中国 诗歌 poetry
The development of Chinese Poetry
The book of Odes
Wei and Jin
The form of pre-tang poetry
The book of odes
“modern style” poetry
Poems in Ancient China
The development of Chinese Poetry
The book of Odes
Wei and Jin
Before the appearance of The Book of Odes, there were a lot of poems from people?s daily life.
1.Many poems used to be the songs people sang when they are hunting or working on the farm.
The poetry in Ancient China ——The poetry appeared earlier before The book of Odes
Tan Ge recorded in Wu Yue 断竹，续竹，飞土，逐肉。 Chun Qiu
2.Many poems originated in divination.
癸卯卜，今日雨。 其自西来雨？ 其自东来雨？ 其自北来雨？ 其自南来雨？
3.Some poems reflect the policy at that time.
4.Some poems reflect the custom at that time.
The Book of Odes is the first book to record the poems in Chinese history. The aim to record these poems is to make it easier for the government to know what happened in the country.
The Book of Odes 诗经
There are around 300 poems in the book, which is made up with 3 parts. Feng(风):The odes that people sang in their daily life, which describe the life of people Ya(雅)：The odes written by the governor or performed in the court. Song(颂)：The odes that will be sung in the ceremony which offer sacrifices to god.
关关雎鸠，在河之洲。窈窕淑女，君子好逑。 参差荇菜，左右流之。窈窕淑女，寤寐求之。 求之不得，寤寐思服。悠哉悠哉，辗转反侧。 参差荇菜，左右采之。窈窕淑女，琴瑟友之。 参差荇菜，左右芼之。窈窕淑女，钟鼓乐之。
Yuefu——At first, Yuefu was a government office in the Han Dynasty, whose duty was to collect the poems created by people.
Yuefu Poetry 乐府诗
In the Han Dynasty, Yuefu poems were created by common people, which were easy to understand .
After the Han Dynasty, Yuefu became a form of poetry. Li Bai and Bai Juyi in the Tang Dynasty were good at writing Yuefu Poems.
北方有佳人 北方有佳人，绝 世而独立。 一顾倾人城，再 顾倾人国。 宁不知倾城与倾 国？ 佳人难再得！
Song of the northern beauty There is a beauty in the northern lands; Unequaled, high above the world he stands. At her first glance, soldiers would lose their town; At her second, a monarch would his crown. How could the soldiers and monarch neglect their duty? For town and crown are overshadowed by her beauty.
唧(jī)唧复唧唧，木兰当户织。不闻机 杼(zhù)声，惟闻女叹息。 问女何所思 ，问女何所忆。女亦无所思，女亦无所 忆。昨夜见军帖（tiě），可汗（kè hán）大点兵。军书十二卷，卷卷有爷 名。阿爷无大儿，木兰无长兄。愿为 (wèi)市鞍(ān)马，从此替爷征。
Alack,alas!alack,alas! She weave and sees she shuttle pass. You cannot hear the shuttle,why? Its whir is drowned in her deep sigh. “Oh,what are you thinking about?” Will you tell us? Will you speak out? “I have no worry on my mind, Nor have I grief of any kind. I read the battleroll last night; The Khan has ordered men to fight. The roll was written in twelve books; My father?s name was in the nooks. My father has no grown-up son, For elder brother I have none. I?ll buy a horse of hardy race And serve in my old father?s place.”
东市买骏马，西市买鞍鞯（jiān）， 南市买辔（pèi）头，北市买长鞭。 旦辞爷娘去，暮宿黄河边。不闻爷娘 唤女声，但闻黄河流水鸣溅溅（jiān jiān）。旦辞黄河去，暮至黑山头。 不闻爷娘唤女声，但闻燕山胡骑(jì) 鸣啾啾(jiū jiū)。
A steed with saddle fitting best; She buys a long whip north and south And metal bit for the horse?s mouth. At dawn she leaves her parents by the city wall; At dusk she reaches Yellow River shore. All night she listens for old folk?s familiar voice no more, But only hears the Yellow River?s roar. At dawn she leaves the Yellow River shore; To mountains Black she goes her way. At night she hears old folk?s familiar voice no more, But only on the north mountains Tartar horses neigh.
万里赴戎(róng)机，关山度若飞 。朔（shuò)气传金柝（tuò）， 寒光照铁衣。将军百战死，壮士 十年归。归来见天子，天子坐明 堂。策勋十二转，赏赐百千强 (qiáng)。可汗问所欲，木兰不用 尚书郎，愿驰千里足，送儿还故 乡。
For miles and miles the army march along And cross the mountain barriers as in flight. The northern wind has chilled the watchmen?s gong, Their coat of mail glistens in wintry light. In ten years they?ve lost many captains strong, But battle-hardened warriors come back on delight. Back, they have their audience with Khan in the hall, Honors and gifts are lavished on them with grace.
爷娘闻女来，出郭相扶将（jiāng）；阿姊（zǐ）闻妹来，当 户理红妆；小弟闻姊来，磨刀霍霍(huò huò）向猪羊。开我东 阁门，坐我西阁床。脱我战时袍，著（zhuó)我旧时裳。当窗理 云鬓(bìn)，对镜帖(tiē)花黄。出门看火伴，火伴皆惊惶。同 行十二年，不知木兰是女郎。 雄兔脚扑朔，雌兔眼迷离；双 兔傍(bàng)地走，安能辨我是雄雌？
Hearing that she has come, and leaning on each other Her parents come to meet her at the city gate. Her sister rouges her face and her younger brother, Sharpening knife, kills pig and sheep to celebrate. She opens the doors east and west And sits on her bed for a rest She doffs her garb worn under fire And wears again female attire Before the window she arranges her hair And in the mirror sees her image fair. Then she comes out to see her former mate, Who stares at her in amazement great: “We have marched together for twelve years, But did not know there was a lass ? mid our compeers!” Both buck and doe have lilting gait And both their eyelids palpitate When side by side two rabbits go, Who can tell the buck from the doe?
In Wei and Jin, because of the conflict all over the country, many poets preferred to travel in the country, which influenced their poems. In their poems they liked to describe the beautiful scene in their life and they showed their disgust of being an officer in the government.
The poetry in Wei and Jin
岁暮 殷忧不能寐， 苦此夜难颓。 明月照积雪， 朔风劲且哀。 运往无淹物， 年逝觉已催。
THE YEAR’S END Deep worried, I can’t fall asleep; I’m pained to see night slowly creep. The moon shines bright all over white snow; The north wind blows strong out of woe. World changed, nothing unchanged can stay; The year passed, life will pass away.
饮酒 Drinking wine 结庐在人境，而无车马喧。 In people’s haunt I build my cot;Of wheel’s and hoof’s noise I hear not. 问君何能尔？心远地自偏。 How can it leave on me no trace?Secluded heart makes secluded place. 采菊东篱下，悠然见南山。 I pick fenceside asters at will;Carefree I see the southern hill. 山气日夕佳，飞鸟相与还。 The mountain air’s fresh day and night;Together birds go home in flight. 此中有真意，欲辨已忘言。 What revelation at this view?Words fail if I ty to tell you.
1.二言——四言——五言 There are more words in each sentence. 2.记叙——抒情 At first most poems described the daily life. Gradually, poets began to write lyrics. Qu Yuan was one of the most famous poets who were good at writing lyrics.
The poem of tang dynasty
Two different forms
Lv Shi(Qi Yan) Jue Ju(Wu Yan)
Li Bai Du Fu Wang Wei Bai Ju yi
Meng Hao ran
A Reply Li Bai
I dwell among green hills and asks me why, My mind care free,I smile and give him no reply. Peach petals fallen on running water pass by, This is an earthly paradise beneath the sky.
山中问答 李白 问余何意栖碧山， 笑而不答心自闭。 桃花流水窅然去， 别有天地非人间。
Temple of the Premier of Shu Du Fu
The Premier’s Temple in the shade Of cypress woven with brocade. The steps are green with grass in spring; In vain amid leaves orioles sing. Consulted thrice on state affair, He served two reigns beyond compare. He died before he won success. Could heroes’tears not wet their dress?
杜甫 丞相祠堂何处寻?锦官城外柏森森。 映阶碧草自春色，隔叶黄鹂空好音。 三顾频频天下计，两朝开济老臣心。 出师未捷身先死，长使英雄泪满襟。
Love Seeds Wang Wei The red beans grow in southern land. How many load in spring the trees? Gather them till full is your hand; They would revive fond memories.
相思 王维 红豆生南国， 春来发几枝？ 愿君多采撷， 此物最相思。
The poem of song dynasty
Two different styles
Metaphysical Poetry and Cavalier Poetry haofang wanyue
SuShi LiQingzhao LiuYong XinQiji
Tune :“A Riverside Town” hunting at Mizhou Su Shi
Rejuvenated ,I my fiery zeal display: On left hand leash,a yellow hound, On right hand wrist,a falcon gray. A thousand silk-capped,sable-coated horsemen sweep Across the rising ground And hillocks steep. Townspeople pour from out the city gate To watch the tiger –hunting magistrate. Heart gladdened with strong wine ,who cares About a few new-frosted hairs? When will the court imperial send Me as their envoy? With flags and banners then I’ll bend My bow like a full moon,and aiming northwest,I Will shoot down the fierce Wolf from out the sky.
江城子· 密州出猎 苏轼
老夫聊发少年狂，左牵黄，右擎苍，锦 帽貂裘，千骑卷平冈。为报倾城随太守 ， 亲 射 虎 ， 看 孙 郎 。 酒酣胸胆尚开张，鬓微霜，又何妨？持 节云中，何日遣冯唐？会挽雕弓如满月 ，西北望，射天狼。
Tune :“Like A Dream” LiQingzhao Last night the wind was strong and rain was fine, Sound sleep did not dispel the taste of wine. I ask the maid who’s rolling up the screen. “The same crab-apple tree,”she says,“is seen.” “Don’t’t you know, Don’t you know The red should languish and the green must grow?”
如梦令· 昨夜雨疏风骤 李清照 昨夜雨疏风骤，浓睡不消残 酒。试问卷帘人，却道海棠 依旧。知否，知否？应是绿 肥红瘦。
韩 Han Xiao 晓 ming 明
甜水面 馄饨 （hun tun）
Air pollution eventually controlled.
The AQI in Shanghai those days was really horrible.