考研英语模拟试题 Part I Structure and Vocabulary Section A Directions￡o Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A,B,C and D) Choose the one that best completes the
sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(5 points) What _____ you used in picking a winner in the art contest? A)is the criteria B)are the criteria C)are the criterion D)are the criterias
Aerobic exercises create a _____ oxygen in the body without seriously disrupting normal body functions. A)demand B)demanding C)demanding of D)demand for
The beaver(o￡?±) chews down trees to get food and material _____ its home. A)builds B)it can build C)which to build in D)with which to build
How I wish I _____ my homework sooner! A)finished B)finish C)had finished D)have finished
Beijing is one of the many cities in the world that are now developing programs _____ their historical buildings. A)and restoring B)of restoring C)restoring D)to restore
The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have _____ as the amount of money borrowed. A)as the same value B)the same value C)value as the same D)the value is the same
She said that the situation there was not so bad _____ had been described. A)as B)such as C)that D)that as
_____ ,one may be disturbed by strange thoughts and have difficulty in concentrating on one thing. A)As often as B)As often as not C)Every so often D)More often than not
The great progress in modern transportation must not be thought of as _____ in a short period of time. A)being made B)having been made C)to be made D)to have been made
Everything _____ into consideration, his plan seems to be workable. A)taking B)to be taken C)taken D)is taken
Section B Directions: Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked A,B,C and D) Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (5 points)
The development of (A) the boiler is closely related (B) to those (C) of the steam engine, to which it is a necessary adjunct(??±???) (D) .
Almost all (A) human activity alters water (B) quality somewhat (C) ￡?but not necessity (D) as a result of pollution by human materials.
Liquefied natural (A) gas is the most volatile (ò??￠?óμ ?) (B) chemistry (C) explosive in common (D) use today.
In a small community, behavioral (A) norms are more universally (B) understood and accepted, and are therefore more likely being (C) the culture of a group of (C) people.
One of the (A) keys to the (B) survival of any (C) animal is its ability to adapt changes (D) in the environment.
A severe illness when (A) she was just (B) nineteen months old deprived (C) the wella2known writer and lecturer Helen Keller in both (D) her sight and her hearing.
Booker T.Washington viewed (A) as one of the ablest (B) public speakers (C) of his (D) time.
After making careful preparations (A) ,they were confident and (B) sure of (C) the final (D) victory.
It is the interaction (A) between people, rather than (B) the events that occur (C) in their lives, which (D) is the main focus of social psychology.
He worked hard (A) ,taking no recreation (B) except he (C) went to see (D) Ruth.
Section C Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D) Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (10 points)
Many artists believe that successful imitation, far from being symptomatic of a lack of _____ ￡?is the first step in learning to be creative. A)elegance B)resolution C)goodness D)originality
You need a special _____ to go into this part of the building. A)permission B)allowance C)permit D)agreement
Psychology has slowly evolved into an _____ scientific discipline that now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other sciences. A)independent B)unusual C)outmoded D)uncontrolled
A major goal of law, to prevent potential criminals by punishing wrongdoers,is not served when the penalty is so seldom invoked that it _____ to be a credible threat. A)tends B)appears C)ceases D)seems
When people are happy, they tend to give _____ interpretations of events they witness:the eye of the beholder is colored by the emotions of the beholder. A)charitable B)elaborate C)conscientious D)vague
The new office block _____ well with its surroundings. A)blends in B)stands out C)shaped up D)sets off
The discovery that, friction excluded, all bodies fall at the same rate is so simple to state and to grasp that there is a tendency to _____ its significance. A)underrate B)control C)reassess D)praise
Their mutual teasing seemed friendly, but in fact it _____ a longa2standing hostility. A)produced B)masked C)contravened D)revealed
It has been argued that politics as _____ , whatever its transcendental claims, has always been the systematic organization of common hatreds. A)a theory B)an ideal C)a practice D)a contest
It??s a good idea to _____ people before taking them into your confidence. A)tumble to B)root out C)bank on D)size up
At several points in his discussion, Graves, in effect, _____ evidence when it does not support his argument, tailoring it to his needs. A)addresses B)creates C)alters D)suppresses
Although adolescent maturational and developmental states occur in an orderly sequence, their timing _____ with regard to onset and duration. A)lasts B)varies C)falters D)dwindles
Sharon desperately wanted to be an actress, so when they offered her a part in the play, she _____ the chance. A)burst into B)seized on
C)ran after D)jumped at
Many of the earliest colonial houses that are still standing have been so modified and enlarged that the initial design is no longer _____ . A)necessary B)relevant C)applicable D)discernible
They came to inspect the house _____ buying it. A)in the event of B)with a view to C)with reference to D)on account of
It seems that the world record for this event is almost impossible to _____ . A)meet B)compare C)beat D)balance
You are advised to take his predictions with a _____ of salt. A)touch B)pick C)pinch D)speck
As it was getting late, the chairman _____ the meeting. A)called up B)cleared up C)wound up D)timed up
Though science is often imagined as a disinterested subject, scientists are no different from anyone else: they are _____ human beings enmeshed(?Y??￡??í??) in a web of personal and social circumstances. A)vulnerable B)rational C)careles D)passionate
Despite the apparently bewildering complexity of this procedure, the underlying principle is quite _____ . A)calculated B)elementary C)imaginary D)modern
Part ￠ò Cloze Test
Directions: For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked A,B,C and D) Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets. (10 points) Many birds that once flew in large numbers have vanished completely. Why have so many birds become 41 ? Some birds were killed by animals 42 for food. For example, during World War ￠ò, the rodents(??3Y???ˉ??) that came to Norway on ships completely destroyed the flightless rail(? í?|) in two years. Sometimes, the 43 birds need to survive has been destroyed. Rabbits, for example, destroyed plants that, 44 turn, caused the deaths of threea2fifths of the birds on an island in the Pacific Ocean. Man, too, is 45 of killing birds. By 1914, the passenger pigeon was lost even though there had been millions of them in the 1800s. The Carolina parakeet was last 46 in 1920 after it had been named a garden pest and 47 for its pretty feathers. Many other birds have been lost forever. Today, birds are threatened as the human population increase and as the world becomes more industrialized. Factors responsible for this problem include land clearing, swamp draining, contagious bird diseases and wars. 48 birds now are 49 protected form hunters, but conservation measures are sometimes lax. 50 we change our ways, we??ll find that many species of birds will disappear.
A)exhausted B)exhibited C)extinguished D)extinct
A)liking B)searching C)making D)living
A)vegetation B)vegetable C)vegetating D)vegetarian
A)by B)in C)for D)on
A)criticized B)blamed C)guilty D)aware
A)seen B)pictured C)appeared D)discovered
A)Dangerous B)Damage C)Damaged D)Endangered
A)much B)mainly C)somewhat D)less
A)Unless B)If C)Even D)Though
Part ￠ó Reading comprehension Directions: Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked A,B,C and D) Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets.(40 points) Passage 1 The status of women in colonial North America has been well studied and described and can be briefly summarized. Throughout the colonial period there was a marked shortage of women, which varied with the regions and was always greatest in the frontier areas. This favorable ratio enhanced women??s status and position and allowed them to pursue different careers. The Puritans. the religious sect that dominated the early British colonies in North America, regarded idleness as a sin, and believed that life in an underdeveloped country made it absolutely necessary that each member of the community perform an economic function. Thus work for women, married or single, was not only approved, it was regarded as a civic duty. Puritan town councils expected widows and unattached women to be selfa2supporting and for a long time provided needy spinsters(?′? °???ó) with parcels of land. There was no social sanction (?¨??￡???±?) against married women working; on the contrary, wives were expected to help their husbands in their trade and won social approval for doing extra work in or out of the home. Needy children, girls as well as boys, were indentured or apprenticed and were expected to work for their keep. The vast majority of women worked within their homes, where their labor produccd most articles needed for the family. The entire colonial production of cloth and clothing was in the hands of women. In addition to these occupations, women were found in many different kinds of employment. They were butchers,silversmiths, gunsmiths, upholsterers. They ran mills, plantations, tanyards, shipyards,and every kind of shop, tavern, and boardinghouse. They were gatekeepers, jail keepers, sextons, journalists, printers, apothecaries,midwives, nurses, and teachers.
According to the passage, where in colonial North America were there the fewest women? A)Puritan communities. B)Seaports. C)Frontier settlements. D)Capital cities.
The word ??enhanced?? in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to which of the following? A)Supplemented. B)Confirmed. C)Improved. D)Determined.
According to the passage, Puritans believed that an unmarried adult woman should be _____ . A)financially responsible for herself B)returned to England C)supported by her family D)trained to be a nurse
According to the passage, what did the Puritans expect from married women? A)They should adopt needy children. B)They should assist in their husbands??trade or business. C)They should work only within their own homes. D)They should be apprenticed.
Passage 2 There are two ways to create colors in a photograph. One method, called additive, starts with three basic colors and adds them together to produce some other color. The second method, called subtractive, starts with white light (a mixture of all colors in the spectrum) and, by taking away some or all other colors, leaves the one desired. In the additive method, separate colored lights combine to produce various other colors. The three additive primary colors are green, red, and blue (each providing about onea2third of the wavelengths in the total spectrum).Mixed in varying proportions, they can produce all colors. Green and red light mix to produce yellow; red and blue light mix to produce magenta; green and blue mix to produce cyan(??°?).When equal parts of all three of these primarya2colored beams of light overlap, the mixture appears white to the eye. In the subtractive process, colors are produced when dye (as in paint or color photographic materials) absorbs some wavelengths and so passes on only part of the spectrum. The subtractive primaries are cyan (a bluish green), magenta (a purplish pink), and yellow.These are the pigments or dyes that absorb red, green, and blue wavelengths, respectively, thus subtracting them from white light. These dye colors are the complementary colors to the three additive primaries of red, green, and blue. Properly combined, the subtractive primaries can absorb all colors of light, producing black. But, mixed in varying proportions, they too can produce any color in the spectrum. Whether a particular color is obtained by adding colored lights together or by subtracting some light from the total spectrum, the result looks the same to the eye. The additive process was employed for early color photography. But the subtractive method, while requiring complex chemical techniques, has turned out to be more practical and is the basis of all modern color films.
What does the passage mainly discuss? A)Recent development in camera technology. B)How to make white light. C)The additive and subtractive methods of producing color. D)The discovery of the spectrum.
Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase ??passes on?? as used in paragraph 3? A)Judges. B)Lets through.
C)Dies. D)Goes over.
Which of the following is not a pair of additive and subtractive primary colors? A)Yellow and blue. B)Magenta and green. C)Black and white. D)Cyan and red.
What explanation is given for the use of the subtractive method in modern color films? A)Subtractive colors are more realistic. B)The subtractive process is more efficient. C)Additive chemical techniques are too complex. D)The additive process is still being developed.
Passage 3 Before the 1850??s the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, churcha2connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students. Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. In Germany a different kind of university had developed. The German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between midcentury and the end of the 1800??s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study.Some of them returned to become presidents of venerable colleges￡-Harvard, Yale, Columbia-and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students.The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teachera2scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor??s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D), an ancient German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment, was introduced. With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate students learned to question, analyze,and conduct their own research. At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old,constricted curriculum of mathematics, classics, rhetoric(DT′??§), and music.The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own courses of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed(?￠ òa￡???±ó) to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists.social welfare workers, and teachers.
The word ??this?? in line 11, paragraph 2 refers to which of the following? A)Creating and passing on knowledge. B)Drilling and learning by rote. C)Disciplining students. D)Developing moral principles.
According to the passage, the seminar system encouraged students to _____ . A)discuss moral issues
B)study the classics, rhetoric, and music C)study overseas D)work more independently
It can be inferred from the passage that before 1850, all of the following were characteristic of higher education EXCEPT _____ . A)the elective system B)drlling C)strict discipline D)rote learning
Those who favored the new university would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements? A)Learning is best achieved through discipline and drill. B)Shaping the moral character of students should be the primary goal. C)Higher education should prepare students to contribute to society. D)Teachers should select their students?? courses.
Passage 4 There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods.Statistics had a mother who was dedicated to keeping orderly records of governmental units (state and statistics come from the same Latin root, status) and a gentlemanly gambling father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating, ordering, and the taking of censuses(í3??±y??)?aall of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability. Descriptive statistics involves tabulating, depicting(????), and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative,such as measures of height, intelligence, or grade level ￡-variables that are characterized by an underlying continuum￡-or the data may represent qualitative variables, such as sex, college major, or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy(?ó′óμ ?) mass of data. Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great difficulties for the unaided human mind. This general class of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient to question each child; the proportion for the entire district could be estimated fairly accurately from a sample of as few as 100 children. Thus. the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.
With what is the passage mainly concerned? A)The drawbacks of descriptive and inferential statistics. B)Applications of inferential statistics. C)The development and use of statistics. D)How to use descriptive statistics.
The word??squarely?? in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by _____ .
A)solidly B)geometrically C)rectangularity D)haphazardly
Which of the following statements about descriptive statistics is best supported by the passage? A)It reduces large amounts of data to a more comprehensible form. B)It is based on probability. C)It can be used by people with little knowledge of mathematics. D)It measures only qualitative differences.
According to the passage, what is the purpose of examining a sample of a population? A)To compare different groups. B)To predict characteristics of the entire population. C)To detect differences not observable in the whole population. D)To compile more accurate data.
Passage 5 The permanent conversion of farmland to urban and industrial development is a major concern today.Accurate data on the rate of such losses are not available,but estimates of the area of land absorbed for every increase of 1 000 in the urban population vary from about 10 to 400 hectares.The higher figure includes urban fringe land alienated from agriculture by land speculation and resulting high prices.If an average figure of 80 hectares for every increase of 1 000 in the urban population is used,the projected permanent conversion of land to urban development in Quebec and Ontario between now and the year 2000 is 300 000 hectares and 500 000 hectares respectively.More than half of this land is good agricultural land in climatically favourable areas.Around Montreal,for instance,8 700 hectares of the best agricultural land in Quebec is being lost to development each year.Equally serious may be the loss of farmland to lowa2density rural housing, but no firm data are available. There is a similar trend in Western Canada.About 40 000 hectares of B)C)farmland were lost to urban development between 1962 and 1972.In Alberta,over 16 000 hectares of prime land were absorbed in the course of seven years by the cities of Edmonton and Calgary,and there is evidence that smaller towns on the Prairies are consuming farmland at up to twice the rate,per unit population, of the big cities.The areas mentioned may not seem impressive in relation to the total area of farmland in Canada, and it is true that few statistics are available on the rates of loss of farmland.However, the picture is clear enough to provide the basis for rational choices. It must be remembered that only tiny areas of Canada, less than one per cent, have climates and soils suitable for the production of corn and soft fruits.Most of these valuable parcels of land are in the path of rapid urban and industrial growth.Productive farmland close to the city is basic insurance against future events such as food shortages and high prices that would result from:(a) a dramatic increase in the world??s population by 2000 A)D);(b) a climatic shift such as a decrease of even a degree or two in the mean annual temperature;(c) a series of dry years;or (d)increasingly high transportation costs due to energy shortages. Because of its??greenbelt??character,farmland is also of immeasurable aesthetic value.City dwellers will often drive for miles to experience an orchard in blossom and enjoy the rural scene.Wildlife ecologists have persuaded us of the value of preserving endangered species like the whooping crane and of the necessity of selecting pipeline routes that will not disturb migrating animals like the caribou.Surely it is not too much to expect that we recognize the necessity of preserving for agriculture the prime farmland close to cities such as Montreal,Toronto and Vancouver.
We are told that productive farmland near cities would _____ . A)prevent possible food shortages
B)keep present food prices high C)encourage even more urban growth D)increase the value of urban fringe land
We are told that in smaller towns on the Prairies,farmland is being consumed _____ . A)in proportion to increased land speculation B)at the rate of 16 000 hectares every 7 years C)principally by lowa2density rural housing D)at a faster rate than in the big cities
Figures on the loss of agricultural land may not seem??impressive?? because _____ . A)there is such a large amount of farmland in Canada B)the problem only affects Eastern Canada C)only crops such as corn and soft fruits are affected D)people do not know the real extent of the problem
The author concludes by asking his readers _____ . A)to propose solutions to the problem B)to learn to appreciate the aesthetic value of farmland C)to refrain from disturbing the animals when they visit farms D)to support the preservation of farmland near big cities
Part ￠? Englisha2Chinese Translation Directions: Read the follwing passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.(15 points) Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.(15 points) The first mention of slavery in the statutes(?¨1?) of the English colonies of North America does not occur until after 1660-some forty years after the importation of the first Black people. Lest we think that slavery existed in fact before it did in law, Oscar and Mary Handlin assure us that the status of Black people down to the 1660??s was that of servants.(71) A critique of the Handlins?? interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1600??s suggests the assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined, and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded. (72) The Handlins explain the appearance of legal slavery by arguing that, during the 1600??s, the position of White servants was improving relative to that of Black servants. Thus, the Handlins contend, Black and White servants, heretofore treated alike, each attained a different status. There are, however, important objections to this argument. First, the Handlins cannot adequately demonstrate that the White servant??s position was improving during and after the 1660??s; several acts of the Maryland and Virginia legislatures(?￠?¨?ú1?) indicate otherwise. (73) Another flaw in the Handlin??s interpretation is their assumption that prior to the establishment of legal slavery there was no discrimination against Black people. It is true that before the 1660??s Black people were rarely called slaves. But this should not overshadow evidence from the 1630??s of racial discrimination without using the term slavery.(74) Such discrimination sometimes stopped short of lifetime servitude or inherited status￡-the two attributes of true slavery￡-yet in other cases it included both. The Handlins??argument excludes the real possibility that Black people in the English colonies wre never treated as the equals of White people. This possibility has important ramifications(???ú). If from the outset Black people were discriminated against, then legal slavery should be viewed as a reflection and an extension of racial prejudice rather than, as many historians including the Handlins have argued, the cause of prejudice.(75) In addition, the existence of discrimination before the advent(3???) of legal
slavery offers a further explanation for the harsher treatment of Black slaves in North than is South America. Freyre and Tannenbaum have rightly argued that the lack of certain traditions in North America￡-such as a Roman conception of slavery and a Roman Catholic emphasis on equality ￡-explains why the treatment of Black slaves was more severe there than in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of South America. But this cannot be the whole explanation since it is merely negative, based only on a lack of something. A more compelling expelling explanation is that the early and sometimes extreme racial discrimination in the English colonies helped determine the particular nature of the slavery that followed. Part ￠? Writing(15 points) Directions: A:Title:LIFE WITH THE HOME TELEPHONE B)Time limit:40 minutes C)Word limit:120￡-150 words(not including the given opening sentence) D)Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence:??Our life has been bettered by the use of home telephones?? E)Your composition must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. OUTLINE￡o 1.Brining great benefits 2.Causing disturbance 3.My suggestion
考研英语模拟试题答案 Part I Structure and Vocabulary Section A(1-10) BDDCDBADBC Section B(11-20) 正 确 答 案 为：C 正 确 答 案 为：D 正 确 答 案 为：C 正 确 答 案 为：C 正 确 答 案 为：D 正 确 答 案 为：D 正 确 答 案 为：A 正 确 答 案 为：B 正 确 答 案 为：D 正 确 答 案 为：C
改 改 改 改 改 改 改 改 改 改
为: 为: 为: 为: 为: 为: 为: 为: 为: 为:
that necessarily chemical to be adapt to changes of both was viewed confident in and that except when he
Section C(21-40) DCACAAABCDCBDDBCCCDB Part II Cloze Test(41-50) DBABCABDCA Part III Reading Comprehension(51-70) CCABCBCBADACCAABADAD Part IV English ? Chinese Translation 汉德林夫妇就为什么合法的奴隶制直到 1660 年才出现这一问题做了解释， 对此解释的评论文章建议重新审 视奴隶制与种族歧视之间关系的假想，进一步说明北美和南美黑人奴隶不同的待遇。汉德林夫妇在解释合 法奴隶制的出现的原因时争论道：在 1660 年期间，与黑人仆人的地位相比，白人仆人的地位在提高。汉德 林夫妇解释的另一个漏洞是，他们认为在合法奴隶制之前不存在对黑人的歧视。这样的歧视有时几乎是终 生的奴役或者是世代固有的奴隶身份——两个真正奴隶制的特征——而在其他一些事例中，它占有这两个 特征。另外，合法的奴隶制出现之前所存在的歧视进一步说明了北美比南美黑人奴隶的待遇更差。