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ABSTRACT An empty British Oxygen Company (B.O.C.) Mk. 4 carbon dioxide absorption cannister was modified for use as a vaporizer by placing a perforated septu m and

layer of flannelette bandage over the horizontal

adding a base plate with an exit port for anaesthetic vapour. Aliquots of liquid anaesthetic were injected from a syringe through cannister and vaporised the top of the

by air drawn through the cannister. Laboratory way of administering gas supply. carrier gas have been

testing showed that this could be a useful

inhalational anaesthesia in the absence of compressed MANY EXAMPLES of apparatus employing for the vapour of a volatileanaesthetic

air as the agent

manufactured.Probably the countries is the E.M.O.

most extensively stockpiled apparatus. However,

in various may not

such systems

be readily availablewhen they are required and when improvise to describe an inhalational anaesthesia deliverysystem. the adaptationof a to remind the readily available

it is necessary to Our purpose is


of equipment differences in

as avaporizer the


anaesthetists of important

situation when The

cylinders of oxygen are not


item of equipment used as a British Oxygen Company

vaporizer wasan empty canister Mk. 4 carbon dioxide 13cm located




absorber.This is in diameter

cylindrical and and has a

placed vertically is multiperforated

18 cm high, septum

horizontally half-waydown. use as a vaporizer the



is approximately 1700 ml. For a layeror more of cotton Division, Toronto)

additions made were

bandage (Flannelette, McLeanConverting Hospital restingon the septum, and a base plate 0.5

cm thick with introduced needle

an exit port 15 mm in diameter. Liquid anaesthetic was by rapidly through injecting aliquotsfrom of the a syringe via a

22 gauge flan-

thetop The

cannister toward the

centre of the

nelette. conjunction

vaporizer was self

to be used as a

"drawover" model in and a

with a valve.

inflating resuscitation bag

non-rebreathing The using a a


of the

vaporizer was


in the

laboratory it and the

Harvard animal respirator, pump meter (Cavitron of halothane the Model

to draw air through 73) to



concentration while using


Variables of particular

interest for of


were the volume of air employed halothane injected, the number

ventilation, the


of liquid

layers of flannelette used as a through C room relative the

vaporizing surface, and


to flow

vaporizer. All experiments were done at approximately 21° barometric pressure 93.1 kPa(700 mm Hg), a of


humidity of 30 percent,and resistance not to be

employing a

respiratory rate

12/minute.The was found

to air flow for the

duration of the experiments . The delivery of

clinically significant

halothane vapour was flannelette volume effect and by

influenced the volume

by the


of layers injected hasa .

of The

of halothane

of ventilation (air on halothane

drawn throughthe , but the


marked well


concentration was

maintained for the duration of the In that discussing the this drug is

experiment. delivery system it should be stated

vaporizer design

similar in appearance to the Denis Browne

"Top Hat", though

in use it is more akin to an item familiar to World War II

anaesthetists - the Flagg can. In a review of equipment employed in the early days of anaesthesia Thomas s has described many related as the vaporizing importance. devices. As far

surface is concerned its character is of considerable

The classic experiments wereperformed by Hewitt & Symes in a double layer of flannelette offered an advantage

1912. They found over a single layer.

Most contemporary anaesthetists are unfamiliar with the

"open drop" or drug is

"rag and bottle" technique of liquid anaesthetic delivery in which the dropped on to the patient's gauze or flannelette stretched over a face, perhaps incurring a

metal frame held over

degree of rebreathing. The

frames are unlikely to be available. The technique proposed here utilizes readily available equipment and abolishes the problem of rebreathing expired gases. Though air unsupplemented by oxygen has been successfully used as a

vehicle for anaesthetic vapours for more than a century, it is a novelty many anaesthetists and justifies comment. During induction of anaesthesia arterial oxygen saturation rapidly rapidly. artificial if apnoea occurs, so tracheal intubation must


diminishes be achieved

Similarly restoration of spontaneous respiration at the termination of ventilation cannot be easily achieved without causing hypoxia.

Cole and Parkhouse anaesthesia with

have reviewed blood oxygen saturation during volatile agents including ether,trichlorethylene,

halothane, and the azeotropic halothane-ether mixture vaporized in room air.They state that emphasize inadequate. that air is a satisfactory vehicle formost patients depressed, but or

respiration must never be obstructed, view has received

Such a

qualified support from other

sources. state that when air is the diluent artificial ventilation is desirable if 95 percent oxygen saturation is to be achieved consistently; but Mushin has necessary during

stated that an inspired oxygen of 30-50 percent is

controlled respiration, Nunn has clearly indicated the need during general anaesthesia for increasing the inspired oxygen concentration above that

of atmospheric air. It appears that it is better for patients if air is supplemented with oxygen, should this be possible.In our experiments supplementing air with oxygen at a flow of 1.5 l/min provided an Flo2 of not less than 0.3 over a wide range of minute volumes。 In conclusion, an empty B.O.C. Mk. 4 carbon dioxide absorber cannister


from the mounting and with the addition of some flannelette and

a base plate with exit port can function satisfactorily as a vaporizer. However, creation of a similar vaporizer out of such other materials as may be available should be done with caution, if halogenated anaesthetic agents are to be

used, as interaction between the drug and the plastic or the metal may occur.

空英国氧气公司(B.O.C.)MK。 4 吸收二氧化碳 cannister 的修改放在水平 穿孔 septu 米的一层绒布绷带, 添加麻醉气体的出境口岸基地板作为蒸发器使用。 等分液体麻醉注射从注射器通过的 cannister 顶部,由通过的 cannister 绘制的 空气汽化。 实验室测试表明, 这可能是一个有用的方式管理中的压缩天然气供应 的情况下吸入麻醉。 已经 manufactured.Probably 储存在不同的国家最广泛的 EMO 的例子很多 设备采用空气作为载气蒸气一个 volatileanaesthetic 代理器具。然而,这样的系 统 可 能 不 容 易 availablewhen 他 们 需 要 时 , 它 是 必 要 的 即 兴 吸 入 麻 醉 deliverysystem 的。我们的目的是描述的 adaptationof 的设备一应俱全作为 avaporizer 一块,并提醒形势的重要差异麻醉师,当氧气钢瓶不可。 该项目的设备,用来作为蒸发器和算空筒从英国氧气公司(BOC)MK。 4 碳二氧化碳 absorber.This 的是垂直高 18 厘米,直径 13 厘米有 multiperforated 隔,位于水平半,waydown 的圆柱和放置。它的体积大约是 1700 毫升。喷雾 器使用为增加是 layeror, (绒布, 棉片 McLeanConverting 的医院分部, 多伦多)

restingon“隔,和一个 0.5 厘米厚的底板 退出端口直径为 15 毫米。麻醉剂液体迅速注入 aliquotsfrom 通过 22 号针头 注射器通过的 cannister thetop 朝坯中心介绍了 nelette。蒸发器是被视为一个“drawover”自我膨胀复苏袋和非再呼吸阀结合 的典范。 在实验室使用哈佛动物呼吸机, 通过它的空气和氟烷米的 (Cavitron 73 型号) 来衡量的交付氟烷的浓度绘制泵, 蒸发器的性能进行了测试。 特别感兴趣的变量, 而使用的蒸发器通风就业的空气量,液体注射氟烷的数量,作为蒸发表面使用绒 布层,耐流经蒸发器。进行了实验,在实验期间大约为 21°C 室温度,气压 93.1 千帕(700 毫米汞柱) ,相对湿度 30%,并雇用的 12/minute.The 抵抗气流的呼 吸速率被发现有临床意义。 氟烷蒸气交付绒布层的数量和氟烷注射量的影响。通 气量(空气绘制 throughthe 蒸发器)哈萨上标明氟烷交付的效果,但浓度以及 实验期间保持。 在讨论这个药物输送系统应当指出,蒸发器的设计是在外观上类似的丹尼 斯·布朗“顶帽” 但在使用它更像是一个项目熟悉的二战麻醉师 - 弗拉格可以。在 , 审查麻醉托马斯·S 的初期雇用的设备描述了许多相关的设备。至于蒸发表面而 言其特征是具有相当的重要性。 1912 年经典实验 wereperformed 的休伊特和 在 Symes。他们发现了一个双层的绒布优势提供了一个单层。 最现代的麻醉师是不熟悉的“开放式下降”或“抹布和一瓶”液体麻醉分娩技术 在其中的药物被纱布或绒布绵延超过超过病人的脸上举行 1 金属框架下降, 可能 招致一定程度的复吸。帧是不太可能提供。这里提出的技术,利用现成的设备, 并废除过期的气体复吸的问题。

虽然空气由氧气 unsupplemented 已成功地为一个多世纪的麻醉蒸气的车辆 使用,它是一种新颖许多麻醉师和辩护意见。 如果呼吸暂停发生在诱导麻醉,动脉血氧饱和度迅速减少,所以气管插管必 须迅速实现。 同样在终止人工通气恢复自主呼吸, 不能被轻易实现而不造成缺氧。 科尔和帕克豪斯审查期间血氧饱和度麻醉乙醚,三氯乙烯,氟烷等挥发性溶剂, 共沸氟烷醚混合物蒸发, 空气是一个令人满意的汽车福茂患者在的房间 air.They 状态,但强调的是呼吸,绝不能阻碍,情绪低落,或不足。这种观点已经从其他 来源收到的合格的支持。 当空气稀释剂的人工通气是可取的,如果始终是要达到 95%的氧饱和度,但 Mushin 指出 30-50%的吸入氧是必要的过程中控制呼吸, 纳恩已明确表示需要在全身麻醉的状态增加吸入氧浓度高于大气。看来,这是为 患者提供更好的空气补充氧气,这应该 possible.In 我们的实验在 1.5 升/分钟流 量的空气与氧气补充提供了超过一分钟卷的广泛不小于 0.3 Flo2 。 总之,一个空 B.O.C. MK。 4 二氧化碳吸收 cannister 删除从安装,除了一 些绒布和出境口岸底板可用作喷雾器令人满意。然而,建立一个类似的蒸发器等 其他材料可能应谨慎, 如果卤化麻醉剂被用作药物和塑料或金属可能发生之间的 相互作用, 。

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