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时间状语从句连接词讲解


1、时间状语从句 A. when, while, as, whenever; when, while, as 表示主句谓语作和从句的谓语动作同时发生或几乎同时发生。 1.when ①when 表示点时间时,从句中用短暂性动词;表示段时间时,用持续性动词。 When I got home, my family were already having dinner.我到家的时候,全家

已在 吃晚饭。 (when 表示点时间) When they were still talking and laughing, the teacher came in. 当他们还在说笑的 时候,老师进来了。 (when 表示段时间) He waved hello when he saw her. 当他看见她的时候,就挥手打了个招呼。 (when 表示点时间) When you think you know nothing, you begin to know something.当你认为自己一 无所知的时候,就开始知道一些事情了。 (when 表示段时间) 【注意】当 when 意思是正当……时候(and at that moment)时,when 只能跟在 前一分句之后。 He was about to go to bed when the doorbel rang. 他正要上床,忽然门铃响了。 They were watching the World Cup when suddenly the lights went out. 他们正看着 世界杯比赛,突然灯灭了。 They had just arrived home when it began to rain. 他们刚到家,天就开始下雨了。 ②有时 when 表示虽然,尽管的含义,相当于 although 或 since。 He walks when he might take a taxi. 尽管可以打的,但他还是步行。 How can you hope for mercy yourself when you show none 既然你不宽恕别人,你 自己又怎能希望得到别人的宽恕呢? 2.while ①while 通常表示一段时间,从句中宜用持续性动词作谓语。 Strike while the iron is hot.趁热打铁。 She fell asleep while she was reading the newspaper. 她在看报的时候睡着了。 ②while 有时可以作并列连词,表示对比,可译成……而……。 I am fond of English while he likes math. 我喜欢英语而他却喜欢数学。 We slept while the captain kept watch. 我们睡觉而上尉担任警戒。 ③while 有时可引导让步状语从句,意思是虽然。 While they love the children, they are strict with them. 虽然他们都爱他们的孩子, 但 却对他们要求严格。 虽然 during 与 while 意思很相近,但是 during 是介词,不能引导从句。 3.as ①as 表示点时间时,从句中用短暂性动词;表示段时间时,用持续性动词。as 和 when 两者经常可以通用。 The thief was caught as when he was stealing in the supermarket.小偷在超市行窃时 被逮住了。 I saw Jim as when he left the meeting room.吉姆离开会议室时候我看到了他。 ②as 表示 一边……一边……, 强调从句和主句中两个动作交替进行或同步进行。 They talked as they walked.他们边走边聊。

He looked behind from time to time as he went. 他一边走,一边不时地往后看。 ③as 表示随着,此用法不用 when 或 while 替代。 As time goes on, it's getting warmer and warmer. 随着时间的推移, 天气变得越来越 暖了。 As spring warms the earth, al flowers begin to bloom.随着春回大地, 百花开始绽放。 4.when, while, as 的用法区别 ①只有当从句表示的是段时间, 即其谓语动词有持续性特征时,这三者可以通用 互换。 I got the news on the radio when /while /as I was having breakfast. 我在吃早饭的时 候从收音机里获悉这一消息。 ②在下列情况下,三者彼此之间不能替换使用: a.as 更强调同一时间或紧接的一前一后或伴随着的变化。 We listened to the singer sing as he played the guitar. 我们听着歌星边弹吉它边演 唱。 I thought of it just as you opened your mouth. 你一张嘴我就知道你要说什幺 As he grew older, he became less and less active. 随着他年龄的增长, 他变得越来越 不活泼了。 【提示】 状语从句可放在主句之前或之后,放在主句之前时一般用逗号与主句 分开。有时可置于主句中间,前后用逗号。 【注意】as 引导时间状语从句表示“当……的时候”“在……期间”时,该从句的 谓语通常是那些表示动作意义的动词, 而不能是 be(是、 在), have(有), like(喜欢), belong(属于)等表示状态或静态意义的动词。 【误】I’m going to the post office.—As you are there, can you get me some stamps? 【正】I’m going to the post office.—While you are there, can you get me some stamps? 我打算去邮局。——当你在邮局的时候,请帮我买几张邮票好吗? 正因为 as 引导时间状语从句表示“当……的时候”“在……期间”时,从句的谓语 不能是表示状态或静态意义的动词, 所以当下面第一句变为第二句这样的状语从 句时,不能再用 as,而应用 when: As a student he had known great poverty.=When he was a student he had known great poverty. 他当学生时,经历过很贫困的生活。 b.when 更强调特定时间,还可表示从句中的动作先于或后于主句的动作,此时 不用 as 或 while。 When I had given Mary the spare ticket, I found my own already gone. 当我把多余 的票给了玛丽时, 我才发现我自己的票已不知去向。 (从句动作发生在主句之前, 注意主从句的时态) When I finally got there, the meeting had been on for ten minutes. 当我最终赶到那 里时,会议已开始十分钟了。 (从句动作发生在主句之后,注意时态) c.while 从句只能表示延续的动作或状态或主从句中动作的对比。 She thought I was talking about her daughter, while in fact, I was talking about my daughter. 她以为我在谈论她女儿,而事实上,我在谈论我的女儿。 d.若表示两个短促动作几乎同时发生时,用 as 场合多于 when。

As he finished his speech, the audience burst into applause. 他结束讲话时, 观众爆发 出雷鸣般的掌声。 5.whenever whenever 是 when 的强势语,它描述的不是一次性动作,而是经常发生的习惯性 动作。 You are always welcome whenever you come. 无论你何时来都欢迎。 Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us. 每当我们遇上困难的时候, 他们就来帮我们。 B. before, after 1.before before 表示在一段时间之前。 I must finish all the work before I go home. 回家之前我必须干完所有的活。 You must first learn to walk before you try to run.在想要跑以前,你得先学会走。 He had learned English for three years before he went to London. 他去伦敦之前已 学了三年英语。 She didn’t go out before she finished her homework.她把作业做完才出去的。 (=not……until……) 提示: before 从句往往带有否定的含义,常译为:还没等到….就….;还没来得 及…就……趁着还没……就……。作此意时,从句中常见情态动词 can/ could。 He ran off before I could stop him. 我还没来得及阻止他,他就跑掉了。 The man hung up the phone before I could answer it.我没坐多久他就回来了。 He almost knocked me down before he saw me. 他几乎把我撞倒才看到我。 Before I could get in a word, he measured me. 我还来得及插话, 他就给我量好了尺 寸。 I’ll water the flowers before it gets dark. 我要趁着天还没黑把花浇好水。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher. 先做学生,后做先生。 【必背】before 常用句型 ①It will be + 时间段+before+ 一般现在时:要等多久才……. It will be five years before we meet again.五年以后我们才能再见。 ②It won’t be long before+ 一般现在时:等不了多久就会…… It will not be long before you regret what you have done.不用过多久你就会对你所 作所为感到后悔的。 ③It was +时间段+before +一般过去时:等了多久就…… It was minutes before the police arrived. 过了几分钟警察才到。 ④It wasn’t long before+ 一般过去时:没等多久就…… It was not long before I realized I was wrong. 不久我就意识到我错了。 其他变形句型: The war last three years before it finally ended.战争在结束前持续了三年。 Three years passed before I finally realized my mistake.过了三年我才意识到我的错 误。 【对比】 It is/ has been +时间段+since +一般过去时:自从……以来到现在已经有多长时间 It is three years since the war broke out. 战争爆发以来已有三年。 2.after

after 表在一段时间之后。 Let's play football after school is over. 放学后我们踢足球吧。 The sun came out soon after the storm stopped. 暴风雨过后不久,太阳出来了。 C.till, until 1.until till 用于肯定句时,表示直到 为止,主句必须为持续性动词。 We shall wait until till he comes back.我们将一直等到他回来。 (注意它们的拼写) Everything went well until till that accident happened.直到发生那意外之前,一切都 正常。 2. Not……until /till……表示直到……才…… ,主句通常要用短暂动词,这时 until 和 till 可用 before 代替。Not 有时被 no, nobody, nothing, never, hardly, little 等否定词所取代。 I didn't leave until/till before she came back.直到她回来,我才离开的。 Bells don't ring till /until you strike them.铃不打不响。 People do not know the value of their health till until before they lose it.人们直至失 去了健康才知其可贵。 Nobody can leave until/till the meeting is over. 直到散会才能离开。 I could hardly understand the theory until my teacher explained it to me.直到老师向 我解释我才理解了那个理论。 必背:①not until 句型的倒装句:当 not until 位于句首时,主句中的主语、谓语 要使用倒装语序。(Not until…+助动词+主语+ 其他) Not until she stopped crying did I leave.直到她不哭了,我才离开的。 【注意】 until 引导的从句可以放在主句之前或主句之后,但 till 从句一般不放在 句首。 ②not until 句型的强调句:在强调句型(It is/ was not until…….that……)中一般只 能用 until, 不用 till。 It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I recognized her.直到她摘下墨镜, 我才认出她。 D.since, ever since 1.since 自……以来。表示动作从过去某一点时间一直延续到说话时间为止。主 句中通常为延续性动词的现在完成时,since 从句中一般用短暂性动词的一般过 去时。 It has been just a week since we arrived here.我们到这儿刚刚一星期。 Where have you been since I last saw you 自上次我见过你之后,你去了哪里? Since she was young, she has been collecting stamps.她自年轻时起就一直集邮至 今。 It is three years since he began to smoke.他开始抽烟到现在已三年了。 【比较】有时 since 从句中也可以用延续性动词,注意它的译法。 Tom is now working on the farm. It’s two years since he was a college student.汤姆现 在农场上班,他大学毕业已有两年了。 It is three years since he smoked.他戒烟已有三年了。 I have made great progress since I was ill. 我自病愈以来取得了很大的进步。 2.ever since 从那时起直至现在,此后一直。表示说话者强调主句动作或状态持 续时间长,语气比 since 强。

Ever since they got married in 1950, they have lived happily.自一九五零年结婚以 来,他们一直生得很幸福。 3.since 还可以用作副词或介词。 The big clock was damaged during the war and has been silent ever) ( since.这只大钟 在战争中损坏了,从此就一直不响了。 My uncle went to Tibet in the 1950s. He has been living there(ever)since.我叔叔五 十年代就去了西藏,从那以后他一直生活在那里。 You have made great achievements in your work since graduation.你们自毕业以来 已经在工作中取得了巨大成就。 E.as soon as as soon as...可译为一……就……,用来表示主从句的动作是紧接着发生的。 He will come and see you as soon as he can.他一有空就来看你。 He rushed home as soon as he got the good news.他一得到这个好消息就奔回家。 【必背】一……就……还可以用 on /upon doing 结构来表示。 On arriving home he called up Lester.=As soon as he arrived home, he called up Lester.他一到家就给莱斯特打电话 F. immediately instantly directly 相当于 as soon as,从句中用一般过去 时态。 They phoned her immediately they reached home.他一到家马上就给她打了电话。 I recognized her instantly I caught a glimpse of her.我一看见她就把她认出来了。 We came directly we got your telephone.我们一接到你的电话就赶来了。 G.the moment, the minute, the instant, the second 这几个名词短语也可用作连词, 直接引导时间状语从句,表示一…就…相当于 as soon as。 He said he'd turn on TV the moment he got home.他说他一到家就打开电视机。 Tell him I need to see him the minute he arrives.告诉他,他一到我就要见他。 The second the bell rang, the students rushed out of the classroom.铃一响,学生就冲 出了教室。 Telephone me the moment (that) you get the results. 你一有结果, 马上给我打电话。 I was so tired that I fell asleep the instant I closed my eyes. 我很累, 一合上眼就睡着 了。 H.hardly …when…, no sooner…than…这两个短语都表示刚……就……,可以 互换,主句通常用去完成时。 He had no sooner started out than he felt homesick.他刚出发就想起家来。 He had hardly started his speech when someone rose to refute his points.他刚开始发 言,就有人站起来反驳他的论点。 【注意】当 hardly(=scarcely), no sooner 位于句子的开头时,主句须用倒装语 序。 Hardly had she fallen asleep when a knock at the door woke her up. 她刚要睡着,忽 然敲门声把她吵醒。 No sooner was the frost off the ground than the work began. 地上的霜一消散,人们 就开始工作了。 Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain.=No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.我一回到家,天就开始下起雨来。 I.once

once 作连词时,也相当于 as soon as,但它含有的条件意味更浓,它引导的从句 较短。 Once you begin, you must continue. 一旦开了头,你就应当继续下去。 Once you see him, you will never forget him. 你一旦见过他,就不会忘了他的。 J.next time, the first time, the last time, every time, any time, each time Be sure to call on us next time you come to town.下次你进城一定来看我们。 He left me a good impression the first time I met him.我第一次见他时,他给我留下 了好印象。 The second time I saw her, she looked like an old woman. 我第二次见到她时,她看 上去像一个老太婆。 The third time I went there, I found all of them had left and the offices were all empty. 我第三次去那儿时,我发现他们都离开了,所有的办公室都是空的。 Every time I see him he looks miserable.我每次见到他,他都是一付痛苦的表情。 The last time I spoke to Bob, he seemed happy enough.上一次我见到他时,他看上 去很开心。 He felt nervous each time she spoke to him. 每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。 Any time you come to London do look me up. 你无论什么时候到伦敦来, 一定要来 看我。 K.by the time by the tine 也可以引导时间状语从句,意为到 时为止,主句一般要用完成时态。 By the time he was fourteen, Einstein had learned advanced mathematics all by himself. 爱因斯坦到十四岁时就自学完了高等数学。 (从句为一般过去时,主句 要用过去完成时) I shall have finished my work by the time you return.在你回来之前我将会做完我的 活儿。(从句为一般现在时,主句要用将来完成时)


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