当前位置:首页 >> 文学研究 >>

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation


浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

Contents
Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1. A General Review of Advertisement ------

-------------------------------------------------------- 2 1.1 Definition of Advertisement ----------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1.2 Functions and Requirements of Advertisement ------------------------------------------- 3 1.3 Features of Advertising English ------------------------------------------------------------- 3 1.4 Transcultural Advertisement ----------------------------------------------------------------- 4 2. An Introduction to Aesthetic Rhetoric ------------------------------------------------------------ 5 2.1 Concept of Rhetoric and Aesthetic Rhetoric ---------------------------------------------- 5 2.2 Significance and Requirements of Aesthetic Rhetoric ----------------------------------- 6 2.2.1 Significance of Studying Aesthetic Rhetoric -------------------------------------- 6 2.2.2 Requirements of Rhetoric ------------------------------------------------------------ 7 2.3 The Relationship between Aesthetic Rhetoric and Advertisement --------------------- 7 3. The Art of Aesthetic Rhetoric in English Advertisement --------------------------------------- 8 3.1 The Phonetic Rhetorical Devices ----------------------------------------------------------- 8 3.1.1 Alliteration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8 3.1.2 Rhyme ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 3.2 The Lexical Rhetorical Devices ------------------------------------------------------------- 9 3.2.1 Metaphor -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 3.2.2 Personification ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 3.2.3 Pun ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 3.2.4 Parody ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 3.3 The Syntactical Rhetorical Devices -------------------------------------------------------11 3.3.1 Repetition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 3.3.2 Parallelism ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 4. The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation - 12 4.1 Difficulties in C-E Advertisement translation ------------------------------------------- 12 4.1.1 Differences in Characters and Words --------------------------------------------- 12 4.1.2 Differences in Rhetoric ------------------------------------------------------------- 12 4.2 Principles of C-E Advertisement Translation ------------------------------------------- 13
i

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

4.2.1 Familiarity with the Product ------------------------------------------------------- 13 4.2.2 Flexibility in Style ------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 4.2.3 Naturalness in Translation ---------------------------------------------------------- 14 4.3 Practice of Aesthetic Rhetorical Devices in C-E Advertisement Translation ------- 14 4.3.1 Practice of Alliteration in Translation -------------------------------------------- 14 4.3.2 Practice of Metaphor in Translation----------------------------------------------- 15 4.3.3 Practice of Personification in Translation ---------------------------------------- 16 4.3.4 Practice of Pun in Translation------------------------------------------------------ 16 4.3.5 Practice of Parody in Translation -------------------------------------------------- 17 4.3.6 Practice of Parallelism in Translation --------------------------------------------- 17 Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Bibliography ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Acknowledgement ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20

ii

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

Introduction
In the modern commercialized society, the efficiency of production has made advertisement, which is a demand stimulation tool, essential. Urbanization, transportation expansion and communication advancements have all facilitated the use and growth of advertisement. We are surrounded by advertisements, whenever we open a newspaper or magazine, turn on the TV or radio, surf on the Internet, or look at the billboards on the streets. Advertisement has become an integral part of our daily life. Rhetorical devices play a significant role in writing a successful advertisement. Rhetoric is an art of using language effectively. It has aroused general concern for a long time. Between communicative rhetoric and aesthetic rhetoric, the two main divisions of rhetoric, the aesthetic rhetoric is the most common and effective and it is also generally known as figures of speech. Aesthetic rhetorical devices are broadly used in advertisements and make advertising language more vivid and attractive. With the policy of reform and opening up and the entrance into WTO, China has made rapid progress in economy, which has attracted more and more foreign investment in China. Foreign products, together with their advertisements, join the keen competition in domestic market. And meanwhile, there has been more and more opportunities for China's commodities, services and brands going into international markets as well. Advertisement, as the most potent way to advertise the products and images of enterprises in order to intrigue customers, is playing a crucial role in China's global economic ambition. However, the Chinese enterprises fail to coin creative, appealing and effective English advertisements to absorb foreign capital and promote sales in foreign markets due to translation difficulties and shortage of creativity and imagination. Consequently, How to make an advertisement successful and how to translate a Chinese advertisement perfectly into English have become the issues of practical significance. The translation of aesthetic rhetoric in advertisements is yet a field to be explored and researched for its theoretical, practical and economic significance. The translation principles and approaches of aesthetic rhetoric in advertisements contribute to the development of translation theories. An appropriate translation makes the consumers understand the information the advertisement conveys and stimulates their desire for consumption. Successfully written and translated advertisements will bring more benefits to the growth of China's multinational

1

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

enterprises and national economy in the long run. This study concentrates on aesthetic rhetoric and its application to Chinese-English advertisement translation. Part One serves as an introduction to the features, functions and requirements of advertisement. Furthermore, problems arising from transcultural advertising are demonstrated. Part Two is devoted to the study of aesthetic rhetoric in general and its relationship with English advertisement. In Part Three, the author explores the characteristics and aesthetic effects of the aesthetic rhetorical devices in advertisement at phonetic, lexical and syntactical levels. In Part Four, the author introduces the requirements, principles and practical difficulties of Chinese-English advertisement translation, and then offers a discussion of the application of aesthetic rhetorical devices to Chinese-English advertisement translation based on abundant examples of translation practices.

1. A General Review of Advertisement
1.1 Definition of Advertisement
The term "Advertisement" and "Advertising" have, at their root, a Latin word "advertere" meaning "turn towards"(Duanmu Yiwan, 2001). So advertisement is born to be a communication tool with the aim of reaching its intended audience. In the New Oxford Dictionary of English, the definition for advertisement is "a notice or announcement in a public medium promoting a product, service or event or publicizing a job vacancy", while it is termed as "a form of commercial mass communication designed to promote the sale of a product or service, or a message on behalf of an institution, organization, or candidate for political office" in Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2004. Both of the two definitions of advertisement mention "a public medium" or "mass communication". Strictly speaking, advertisement is not a mass medium, but it relies on media to communicate its messages. Both definitions emphasize "promoting a product, service, etc", but advertisement nowadays has already passed the frontier of the selling of goods and services and has become involved with the reaching of social and personal values. Advertisement takes various forms, i.e. it communicates through mass medium such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines, direct mail, outdoor displays, mass transit vehicles or Internet. Since advertisements are a complex, all encompassing art form, textual, audio, visual materials are invariably used. Although advertisements originally were dominated by textual materials, written advertisements increasingly have to compete with each other and

2

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

with all sorts of other materials including picture, sound, and video in our richly civilized culture. And in this study we merely look at advertisements from the textual point of view.

1.2 Functions and Requirements of Advertisement
Advertisement is, by nature, a persuasion which is directed at large groups of people by means of media. The aim of advertisement is to "capture the attention of the mass audience by means of a short message and to persuade them to buy the products"(O'Donnell, etal., 1980). On one hand, as a marketing tool, advertisement is one of the vehicles employed by businesses to convey its sales intent and consumption concept to consumers. On the other hand, advertisement may help the business to know competitors' products, thus enabling companies to, as the Chinese proverb goes, "know themselves and their enemies, and then fight a hundred battles without defeat." Therefore, a successful advertisement must obey the rules of the "AIDMA" which is Attention, Interest, Desire, Memory, and Action. Attention: This is the easiest step. Through repetition and other advertising techniques, consumers can be made aware that a product exists. Interest: The second step is indeed an increase in consumers' desire to learn about some of the features of the product. The advertisement may easily lose potential consumers if it fails to keep their attention, for people's attention is continually shifting. Desire: A successful advertisement should convince the consumer of some important attributes of the products and the advantages of making a purchase. In this way, the desire to obtain the products may well up in his mind. Memory: After stimulating consumers' desire, an advertisement should serve to be kept in mind and appreciated as a piece of art. This step finally results in consumers' unhesitating purchasing action. Action: All the preceding four steps pave the way for the last step, which is the sole and final purpose of any commercial advertisement. In general, the customer may accept such product through a favorable experience of the first trial(Tanahashi, 2007).

1.3 Features of Advertising English
There has been a growing interest in the language of advertisement. The aim of advertisement is to draw attention of the consumers to a product or service in order to promote sales. However, the advertiser has only limited amount of space or time. On the one hand, this

3

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

limitation in time and space is a consequence of the fact that advertising is expensive. On the other hand, since people are exposed to an enormous amount of commercial messages, an advertiser must try to have his advertisement noticed among numerous other advertisements and create a maximally effective impact during the brief time span. Advertisers begin to pay attention to the effective and strategic use of language. In adverting language, both elements, psychological and linguistic, are essential: they are combined to produce a single "brand image" of a product. Of course, in order to make the advertisement work, they must use our commonly shared resources of language in the ways that affect us and mean something to us. The features of the advertising language have already caught the attention of the linguists and advertisement copywriters. Generally speaking, the language is laudatory, positive, unreserved and emphasizing the uniqueness of a product. The vocabulary tends to be vivid and concrete. It is not uncommon for copywriters to resort to different rhetorical devices and so on. Thus we can know that language plays a very important role in advertisement. The language of advertising (of course, here it refers to advertising English) has become a very distinctive register. There has been a growing interest in this specific register or variety of English lately. On the one hand, advertisement writers want to fully know the potential power of language in order to achieve their advertising purposes. On the other hand, linguists expect to learn more about the English language, especially the changes and development of it by investigating advertising English in that advertising has developed over time to use language in a most creative, and some may argue, unethical way.

1.4 Transcultural Advertisement
With globalization of the world economy, the evolution of advertising from the home country to a foreign country, to regional blocs or to a worldwide audience, the first problem a producer will encounter when introducing his products to overseas markets might be culture shock. In this case, the local residents are likely to misunderstand the content of advertisement and the promotion purpose of producers, because consumers of different nations and regions may have different responses to the same advertisement due to discrepancies in custom, religion and national characteristic. An advertisement may be welcomed by consumers in one area, but rejected in another.

4

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

A well-known example of the problem is the name of the Chevrolet Nova automobile. In English "Nova" is a star of sudden brightness, but in Spanish means "It doesn't go." No wonder the car did not sell well in Spanish-speaking countries. Similarly, Ford Automobile Company once tried to promote its "Comet Caliente Model" to the Mexican market, only to find a poor sale in Mexico. The problem lies in that "Caliente" in Mexican slang refers to streetwalkers(Antonio, 2001). Advertisements in any language often involve play on words, slang and themes that are relevant to one country. Unintentional meanings, slang and national style must be deleted from the advertisement unless the meaning or intent can be recreated in other languages. In sum, cultures are dissimilar, but they are not superior or inferior than one another. Cultural characteristics of a people should be taken into account in relative terms and in comparison with others. So, the study of advertisement must be greatly associated with the study of culture, and transcultural advertising copywriters are supposed to respect the language of target consumers and the culture it carries and reflects.

2. An Introduction to Aesthetic Rhetoric
2.1 Concept of Rhetoric and Aesthetic Rhetoric
What is rhetoric is a controversial issue that provokes various answers. According to Aristotle, "Rhetoric may then be defined as the faculty of discovering all the possible means of persuasion in reference to any subject whatsoever."(Winterowd, 1965). Another interpretation comes from John Locke, English philosopher of the late 17th century. He considered rhetoric as "the science of oratory," or "the art of speaking with propriety, elegance, and force"(Huang Ren, 1999). In The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, rhetoric is defined as "the art of speaking or writing effectively" From the above review of various concepts of rhetoric, we may carry the definition of rhetoric one step further on the basis of the one by Aristotle: rhetoric, in nature, is the art of discovering all the available means of enabling people to understand and agree both intellectually and emotionally. By this definition, advertisement is largely rhetorical for its purpose to convey particular information of subject. English rhetoric can be subdivided into two basic categories: communicative rhetoric and aesthetic rhetoric. Chen Wangdao, a well- known Chinese rhetorician, regards the former as negative rhetoric, and the latter positive rhetoric(Chen Wangdao, 1979). Communicative

5

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

rhetoric coincides with all linguistic devices such as the choice of words, sentence patterns, paragraph organization and whole pieces of writing so that thoughts or ideas can be expressed in the most accurate and appropriate way. In advertising language, the most typical features such as frequent use of adjectives and adverbs, neologisms, long noun phrases, imperative sentences and present tense fall into this category. On the other hand, aesthetic rhetoric lays special stress on artistic approaches, seeking ways of achieving the effect of vividness and elegance in expressing ideas. From this point of view, frequently used figures of speech like alliteration, rhyme, metaphor, personification, pun, parody hyperbole, parallelism, rhetorical question, repetition in advertisement meet the requirements. As for the employment of rhetorical devices, aesthetic rhetorical devices are most commonly seen in English advertisements and they contribute a lot to persuading the target audience as well. Accordingly, the author makes efforts to give an analysis of aesthetic rhetoric in advertising language to see significant effect aesthetic rhetorical have for achieving the heart of advertising persuasion.

2.2 Significance and Requirements of Aesthetic Rhetoric
2.2.1 Significance of Studying Aesthetic Rhetoric Studying rhetoric, especially aesthetic rhetoric, can be of great significance due to its usefulness, popularity, and effectiveness. First of all, it improves the use of language for communication. We learn a language for the purpose of effective communication which is inevitably connected with rhetoric. We cannot express our ideas appropriately and say exactly what we mean unless we have a good mastery of rhetoric. Besides, it improves appreciation of works. Great literary works have owed something to those scholars who have used the rhetorical devices in writing like Emerson, or Shakespeare. While reading the original, everyone is wondering how closely the rhetoric is woven into the texture of English. If we had a good knowledge of rhetoric, we would be able to acquire a better appreciation of these works. Last but not the least, it improves the quality of translation. Essentially, translation should faithfully represent what is written or said in the source language, which demands a fine comprehension of the original language, and a good command of the target language. If translators acquire a good knowledge of rhetoric, they can make use of the techniques incisively and vividly, thus producing a high-quality translation.

6

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

2.2.2 Requirements of Rhetoric The central concern of rhetoric is how to find out the most effective way to express a thought in a given situation, and then how to change its expression to suit various situations. In this sense, rhetoric is quite practical. Consequently, the following requirements for rhetoric must be met. First, appropriateness. Rhetorical language ought to suit the communication occasion. In particular, the words and sentence patterns one chooses should be consistent with one's age, profession, position and education. On the other hand, when employing such rhetorical devices, the speaker or the writer should always take the reader's background into consideration. Second, clarity. In fact, clarity is the primary concern of grammar. Whether we speak or write, our aim is to have our hearers or readers understand us without much effort. If the chosen words or sentences fail to make their meaning clear, which may result in ambiguity and misunderstanding, how can we get ourselves across expressively and eloquently? Third, effectiveness. Effectiveness, maybe the ultimate goal of rhetoric, must be predicated on the above two requirements. Thus, one can employ all the best possible means to convey his or her thought with persuasiveness and artistic appeal and to effectively achieve the objective of communication(Hu Shuzhong, 2004).

2.3 The Relationship between Aesthetic Rhetoric and Advertisement
First, both aesthetic rhetoric and advertisement aim at persuasion. As demonstrated in Part One, the widely used AIDMA rules in advertising indicates that first, advertisement should attract the reader's attention and stimulate his interest, then arouse the reader's desire for purchase, and at the same time, bestow the product with memory value and finally urge the reader to take action. So in nature, persuading readers to take action is the ultimate objective of advertisement. Similarly, rhetoricians believe that any proposition can be expressed in various ways, and that in any given situation one of these ways will be the most effective in swaying an audience. Therefore, persuasion is the overriding goal of aesthetic rhetoric. Another reason connecting aesthetic rhetoric with advertisement lies in that both of them have the capability to be creative, for rhetorical devices should be compatible with various contexts. It is such changeability that leads to creativity in the employment of rhetorical devices. If an idea or expression remains unchanged and is overused, it will lose much of its

7

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

expressive force, only to become a cliché. Likewise, if an advertisement lack creativity, then the customers will feel bored and certainly turn a blind eye to the advertisement as well as the products it supports. Thus, advertisement copywriters are supposed to exert themselves to adopt aesthetic rhetorical devices with originality and creativity, which can breathe new life into advertisements and be favorable for attracting and persuading people effectively.

3. The Art of Aesthetic Rhetoric in English Advertisement
Although advertisers have resorted to a variety of techniques-audio and visual, sound and light, display and acting, photographs and drawing, to obtain consumers' attention, motivate their interests and urge them to make a purchase, language still remains the most important and sufficient tool to realize the above goal. Advertising language holds its own particular and striking characteristic style in addition to the common language core. It aims not only to deliver information, but also to convey emotion, through which outstanding advertisements usually achieve their persuasive function. Recognizing that a major goal of advertising is not only to inform, but also to persuade, it is not surprising that advertisement is sprinkled with rhetorical devices. In this Part, rhetorical devices used in advertisement will be analyzed at the phonetic, lexical and syntactical levels.

3.1 The Phonetic Rhetorical Devices
Phonetic rhetorical Devices generally include alliteration and rhyme. They have more to do with sound than the sense of words, making use of phonology to achieve musical effects and vividness. Accordingly, expressions using phonological rhetoric figures are either rhythmic or true to life in reading. 3.1.1 Alliteration Alliteration means "the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables" in The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Sentences with alliteration are rhymed in sound for the purpose of musical effect as well as emphasis. It is worth noting, however, that sometimes the writer has to sacrifice the exactness in word meaning. Sensuously smooth. Mysteriously mellow. Gloriously golden. Who can resist the magic of Camus XO Cognac(Higgins, 1986)?

8

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

In seeking to promote French Camus XO Cognac, the advertisement copywriters adopt "s, m, g and c" in each pair of phrases, which are well organized and much easier for consumers to read and furthermore persuade them to have a taste of the delicious cognac. Here are more Alliteration examples: (1)Soft and silky smooth, with a delicate fragrance and a light-refreshing feel(Nulon hand cream)(Yan Guizhi, 2000) (2)Sea, sun, sand, seclusion and Spain! You can have all these when you visit the new hotel Calient(Chen Keqing, 1997). 3.1.2 Rhyme Rhyme has been defined as the similarity or identity of sound that exists between accented syllables which occupy corresponding positions in two or more lines of verse. By far the most common form is end rhyme, in which the ends of lines correspond in sound. It is also commonly used in advertisement. Beanz Meanz Heinz. Heinz Baked Beans. The words "beans" and "means" are changed in spelling to make them end and pronounce the same as the brand name "Heinz". Thus, the brand "Heinz" of the bean product becomes deeply embedded in the reader’s mind(Huang Ren, 1999). Rhyme is also used in the following two advertisements: (1)Service with a smile has always been our style.(A restaurant in England) (2)Glazed, Amazed and Color-dazed(Lanc?me liquid lipstick)(Bovee, etal., 1994)

3.2 The Lexical Rhetorical Devices
The performance of advertisement is mainly developed by the words. The advertisers pry their wits for a word to touch the soul of the consumers. The lexical devices meet with the requirement that an advertisement needs: to attract, to move, to persuade. 3.2.1 Metaphor Metaphor, perhaps the most important figure of speech, employs words to express something distinct from their literal meaning, namely, one thing is described in terms of another in order to suggest resemblance or analogy between them. A metaphor in advertisement can give the target audience sensuous pleasure and aesthetic feeling. Metaphors can be classified as visible metaphor and invisible metaphor. Visible Metaphor is easily recognized by means of acknowledging word "be". Technology is the engine of business(PC Computing magazine) (Zhang Jiying, 2000).

9

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

Here technology is compared to "the engine of business", and unlike simile, the purpose is directly achieved by using "is" instead of "like" or "as". Invisible metaphor is a metaphor hidden in sentences without any signaling words. Dream your night away. Drive your dream away. Your chance to drive a dream made in Germany(Wang Yongsheng, 1996). Although there is no detailed tenor in this advertisement, consumers can still be led to dream that they are enjoying the life of good taste in Regent International Hotel. 3.2.2 Personification To put it simply, personification is a figure of speech in which inanimate objects and events are represented as human beings or having human qualities. Personification is usually adopted in printed advertisements to achieve the effect of vitality and vividness. Any words portraying human beings can be employed to characterize products. It is obvious that a dull advertisement impresses readers less than a dynamic one. Unlike me, my Rolex never needs a rest(Liu Zequan, 1996). In this Rolex advertisements, a watch is personified that it can rest like a human being, but its not needing a rest strongly suggest its endurance and longevity, which, finally leads to the ultimate goal of selling products. Two more examples are given as follows: (1)Why your skin drinks it down so quickly? (OLAY facial cream) (2)Thirst knows no season(Coca-Cola)(Bovee, etal., 1994). 3.2.3 Pun According to Collins English Language Dictionary(1987), a pun can be defined as "a use of words that have more than one meaning, or words that have the same sound but different meanings, so that what you say has two different meanings and makes people laugh". A pun may be used by an advertiser who wants to communicate something covertly. Everybody kneads (needs) it(Huang Ren, 1999). This is an advertisement for Pillsbury Flour Company. Here, "kneads" and "needs” form the homophonic pun, going someway to overcoming consumers’ distrust of the product and arousing their interests. Spoil yourself but not your figure(Wang Chunmei, 1996). In this advertisement for ice-cream, pun lies in the word "spoil". "Spoil oneself" means "enjoy oneself to one's heart's content" while "spoil one's figure" indicates "destroy the shape

10

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

of one's body". Through this witty and amusing pun, this advertisement is more likely to relieve the worries of those who like ice-creams while trying to slim. 3.2.4 Parody Parody means "an imitation of the characteristic style of a writer, or of a literary work, designed to amuse or ridicule" in The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Parody, if well used, can result in vividness, humor, uniqueness and sarcasm. Thirst come, thirst served(Coca-Cola)(Bovee, etal., 1994). This advertisement is a perfect imitation of the English saying "First come, first served", for the only change is to substitute "th" for the letter "f”. Don’t think beauty is but sheet metal deep. Because the Scoupe is just as much fun to drive as it is to be seen in(Hu Zhiwei etal., 1999). The copywriters imitate an English proverb "Beauty is but skin deep", which indicates that Hyundai Scoupe is good in its appearance as well as in its accessories. What’s more? "Better late than the late"(Safe driving ad) imitates "Better late than never"; "Not all cars are created equal."(Mitsubishi Motors) imitates "All men are created equal" (Wang Yulong, 1996).

3.3 The Syntactical Rhetorical Devices
The syntactical rhetorical devices in advertising English are also very striking and countless. Here we will introduce two typical syntactical rhetoric devices, repetition and parallelism. 3.3.1 Repetition In modern English, repetition is widely used in many literary forms. And in terms of advertisement, repetition is supposed to be employed in some cases to enhance the memory value of an advertisement most likely by repeating companies’ names, brand names and advantages of products. Are you ready for e-business? Your customers are ready for e-business. Your employees are ready for e-business. Your suppliers are ready for e-business. Your competitors are ready for e-business. IBM is ready for e-business wherever you are(IBM service)(Winterowd, 1965). This advertisement use repetition to awaken customers to the idea that hey are living in an

11

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

information era, and it is IBM that provides such swift and convenient service. Thus, it successfully won consumers' interests and trusts. The followings are similar examples: (1)When you're sipping Lipton, you're sipping something special(Lipton tea)(Zhu Shenge etal., 1999). (2)Room to maneuver. Room to be yourself. Room for nothing to be left behind(Renault cars)(Chen Keqing, 1997). 3.3.2 Parallelism Parallelism is defined in Literary Term Dictionary that "it consists of phrases or sentences of similar construction and meaning placed side by side, balancing each other." In advertisement, parallelism is universally brought into play for the reason that effective parallelism creates symmetry in sentences and adds force to your writing; at the same time it emphasizes the likeness between two or more ideas. We spoil our passengers as much as we spoil our aircraft(Xie Wenyi etal., 1996). This advertisement applies the parallel structure to the main and subordinate clause to deliver such information to consumers that they can enjoy good in-flight service in the well-maintained aircrafts. Here are more examples: (1)When you make a great beer, you don't have to make a great fuss(Beer)(Xie Wenyi etal., 1996). (2)Fold them, and you can take them anywhere. Unfold them, and they can take you anywhere(Telescope)(Wang Yongsheng, 1996).

4. The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation 4.1 Difficulties in C-E Advertisement translation
4.1.1 Differences in Characters and Words It is apparent that different countries, nationalities and regions like or dislike certain characters or words. Most Chinese like "福", "寿", "喜" and "乐" while the most popular English words are chime, golden, lullaby, melody and murmuring, etc. Unlike Chinese with a visual symbolic system, English is an alphabetical system and can hardly produce artistic image only through its words. In consequence, it is by no means an easy job to give accurate and elegant English versions for the Chinese advertisements. In case of untranslatability arising from character differences, advertisement translators have to exert all strengths to seek other methods. 4.1.2 Differences in Rhetoric

12

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

English is rapidly becoming the universal language for international business. It is inevitable for Chinese producers to translate their advertisements into English to gain a place on the world market. As illustrated in Part Two, rhetorical devices are the most commonly used tools in English advertising copywriting. There are differences in rhetorical figures between Chinese and English, and these differences may put translators in a difficult position. For instance: 黄河冰箱 领“鲜”一步 This advertisement adopts the rhetorical device of pun, which is difficult to translate. The translator can hardly render the meaning without sacrificing the form or maintain the original flavor without distorting the meaning. The translation of rhetorical devices in Chinese advertisements is a knotty problem, which has blocked the way of many translators of Chinese advertisements.

4.2 Principles of C-E Advertisement Translation
4.2.1 Familiarity with the Product It is a basic process for the translator to have an intimate understanding of the product and probe into the intention of the creator of advertisement. Only after the translator knows its features and qualities can he or she transfer a message as accurate and complete as possible to customers abroad. In addition, a good command of the 6Ms of advertising: Market, Message, Media, Motion, Measurement and Money--helps the translator to give a qualified rendition. The six product-related factors are indeed a prerequisite that must be well considered for transcultural copywriting other than the financial investment, business culture, organizational pattern and expertise of the multinational enterprises. 4.2.2 Flexibility in Style Admittedly, a fully competent translator should have a good grasp of the target language and give a faithful representation in the target language of the text written in the source language. However, it is unnecessary for the translator to rigidly adhere to the principle of faithfulness in some cases so as to make the rendition more acceptable to foreigners. A "faithful" advertisement translation reproduces the original text in form, but may still be a poor translation that fails to convey the emotion to the target audience and could hardly arouse their interests to make a purchase. For example, "中国茶叶, 历史悠久, 品质超群, 名扬四海, 健美减肥, 延年益寿". If this Chinese advertisement is translated "faithfully", there will be excessive words and phrased describing

13

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

the quality of the product but the foreign consumers may still be apathetic to such advertisements, for they think most products possess such characteristics and there is nothing special for it. Accordingly, the translator should be careful enough not to let literal translation spoil the essence, but to adopt flexible expressions to pursue the correspondence in effect. 4.2.3 Naturalness in Translation Translations are expected to be adequate rewritings of the original with an acceptable language use, and preserve the original's artistic, intellectual, and aesthetic quality. However, the translation could hardly meet the above requirements if it fails to satisfy the principle of naturalness. A stiff and unnatural version can hardly be effectively understood and accepted by the foreign consumers. For example:
娃哈哈儿童口服液

Wahaha Children's Nourishing Oral Liquid This translated advertisement may bewilder the foreign customers, who may raise the question: who are Wahaha Children. If the translator puts a dash between "Wahaha" and "Children", the foreigners are more likely to understand. Besides, the advertisement lacks naturalness because of the weird syntactical structure, unless it is modified to "Wahaha nourishing oral liquid for children."

4.3 Practice of Aesthetic Rhetorical Devices in C-E Advertisement Translation
In the analysis of English advertisement in Part Three, we notice that aesthetic rhetorical devices are adopted to produce vivid and picturesque effect. Similarly, they also play a dominant role in Chinese advertisements, which are rich in connotations. Therefore, the connotations and emotional color can be amply conveyed and the rhetorical and persuasive effects of the original advertisement can be better retained with the aid of the aesthetic rhetoric. It is worth noting that rhetorical devices can still be used in translation even if the original advertisements are just plain language without any figures of speech. The following examples will clearly testify to the significance of this method. 4.3.1 Practice of Alliteration in Translation The aesthetic value of advertisement is usually reinforced by the sound effect of the words used. Alliteration is an appropriate rhetorical device to achieve the anticipated effect in translation.

14

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

A) 洁白牙齿 口气清新(黑人牙膏) Cleaner teeth, Cooler taste. B) 益智强记新药“沈中健脑夜” Shenzhong Brain Lotion: Enhances your intelligence and improves your memory. C) 乘上三峰,一路顺风(三丰轿车) Swift, Smooth and Splendid trip is what Sanfeng Sedan gives(Chen Jun etal., 1995). Here are three brilliant examples of the application of alliteration. Resorting to alliteration, the translator is likely to find a relatively easy way to convey the attention value and artistic value to the target audience. However, it is a painstaking job for the translator to properly use the rhetorical figure of alliteration, for this special rhetorical device can rarely find correspondence in two languages which have entirely different phonological systems. In view of this point, the version of advertisement C is a perfect one in that it employs the consonant "s" in “swift”, “smooth” and “splendid”, which corresponds with the first consonant in the phonetic letters of “Sanfeng” and meanwhile capitalize on the same vowel shared by both “trip” and “give”. 4.3.2 Practice of Metaphor in Translation Appropriate adoption of metaphor in the translation of Chinese advertisements facilitates the delivery of the designative and associative meaning of the original advertisements. A) 茫茫沙漠,何处有绿洲(骆驼牌绿茶) Camel Green Tea,The oasis in desert. B) 安琪儿,自行车的王国(安琪儿牌自行车) Bicycle by Angel—The angel of bicycles C) 红玫相机新奉献(红玫牌相机) Lover is a Red Rose(Liu Zequan, 1996). These brilliant examples, adopting metaphor in translation, faithfully reproduce the meaning of the original advertisements. Particularly, "angel" in advertisement B is endowed with pure, kindhearted and auspicious image, which is up to the foreigners' mentality and cultural connotations. The comparison of camera to a lover in advertisement C vividly expresses the endearment to the "red rose" and makes the version more interesting to read. If it is literally translated into "Red Rose Camera makes new contribution", the foreign consumers are likely to lose interest in the product after a glimpse of the translated advertisement. All the above

15

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

renditions share the same persuasive power and vividness as the Chinese advertisements. It is worth noting that unlike advertisement A and B with the rhetorical figure of metaphor employed in the original, advertisement C uses a new metaphor in the English version. 4.3.3 Practice of Personification in Translation The application of this approach can endow the advertised product with humanity, either masculine or feminine. In this way, it is much easier to build a closer relation between the product and the target audience. A) 月坛体育场,兵马俑晚宴剧场 What a dinner, What a show, Terracotta's with you. B) 每天仅花两分钱,请进一位好医生( 《家庭医生》杂志征订) The Family Doctor serves well but charges low C) 绿丹兰——爱你一辈子(绿丹兰化妆品) Ludanlan cosmetics: Love me tender, love me true(Jiang Lei, 2002). The originally lifeless items like terracotta, magazines and cosmetics are blessed with the characteristics of personality. They can "keep you company", "serve as a doctor", "gently pour out the love for you" and do other incredible things. Thus, the translated advertisements can easily reach the stylistic correspondence of vocative function. All the credits should go to the adoption of personification. As for advertisement C, in particular, rhetorical devices of parody and repetition are also employed, for the version comes from the lyric of an American ballad. The employment of these two rhetorical devices is focused on in the following part. 4.3.4 Practice of Pun in Translation As illustrated in Part Three, the pun sometimes is one of the most common verbal devices in advertisement to achieve humor and arouse interest on one hand, and express some implied ideas in accordance with special context and enhance the linguistic twists of the advertisements on the other hand. A) 人带梅花,准时乐道(梅花牌手表) A good time give the Plum to all, and to all a good time. B) 出手不凡(钻石牌手表) Buy a Diamond Watch, if every second counts for you(Sun Xiaoli, 1995). Advertisement A states that the watch keeps a good time, and customers with the watch can have a good time as well. As for advertisement B, of which the pun in the source language is "

16

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

出手不凡" the translator makes use of the double meaning of "count" to imply that Diamond

Watch is a good choice for those who value every bit of time. In addition, the version may lead to a better effect if the word "buy" is replaced with "ask for", for such words as "buy" and "pay" are likely to arouse consumers' aversion and should be avoided. The application of pun in advertisement translation requires excellent grasp of semantics. In using this rhetorical device, the translators should alert themselves to finding an appropriate word or phrase with a double meaning to successfully convey the originally implied meaning. 4.3.5 Practice of Parody in Translation Parody is indeed a kind of structure-borrowing translation method. The borrowed structure could be idioms, proverbs or sayings, lines and English advertisements themselves. The translator frequently finds the rendering of the advertisements a headache, but parody translation method brings about a special and magic solution to some tough advertisements. There is prominent resemblance between Chinese and English, and such similarities prove the feasibility of the adoption of parody in advertisement translation. A) 一诺千金 牡丹信用卡 Credit is beyond price. B) 心动不如行动(旅行社广告) Action is better than emotion(Zhang Jipei, 2003). The English version of these two advertisements, imitating the proverbs "Credit is better than gold" and "Action speaks louder than words" respectively, are more likely to lead to greater attention, preference and memorability. If advertisement A is literally rendered into "A promise worth a thousand pieces of gold", it definitely spoils the essence of the source text and will bewilder the foreign consumers.
黑妹牙膏,强健牙龈,保护牙齿

Don’t show me any other, but show me Black Sister(Jiang Lei, 2002). This advertisement imitates the American advertisement for "Galway" glass household Utensils "Don't show me the Crystal, Show me the Galway". What is worth mentioning is that the translator should flexibly employ the method of parody without excessively repeating the same sayings for various Chinese advertisements. 4.3.6 Practice of Parallelism in Translation Lots of Chinese advertising copywriters are used to using parallel structure in Chinese

17

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

advertisements, and this may make it a little easier for the translator to reproduce a successful version faithful both in structure and meaning. A) 方便旅行,到达平安(旅行箱包广告) Smooth trip, Smooth arrival. B) 您的选择,我们的光荣(旅行社广告) The choice is yours. The honor is ours(Sun Xiaoli, 1995). These translated advertisements might be considered as being correspondent to the Chinese advertisements in vocative function and aesthetic function. They are more likely to capture sufficient consumers' attention and help to stimulate the sale of the products in the target country.
愿同您从第一次邂逅开始结下不解之缘。《家具与生活》杂志征订广告) (

Fall in love at first sight, Remain in love for all life(Liu Zequan, 1996). Parallelism, not used in the above Chinese advertisement, is skillfully employed in its English renditions. In this way, the ordinary declarative sentence of the source language is converted to a parallel structure neat in form, and accordingly, this parallel sentence maintains the original flavor and adapts to the foreign readers' taste.

Conclusion
Under the guidance of the general theory on rhetoric, the author has attempted to make a general study of aesthetic rhetorical devices used in advertising English from a linguistic approach to facilitate the comprehension, appreciation and intensive study of English advertisements. Further more, the author is probing into the application of aesthetic rhetoric to Chinese-English advertisement translation. The conclusion has been drawn as follows: Advertising English is on the whole a language of persuasion, for the attainment of which advertising copywriting adopts certain rhetorical devices. Advertisers, in order to make their work highly effective, have to be original and creative in language use other than following the general linguistic rules. In consequence, a successful advertiser is also a good rhetorician to a large extent. In accordance with the characteristics of advertisement, the translator should properly retain or transcribe the expression with even implicit rhetorical devices while translating Chinese advertisements into English ones so as to maintain the maximum flavor of the original advertisements and effectively communicate the original information and values of the brand or product.

18

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

Moreover, the proper use of aesthetic rhetorical devices in translation sets a higher standard for professional translators, who should keep in mind that a full understanding of the source text and accurate translation in the target language is not enough to give the client adequate recognition and temptation, and to make the task of the translator an intellectually gratifying one. Among all other communication skills, creativity, when used appropriately, is best appreciated and can yield the best result in reproducing effective, distinctive and persuasive advertisements. The exploration of advertising English in this thesis is only part of a more general investigation into the power of language, more specifically the language used to persuade, convince and manipulate others. The author, as a minor language student has exerted himself to acquaint himself with the enormous knowledge of advertising and endeavored to do a bit of research in this field. However, limited by his level of major knowledge, language skill and researching capacity, flaws and deficiencies are inevitable in the present thesis. Though the material and data he relies on is objective, the conclusion he arrives at may be subjective and inaccurate. Therefore, any suggestions, comments or criticism from the experts in this domain would be highly appreciated.

Bibliography
[1] Bovee, L. etal. Contemporary Advertising[M].U.S.A.: Richard. Irwin Inc. 1994.

19

The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation

[2] Higgins, D. The Art of Writing Advertising: Conversations with Masters of the Craft[M]. U.S.A.: Advertising Publications, Inc. 1986. [3] Tanahashi, H. AIDMA Law[EB/OL]. http://www.mitsue.co.jp/english/case/marketing/02.html. 2007. [4] Winterowd, W. Rhetoric and Writing, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1965. [5] O'Donnell, W. etal. Variety in Contemporary English. London: George Allen & Unwin Publisher. 1980. [6] 陈望道.修辞学发凡[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社.1979. [7] 崔刚.广告英语[M].北京:北京理工大学出版社.1993. [8] 陈军等.谈广告翻译[J].杭州师范学院学报.1999(4). [9] 陈恪清.浅析广告英语的修辞艺术[J].河南大学学报.1997(11). [10] 端木义万.美国传媒文化[M].北京:北京大学出版社.2001. [11] 胡曙中.现代英语修辞学[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社.2004. [12] 胡志伟等.英语广告词精品[M].北京:北京大学出版社.1999. [13] 黄任.英语修辞与写作[M].上海:上海外语教育出版社.1998. [14] 蒋磊.英汉文化差异与广告的语用翻译[J].中国翻译.2002(3). [15] 刘泽权.修辞在广告英译时的运用[J].信阳师范学院学报.1996(4). [16] 孙晓丽.广告英语与实例[M].北京:中国广播电视出版社.1995(3). [17] 王春梅.广告英语的修辞手段[J].嘉应大学学报.2001(4). [18] 王永胜.修辞与广告[J].锦州师范学院学报.2003(8). [19] 王玉龙.英语修辞与写作[M].青岛:青岛出版社.1996. [20] 谢文怡等.英语修辞格初探[J].英语辅导.1997(6). [21] 阎桂芝.浅谈广告英语的修辞特点[J].江西社会科学.2000(11). [22] 张基佩.广告创作与翻译[J].中国科技翻译.2003(2). [23] 张继英.修辞在广告英语中的应用[J].洛阳师范学院学报.2000(6). [24] 朱盛娥等.谈广告英语修辞艺术美[J].娄底师专学报.1999(1).

Acknowledgement
20

浙江理工大学本科毕业论文

This paper would not have been written without the support and assistance of my supervisor Shen Meiying whose directions and suggestions help me understand the art of aesthetic rhetoric devices in English advertisement in general. Under her encouragement and help, I chose The Application of Aesthetic Rhetoric to Chinese-English Advertisement Translation as my specific topic of the research. Supervisor Shen Meiying is always kind, patient and rich in enlightening ideas, which greatly improve the level of my thesis. Thanks to her and her books lent to me which are pertinent to my data collection, the thesis could thus reach the present form. I am also very grateful to many others devoting to the job of helping me in my thesis, my foreign teacher Jeremy Lewison and Erin Renee Wahl, my best friends Alexander Su and Jocelyn Chen. They all generously take a lot of time to give me the greatest support and help. My final acknowledgement should go to the support from the English department. The English library provided me many useful materials and books, the contributions to create the ideas in this thesis. In addition, any errors and inadequacies in this thesis are my sole responsibility.

21


相关文章:
RHETORIC
In the New Oxford Dictionary of English rhetoric ...2) Aesthetic rhetoric(艺术修辞), which stresses ...equivalent to Chinese “逻辑” , “情感”and“人格...
语言学
English Advertisement 英语广告中双关语的运用技巧 及...the Application of Fuzzy Language in Communication ...Chinese Analogic Rhetoric 英汉比喻修饰格的对比 145...
广告英语的翻译和特点
to the characteristics of advertising English to ...The advertisement can be translated as "不同凡 ...2.3 Characteristics in rhetoric 2.3.1 simile ...
翻译常用网
of Chinese and English Idioms On the Understanding...Aesthetic Effect An Approach to Advertisement ...Chinese into English A Review of Rhetoric ...
翻译题目
of the Chinese-English Translation of Trademarks 译 翻译 How To deal with...English Advertisement under Aesthetic Principles of Rhetoric 英语广告翻译与修辞...
Chapter Two:the Translation of Advertisement
2.3 Rhetoric 2.3.1 the English advertisement ...to Chinese visitor who can easily get what they...Because unjustified application of this strategy may...
法语借词在英语中的融合
of Cultural Difference in English-Chinese Advertisement Translation from Rhetoric Perspective 22...to the Limits of Translatability for English ...
从严复信达雅浅析英语广告中双关语的翻译
of higher learning and to the best of my ...English advertisement; translation skills; translation...As one of the most creative means of rhetoric,...
从文化角度看商标翻译的失误
of Cultural Difference in English-Chinese Advertisement Translation from Rhetoric Perspective 60...The Application of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby ...
论翻译技巧在广告翻译中的应用
On Application of Strategies in Advertisement Translation...process of translation between Chinese and English....To support the thesis, the paper adopts the ...
更多相关标签:
rhetoric | american rhetoric | aristotle rhetoric | rhetorician | rhetoric device | rhetoric devices | rhetoric question | contrastive rhetoric |