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形容词


二、形容词和副词 【考点直击】 1. 形容词的用法; 2. 副词的用法; 3. 形容词和副词原级、比较级、最高级的用法; 4. 形容词和副词在句中的区别和位置。 【名师点睛】 1. 形容词的用法 (1) 形容词在句中作定语, 表语, 宾语补足语。 例如: Our country is a beautiful country. (作定语) The fish went bad. (作表语) We keep our classroom clean and tidy. (作宾语补足语) (2) 形容词修饰 something, anything, nothing, everything 等不定代词时,形容词放在名词后 面。 I have something important to tell you. Is there anything interesting in the film. (3) 用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。 起进一步解释的作用。 Everybody, man and woman, old and young, should attend the meeting. You can take any box away, big or small. (4) the+形容词表示一类人或物 The rich should help the poor. 2. 副词的用法 (1) 副词在句中可作状语,表语和定语。 He studies very hard. (作状语) Life here is full of joy. (作定语) When will you be back? (作表语) 副词按其用途和含义可分为下面五类: 1)时间副词 时间副词通常用来表示动作的时间。常见的时间副词有:now today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always 等。例如: He often comes to school late. What are we going to do tomorrow? He is never been to Beijing. 2)地点副词 地点副词通常用来表示动作发生的地点。常见的地点副词有:here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere, down, up, off, on, in, out 等。例如: I met an old friend of mine on my way home. He went upstairs. Put down your name here. 3)方式副词 方式副词一般都是回答“怎样的?”这类问题的, 其中绝大部分都是由一个形容词加词 尾-ly 构成的, 有少数方式副词不带词尾-ly, 它们与形容词同形。常见的方式副词有:

anxiously, badly, bravely, calmly, carefully, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, angrily, happily, slowly, warmly, well, fast, slow, quick, hard, alone, high, straight, wide 等。例如: The old man walked home slowly. Please listen to the teacher carefully. The birds are flying high. He runs very fast. 4)程度副词 程度副词多数用来修饰形容词和副词,有少数用来修饰动词或介词短语。常见的程 度副词有:much, (a) little, a bit, very, so, too, enough, quite, rather, pretty, greatly, completely, nearly, almost, deeply, hardly, partly 等。例如: Her pronunciation is very good. She sings quite well. I can hardly agree with you. 5)疑问副词是用来引导特殊疑问句的副词。常见的疑问副词有:how, when, where, why 等。例如: How are you getting along with your studies? Where were you yesterday? Why did you do that? (2)副词在句中的位置 1)多数副词作状语时放在动词之后。如果动词带有宾语,则放在宾语之后。例如: Mr Smith works very hard. She speaks English well. 2)频度副词作状语时,通常放在行为动词之前,情态动词,助动词和 be 动词之后。例 如: He usually gets up early. I’ve never heard him singing. She is seldom ill. 3)程度副词一般放在所修饰的形容词和副词的前面, 但 enough 作副词用时,通常放在 被修饰词的后面。例如: It is a rather difficult job. He runs very fast. He didn’t work hard enough. 4)副词作定语时,一般放在被修饰的名词之后。例如: On my way home, I met my uncle. The students there have a lot time to do their own research work. (3)部分常用副词的用法 1) very, much 这两个副词都可表示“很”,但用法不同。Very 用来修饰形容词和副词的原级, 而 much 用来修饰形容词和副词的比较级。例如: She is a very nice girl I’m feeling much better now. Much 可以修饰动词,而 very 则不能。例如: I don’t like the idea much.

They did not talk much. 2) too, either 这两个副词都表示“也”,但 too 用于肯定句,either 用于否定句。例如: She can dance, and I can dance, too. I haven’t read the book and my brother hasn’t either. 3) already, yet already 一般用于语肯定句,yet 一般用于否定句。例如: He has already left. Have you heard from him yet? He hasn’t answered yet. 4) so, neither so 和 neither 都可用于倒装句, 但 so 表示肯定,neither 表示否定。 例如: My brother likes football and so do I. My brother doesn’t like dancing and neither do I. 3. 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 (1) 两个人或事物的比较时(不一定每一方只有一个人或一个事物),用比较 级。 Our teacher is taller than we are. The boys in her class are taller than the boys in your class. (2) most 同形容词连用而不用 the,表示 "极,很,非常, 十分"。 It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。 (3) "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..."表示 " 越... 就越..."。 The more you study, the more you know. (4) " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。 It's getting hotter and hotter. (5) 主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。 This box is as big as mine. (6) the + 形容词 表示某种人。 He always helps the poor. (7) 形容词和副词最高级用于三个或三个以上的人和物进行比较。 Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China. 【实例解析】 1. (2004 年北京市中考试题) ---Which is ________, the sun, the moon or the earth? ---Of course the moon is. A. small B. smaller C. smallest D. the smallest 答案:D。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级的用法。因为是太阳,地球和月亮三者进行比 较,选用形容词的最高级,而且最高级之前要加定冠词 the。所以选 D。 2. (2004 年上海徐汇区中考试题) He has made _______ progress this term than before. A. little B. less C. fewer D. much

答案 B。该题考查的是形容词比较等级的用法。因为是现在和过去进行比较,所以要用 比较级,又因为是修饰不可数名词,只能用 less, 而不能用 fewer。 3. (2004 年江西省中考试题) ---What delicious cakes! ---They would taste _______ with butter. A. good B. better C. bad D. worse 答案:B。该题考查的是形容词的比较等级。答话人的意思应该是“如果加上点黄油,这 些蛋糕会更好吃。”这里就有一种比较:加黄油和不加黄油。既然是比较,就要用比较级。 因为这里讲的是好吃和更好吃,所以 C,D 要舍去,而选 better。 4. (2004 年河北省中考试题) Bob never does his homework ________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A. so careful as B. as carefully as C. carefully as D. as careful as 答案:B。该题考查的是形容词和副词的用法区别。因为该词修饰的是动作“做家庭作业”, 所以要用副词。 又因为表示一方不如另一方要用句型“not as+副词原级+as”, 所以只能选 B。 【中考演练】 一. 单项填空 1.There are many young trees on sides of the road. A. every B. each C. both D. all 2.--- It’s so cold today. --- Yes, it’s than it was yesterday. A. more cold B. more colder C. much colder D. cold 3.Little Tom has friends, so he often plays alone. A. more B. a little C. many D. few 4.She isn’t so at maths as you are. A. well B. good C. better D. best 5.Peter writes of the three. A. better B. best C. good D. well 6.He is enough to carry the heavy box. A. stronger B. much stronger C. strong D. the strongest 7.I bought exercise-books with money. A. a few; a few B. a few; a little C. a little; a few D. a little; a little 8.The box is heavy for the girl carry. A. too; to B. to; too C. so; that D. no; to 9.The ice in the lake is about one meter . It’s strong enough to skate on. A. long B. high C. thick D. wide 10.Wu Lin ran faster than the other boys in the sports meeting. A. so B. much C. very D. too 11. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an “A” in her maths test. A. happy B. happily C. angry D. angrily 12. The smile on my father’s face showed that he was ______ with me. A. sad B. pleased C. angry D. sorry 13. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this? ---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this.

A. a better; better than B. a worse; as good as C. a cheaper; as good as D. a more important; good as 14. ---This digital camera is really cheap! ---The ______ the better. I’m short of money, you see. A. cheap B. cheaper C. expensive D. more expensive 15. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible. A. often B. long C. hard D. soon 16. Paul has ______ friends except me, and sometimes he feels lonely. A. many B. some C. few D. more 17. English people _____ use Mr. Before a man’s first name. A. never B. usually C. often D. sometimes 18. ---One more satellite was sent up into space in China in May. ---Right. The government spoke ______ that. A. highly for B. high of C. well of D. highly of 19. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make. ---We know, Miss Gao. A. The more; the more B. The fewer; the more C. The more; the fewer D. The less; the less 20. I have ________ to do today. A. anything important B. something important C. important nothing D. important something 二. 用所给单词的适当形式填空 1. My purse was stolen on the bus yesterday. __________ (Fortunate), there was no money in it. 2. Mobile phones are _________ (wide) used in most of the cities in China. 3. He put on his coat and went out ________ (quick). 4. She is ______ (good) than Li Ping at swimming. 5. A lot Chinese people are _______ (pride) of Yao Ming, a famous basketball star in NBA. 6. To our surprise, he suddenly returned on a cold ______ (snow) night. 7. Allie asked me ______ (polite) to put the things away. 8. It’s snowing hard. You must drive ________(careful). 9. The earth we live on is _______ (big) than the moon. 10. Hainan is a very large island. It’s the second ________ (large) island in China. 三. 用适当的形容词或副词填空(首字母已给出) 1. A large number of mouths must be fed in those less d________ countries. 2. That evening Beethoven played the music for the girl as well as u______. 3. Hawaii is f_______ its beautiful beaches. 4. He often takes an a______ part in the sports meeting and he can get very good results each time. 5. The performance was so w_______ that everyone gave a long and loud applause(鼓掌). 6. Jiefang Road is the b_____ street in our city. 7. She lay a______ for hours thinking over her business. 8. I like ball games very much, but my f_______ sport is playing basketball. 9. The boy is too l______ . He doesn’t want to do anything.

10. The dictionary is very u________ . It will help you a lot. 【练习答案】 一. 1.C 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.B 8.A 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.B 13.C 14.B 15.A 16.C 17.A 18.D 19.C 20.B 二. 1. Fortunately 2. widely 3.quickly 4. better 5. proud 6. snowy 7. politely 8. carefully 9. bigger 10. largest 三. 1. developed 2. usual 3. famous 4. active 5. wonderful 6. busiest 7. awake 8. favourite 9. lazy 10. useful 形容词、副词的比较等级 1.原级:表示 A 与 B 在某方面相同。 句型:1) A + 谓 + as + 原级 + as + B 2) A + 谓(否定) + as/so + 原级 + as + B A 与 B 在某方面不同 注意:not as / so… as = less than 不及;不如 eg. 1)This girl is as beautiful as that one. 2)You don’t eat so much as I 3)This book isn’t as interesting as that one = This book is ___ ________ _____ that one 2.比较级:两者进行比较(常与 than 连用) 1)I am cleverer than you 我比你聪明。 2)He runs faster than Jim 他比 Jim 跑得快。 3)I picked more apples than Jim.我比你摘的苹果多。 4)Which is more interesting, this one or that one? 哪本书更有趣,这本还是那本? 3.最高级:三者(或三者以上)进行比较(常与表范围的 in , of 短语连用) ( 注意:of + 个体名词单数 in + 集合名词 ) eg. 1)Shanghai is the biggest city in China. 2)He runs fastest in our class. 3)He is the tallest of the three boys. 4)Which is the easiest, Lesson1, Lesson2 or Lesson3 ? 4.形、副比较等级的其他用法 1) “比较级 and 比较级” 表示 “越来越??” eg. lazier and lazier 越来越懒 (但注意:如果多音节词用此结构时应为 more and more + 形、副) eg. more and more beautiful 越来越漂亮 2) “the 比较级,the 比较级” “越??,越??” eg. the more, the better 多多益善 _________ you are, _______ you will get. 你越懒,收获越少。 3) “the 比较级 of +二者” “二者中较??的一个” eg. 1) Lucy is the younger of the twins. 2) Of(A) the two books(B) this one(C) is thicker(D). _________ 4)表示二者相差多少用 “具体数量 + 比较级” eg. He’s a head taller than me. My brother is two years older than me

5)表示“是??几倍”时用“twice; three times 等 + as…as” eg. 1)This book costs twice as much as that one. 这本书的价钱是那本书的两倍。 2)He has four times as many books as I have 他拥有的书是我拥有的四倍。 6)区别 older / elder 与 farther / further older(年龄较老的) elder(指兄弟姐妹中排行在前的) eg. My ______ brother is ______ than me. farther (指距离“较远的”) further(指抽象事物的“更进一步的”) eg.1)He went abroad for ________ studies. 2)Fusun is _________ from our school than Zhaohua.

形、副比较等级还应注意
1.比较级前用 a little ; much / a lot ; even / still 来加强语气,表示“??一点儿;??得多 ; 更??” eg. 1) a little bigger 大一点儿 2)much more 多得多 3)even heavier 更重 但注意:不能在比较级前加 so; too; very; quite 等。 2.比较级必须是同类事物相比(即 as; than 后的词应与主语是同类事物) ,注意常用漏的代词 有:that; those; one; ones eg. 1)The apples (A) in this basket (B) are redder (C) than in that basket(D). _________ 2)This knife (A) isn’t (B) so (C) new as that (D). _______________ 3)Our classroom (A) is (B) bigger (C) than Lily(D). _______________ 3.个体与整体相比,不能包括个体,常用“any other + 单数名词”来进行比较。 eg.1)Betty(是个体) is cleverer than any student in her class(是整体). ( × ) 正:Betty is cleverer than any other student in her class. =Betty is cleverer than anybody else in her class. =Betty is the cleverest in her class. (特别注意以上三种句型的转换) 2)China is bigger than any country in Africa. 中国比非洲的任何一个国家都大。 3) China is bigger than any other country in Asia. 中国比亚洲的任何一个其他国家大。 *4.使用最高级时应把主语包括在范围内。 eg. Mary is the tallest of all her sisters.( × ) (all her sisters 已排除了 Mary) 改:Mary is the tallest of all the sisters. 5.表示“第二、第三??”时,可在最高级前加“second , third, ?” (但“第一”不能用 first) eg. The Changjiang River is the first longest river in China. 改错:________________ 附:形、副比较级和最高级的变化规则 A、规则变化 1.“辅 + y”结尾,变 y 为 i 加 er , est

(但“形 + ly ”构成的副词除外) 2.双写加 er , est 3.直接加 er , est / r, st 4.在多音词前加 more , most (以“形 + ly ”构成的副词也在前加 more , most) B、不规则变化 原级 good/well many/much bad/ill/badly little old far 比较级 better more worse less older/elder farther further 最高级 best most worst least oldest/eldest farthest furthest

另外: 1) 以-er , -ow , -ble , -ple 结尾的双音节词加 er, est / r, st. narrow ________ ________ simple _________ _________ able _______ _______ 2) tired__________ __________ pleased ___________ ____________ 3) often ________________ _____________ friendly_______________ ____________ 4)在形容词的最高级前一般加 the, 副词的最高级前一般不加 the (但当形容词最高级前有物 主代词、所有格时则不再加 the)。 eg. Lily is my the best friend.(改错) ________ 5)形容词作表语、 定语, 修饰名词(但部分形容词不能作定语,只能表语:ill ; alone ; asleep ; afraid ; interested ; excited ; surprised ). 副词作状语,修饰动词。


一、写出下列词的比较级和最高级 thin ____ ____ easy _____ ______ early ______ ______ new ______ ______ hot ______ ______ clever ______ _______ little _____ ______ late _____ ______ narrow______ ______fat _____ ______ many ______ _____ big _____ ______ dangerous__________ ___________ wonderful __________ ___________ careful __________ ____________ slowly __________ ____________ popular __________ ____________



二、选择填空 ( )1.Which language is ____ , English, French or Chinese? A. difficult B. the difficult C. more difficult D. the most difficult ( )2.Yangpu Bridge is one of ___ in the world A. bigger bridge B. the biggest bridge C. the biggest bridges D. bigger bridges ( )3.Tom is taller than Mike. But he is not ____ Mike. A. strong as B. so strong as C. so strong D. as strong ( )4.Most of the people in Guangdong are getting ______. A. more and rich B. more rich and more rich C. richer and richer D. rich and rich ( )5.This text is ____ easier and ____ interes- ting than that one. A. more ; much B. much ; more C. more ; more D. much ; much ( )6.Which do you like ____, beef, pork or chicken? A. good B. well C. better D. best ( )7.Put on more clothes. It is snowing ___ outside. A. strongly B. heavy ( )8.John drives as ___ as Tom. A. carefully B. good C. nice D. fine ( )9.Is China larger than ____ in Africa. A. any country B. any other country C. any countries D. all countries ( )10.My ___ brother is ___ than I. A. elder, three years older B. older ; older C. older; three years elder D. elder ; elder ( )11.Li Mei is more beautiful than ___ in her class. A. any girl B. any other girl C. all the girls D. any girls ( )12.This problem is ___ than that one. A. ten times easy B. ten times easier C. ten times more easy D. ten time easier ( )13.This film is ___ interesting than that one. A. more B. much C. very D. the most ( )14.There is ___ in today’s newspaper. A. interesting nothing B. nothing interesting C. interested nothing D. nothing interested ( )15.The teacher asked all the students in the class to keep their eyes ____. A. close B. to close C. closing D. closed ( )16.The fat man always says his meat looks ____ and sells _____. A. good ; good B. well ; well C. good ; well D. well ; good ( )17.It seems that men are ____ making computers than women.

C. heavily

A. better at B. good at C. well in D. weak in ( )18.The word’s population is growing fast every minute, especially in some ___ countries A. west B. more developed C. east D. less developed ( )19.This bridge is not ___ long and wide ____ the one in my hometown. A. so ; as B. very ; than C. too; as D. very ; as ( )20.I think the song in the film “Titanic” is ___ one of all the movie songs. A. the most beautiful B. most beautiful C. much more beautiful D. a beautiful ( )21.Lin Tao is as ___ as Zhang Hua. A. strong B. stronger C. strongest D. the strongest ( )22.Sara is ___ tired ___ move after the hard work. A. very ; to B. quite ; to C. too ; to D. so ; that ( )23. Jack didn’t run ___ to catch the bus. A. enough fast B. quickly enough C. enough slow D. slowly enough ( )24.The driver is very ___. He often drives his car _____. A. careful ; careful B. carefully; carefully C. carefully ; careful D. careful ; carefully ( )25.Look! All the children are working ___ on the farm. A. careful B. hard C. busy D. happy ( )26.The population of Shanghai is ___ than that of Xi’an. A. smaller B. fewer C. much D. larger


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