 20 kilometres away 36 where there was a garage… (07) where …Jane paused in front of a counter 35_____ some attractive ties were on display… (09)

历年高考试题重现: …He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder 32_________ had been his teacher… (10) who/ that …Behind him were other people to 21_____ whom he was trying to talk, but after some minutes 22 he walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed… (11)

历年高考试题重现: …Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary, 22_______ which made her feel like a star… (12) who ……. Nick’s guests, 20_________ had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could.(13)

用适当的关系词填空: As ____ is known to all, China with an area of 9.6 million square kilometers, is the third largest country in the world. The Chinese nation consists of 56 nationalities, among ______ the Han Ethnic which Group is the largest, making up 94% of the whole. Besides, there are many big rivers in China, the most important of ______ are the Yangtze River which when and the Yellow River. There was a time _____ Chinese economy was far behind many other 写作中适当使用定语从句: countries in 使意思更为明确 1.整合信息, the world. However, with the 2.使句子结构更为紧凑 development of the economy, the days are gone forever ______ the Chinese people were looked when down upon, ______ all Chinese are proud of. which

Use some sentence patterns properly Sentence pattern 1: As is known to all, … “众所周知” 翻译:众所周知,中国是个发展中国家。 As is known to all, China is a developing country. Sentence pattern 2: There was a time when… “曾经有一段…时期” 翻译:曾经有段时间他迷恋网络游戏。 There was a time when he was addicted to playing the games on line.

定语从句在基础写作中的适当运用
2008年高考题: 背景:射击最初只是生存工具,19世纪末才发展 成为一项体育运动。 1896:第一次成为奥运项目 1904:中断 1928:中断 1932:重回奥运会 1968:第一次允许妇女参加奥运射击比赛现状: 稳步发展,1896奥运会只有三项射击项目,现今 有17项

Practice

射击最初只是生存工具,19世纪末才发展成 为一项体育运动。
射击最初只是 (一种) 生存工具。 Shooting was a means of survival originally. 射击 (在) 19世纪才发展成为一项体育运动。 Shooting developed into a sport only in the 19th century. which Shooting, ______ was a means of survival originally, developed into a sport only in the late 19th century.

定语从句在基础写作中的适当运用
2010年高考题: 内 容:公共场所禁烟 实施时间:2011年1月1日起 实施范围:全国 目 标:所有室内公共场所无烟 措 施:张贴禁烟标志 相关数据: (1)吸烟人数:约3.5亿 (2)分 布:男性75%; 女性:25% (3)受二手烟影响人数:约5.4亿 (4)因二手烟死亡人数:超过10万/年

Practice (1)吸烟人数:约3.5亿 (2)分 布:男性75%; 女性:25% 中国约有3.5亿烟民。 China has about 350 million smokers. There are about 350 million smokers in China. 烟民当中75%是男性;25%是女性。 75% of the the smokers are men, and 25% of them are women. China has about 350 million smokers, 75% of whom are men and 25% are women. China has about 350 million smokers, among which 75% are men and 25% are women.

(3)受二手烟影响人数:约5.4亿 (4)因二手烟死亡人数:超过10万/年 Around 540 million people are affected by second-hand smoke, which causes 100,000 deaths per year.

定语从句与强调句的区别
where / that where 1.It is the library_____ I borrowed the book. ( 定语从句 ) that 2.It is from this library____ I borrowed the book. ( 强调句型 )

归纳:强调句It is \was +被强调部分+that \
who +其它…中的强调框架(It is /was …that) 可以省掉,剩下部分还是完整正确的句子; 而定语从句省掉后句子就不完整了。

定语从句与同位语从句
1. The news that he told me is exciting. 定语从句 that he has been elected president 2. The news of the United States is true. 同位语从句

归纳:同位语从句是在一个抽象名词的后面,对
该名词的具体内容进行补充说明,其中的连接词 that在从句中不作成分也没意义,但不能省略; 定语从句中的关系代词that要在从句中作主语或 宾语等成分,作宾语时可省略。

定语从句或别的从句的区别
① 定语从句与地点状语从句的区别:
看有无表示地点的名词作先行词,有则是定语 从句。
Eg. You should leave the toy where you can find. (地点状语) I still remember the bus stop where/at which I met you. (定语从句)

② 定语从句与结果状语从句的区别:
看从句的连接词是否在从句中做成分,做 成分的是定语从句。
Eg. He is such a kind person as everybody likes. (定语从句) He is such a kind person that everybody likes him. ( 结果状语从句 )

思考:
1.名词性从句和定语从句的引导词一样吗?

2. 引导定语从句的关系代词没有what,
whatever, how, however对吗?

3.that 在名词性从句和定语从句中的不同?
4.定语从句和同位语从句的不同?

5. 定语从句的难点在哪里?

Combine the following sentences, using attributive clause and some conjunctions.

Li Hua is a student. She is a girl. She is 16. Her dad is a teacher. Her mother is a teacher,too. She is our monitor. She is very strict with us. This makes us angry. We all like her.

Li Hua, a girl student of 16, whose parents are both teachers , is our monitor. She is very strict with us, which makes us angry, but we all like her.

Zhang Manyu is a Chinese. She is an actress. She is famous. She is from HongKong. She acted many films. HERO is one of the films. Zhang Manyu , who is a famous Chinese actress from HongKong, acted many films, one of which is HERO.


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