2014 年职称英语新增文章理工 A 级，因理工 A 级阅读理解无新增文章，附理工 B 级阅读理 解、综合 A 类阅读理解新增文章及综合 A 级概括段落大意，仅供参考，祝考试成功！ 一、阅读判断 第十一篇：Bill Gates: Unleashing Your Creativity（A 级） Bill Gates: Unleashing Your Creativity I'
;ve always been an optimist and I suppose it is rooted in my belief that the power of creativity and intelligence can make the word a better place. For as long as I can remember, I've loved learning new things and solving problems. So when I sat down at a computer for the first time in seventh grade, I was hooked. It was a clunky old teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers we have today. But it changed my life. When my friend Paul Allen and I started Microsoft 30 years ago, we had a vision of "a computer on every desk and in every home", which probably sounded a little too optimistic at a time when most computers were the size of refrigerators. But we believed that personal computers would change the world. And they have. And after 30 years, I'm still as inspired by computers as I was back in seventh grade. I believe that computers are the most incredible tool we can use to feed our curiosity and inventiveness -- to help us solve problems that even the smartest people couldn't solve on their own. Computers have transformed how we learn, giving kids everywhere a window into all of the world's knowledge. They're helping us build communities around the things we care about and to stay close to the people who are important to us, no matter where they are. Like my friend Warren Buffett, I feel particularly lucky to do something every day that I love to do. He calls it "tap-dancing to Work". My job at Microsoft is as challenging as ever, but what makes me "tap-danceing to work" is when we show people something new, like a computer that can recognize your handwriting or your speech, or one that can store a lifetime's worth of photos, and they say, "I didn't know you could do that with a PC5 !" But for all the cool things that a person can do with a PC, there are lots of other ways we can put our creativity and intelligence to work to improve our world6. There are still far too many people in the world whose most basic
needs go unmet7. Every year, for example, millions of people die from diseases that are easy to prevent or treat in the developed world. I believe that my own good fortune brings with it a responsibility to give back to the world. My wife, Melinda, and I have committed to improving health and education in a way that can help as many people as possible. As a father, I believe that the death of a child in Africa is no less poignant or tragic than9 the death of a child anywhere else, and that it doesn't take much to make an immense difference in these children's lives. I'm still very much an optimist, and I believe that progress on even the world's toughest problems is possible -- and it's happening every day. We're seeing new drugs for deadly diseases, new diagnostic tools, and new attention paid to the health problems in the developing world. I'm excited by the possibilities I see for medicine, for education and, of course, for technology. And I believe that through our natural inventiveness, creativity and willingness to solve tough problems, we're going to make some amazing achievements in all these areas in my lifetime. 词汇： unleash vt．解开；放纵；使自由 optimist n．乐观主义者 clunky (clonky) adj．发出沉闷金属声的 inventiveness n.发明创造的能力 字机 poignant adj．令人悲痛的，可怜的 vision n．想象；幻想；美景 注释： 1.be rooted in：扎根于;深深地存在于 2.It was a clunky old teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers we have today.那是一台笨重的旧式电传打字机，跟我们今 天的电脑相比几乎干不了什么事。本句中，barely 意为 almost not;compare to 在美国英 语中也可以等同于 compare with (与??相比)。 3.They’re helping US build communities around the things we care about and to stay close to the people who are important to US，no matter where they are. 电脑帮助我们就我们所关心的事情建立一个交流的场所，并且与那些我们认为对我们有重 要意义的人密切相处，不管他们身在何处。care about 指不管喜欢或不喜欢的事情都很关 心、介意、在乎、计较。 4.“tap—dancing to work”：“跳着踢踏舞工作”。tap 原意是“叩击、轻 敲”;tap dance 是“踢踏舞”。这里实际意思是“(手指)轻轻敲击键盘的工作”。
inspire vt．鼓舞 incredible adj．难以置信的 curiosity n．好奇心 teletype (teletype-writer) n.电传打 tragic adj．悲剧的，悲惨的 immense adj．巨大的
5.PC(personal computer)：个人计算机 6.But for all the cool things that a person can do with a PC，there are lots of other ways wecan put our creativity and intelligence to work to improve our world.除了我们能用计算机做的所有神奇的事情，还有很多其他方式发挥我们的创造 力和智慧，从而使世界更加美好。 7.go unmet：得不到满足。在这里 go 是系动词，unmet 是过去分词作表语： 8.commit to 此处意为承诺，保证做某事。 9.no less?than：和??一样，不亚于?? 10.and that it doesn’t take much to make an immense difference in these children’S lives.而且要改善这些孩子们的命运，其实不难。此处 it 是形式主语，真正 的主语是不定式短语 to make an immense difference in these children’S lives。 练习： 1. A computer was as big as an icebox when Bill Gates was a high school student. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 2. Bill Gates has been dreaming of the popularity of computers for his lifetime. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 3. Bill Gates compares his hard work on a PC to "tap-dancing to work". A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 4. To Bill Gates' mind, there is a big difference between the death of the poor's children and the death of the rich's children. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 5. So far Bill Gates has contributed several dozen billion dollars to the charities. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 6. Bill Gates and his wife consider it their duty to help the poor better their health and education as much as possible. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 7. Bill Gates will leave only a small portion of his wealth for his children. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 答案与题解： 1.A 文章第三段中比尔?盖茨说，当他念七年级时，电脑就是冰箱那么大小。
2.A 文章第三段比尔?盖茨说，他 30 年前与 Paul Allen 一起创办微软公司时就梦想一 桌一机、一户一机，而且从其他各段也可以看到他对电脑有很多的期待。 3.B 从第七段第二句可以看到作这样比较的是他的朋友 Warren Buffett，而不是他自 己。 4.B 在倒数第三段，比尔?盖茨已经明确说，所有这些儿童的死亡都一样令人伤心和悲 痛，没有什么区别。 5.c 文章没有提到他给慈善机构捐款的事。 6.A 倒数第四段比尔?盖茨认为他一生好运，就理应回报社会，所以他和他的妻子做出 了承诺，要帮助尽可能多的人改善医疗和教育条件。 7.C 文章没有提到。
译文：第十一篇比尔·盖茨：发挥你的创造力 我一直是个乐观主义者，我想这是因为我深信创造力和智慧能使世界变得更美好。在 我的记忆中，我喜欢学习新东西、解决难题。所以当我七年级时第一次坐在电脑前时，我 立刻被吸引住类。那是一台笨重的旧式电传打字机，跟我们今天的电脑相比几乎什么事都 不能做。但是它却改变我的一生。 30 年前我和朋友保罗·艾伦创办微软的时候，我们预见到一个“每个办公桌和每个家 庭都会有一台电脑”的时代。在那个计算机像冰箱一样大的时代，这听起来也许太乐观了 一点。但是我们相信个人计算机会改变世界。而它们真的做到了。 30 年后的今天，计算机仍然会激发我的热情，好像我又回到了七年级的年代。我认为 计算机是能满足我们的好奇心，激发我们创造精神的最神奇的工具，它能帮助我们解决最 聪明的人都不能独自解决的问题。 计算机改变了我们的学习方式，为世界各地的孩子们提供了一个学习各种知识的窗 口。它帮助我们就我们所关心的事情建立一个交流的场所，并且与那些我们认为对我们有 重要意义的人密切相处，不管他们身在何处。 和我的朋友沃伦·巴菲特一样，我每天都在做着自己喜欢做的事，对此我感到非常幸 运。他说这就像是“跳着踢踏舞工作”。我在微软的工作一直非常具有挑战性，而当我们 向人们展示我们的新成果( 比如计算机能识别手写体或语言，或者能储存一生的珍贵照片) 人们说没想到你们能用个人计算机做出这样的成就时，那感觉的确像是“跳着踢踏舞工 作”。 除了我们能用计算机做的所有神奇的事情，还有很多其他方式发挥我们的创造力和智 慧，从而使世界更加美好。这个世界上还有很多的人基本需求都得不到满足。例如，每年 都有成千上万的人死于疾病，而这些疾病在发达国家是能轻而易举得到控制或治疗的。 我认为拥有财富的同时我有责任回报世界。所以，我和妻子梅林达承诺推进健康与教 育事业，以帮助尽可能多的人。 作为一位父亲，我相信一个非洲儿童的夭折和其他地方孩子的夭折一样令人心酸和悲 痛。而要改善这些孩子们的命运，其实不难。 如今，我仍然是一个乐观主义者，我仍然相信即使是世界上最棘手的问题，也一样能 得到改善——的确，世界每天都在进步。我们看到治疗致命疾病的新药物和新诊断工具出 现，看到人们更多关注发展中国家的健康问题。
医疗、教育和科技发展的美好前景使我激动万分。我坚信，以我们与生俱来的发明精 神、创造力和乐于解决棘手问题的精神动力，我们一定能在这些领域做出惊人的成绩。我 希望我能亲眼见到这些成绩。
第十四篇：Stage Fright（A 级） Fall down as you come onstage. That's an odd trick. Not recommended. But it saved the pianist Vladimir Feltsman when he was a teenager back in Moscow. The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of preperformance panic,Mr. Feltsman said, "All my fright was gone. I already fell. What else could happen?" Today, music schools are addressing the problem of anxiety in classes that deal with performance techniques and career preparation. There are a variety of strategies that musicians can learn to fight stage fright and its symptoms:icy fingers, shaky limbs ,racing heart,blank mind. Teachers and psychologists offer wide-ranging advice, from basics learning pieces inside out, to mental discipline, such as visualizing performance and taking steps to relax. Don't deny that you're jittery urge; some excitement is natural, even necessary for dynamic playing. in public often, simply for the experience. like a ,they And play
Psychotherapist Diane Nichols suggests' some strategies for the moments before performance, "Take two deep abdominal breaths, open up your shoulders, then smile," she says. "And not one of these 'please don't kill me' smiles. Then choose three friendly faces in the audience, people you would communicate with and make music to, and make eye contact with them. " She doesn't want performers to think of the audience as a judge. Extreme demands by mentors or parents are often at the root of stage fright, says Dorothy Delay, a well-known violin teacher. She tells other teachers to demand only what their students are able to achieve. . When Lynn Harrell was 20, he became the principal cellist of the Cleverland Orchestra, and he suffered extreme stage fright. "There were times when I got so nervous I was sure the audience could see my chest responding to the throbbing. It was just total panic. I came to a point where I thought, ' If I have to go through this to play music, I think I' m going to look for another job. Recovery, he said, involved developing humility-recognizing that whatever his talent, he was fallible, and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster. 6
It is not only young artists who suffer, of course. The legendary pianist Vladimir Horowitz's nerves were famous. The great tenor Franco Corelli is another example. "They had to push him on stage," Soprano Renata Scotto recalled. Actually, success can make things worse. "In the beginning of your career,when you're scared to death, nobody knows who you are, and they don't have any expectations," Soprano June Anderson said. "There's less to lose. Later on, when you're known, p.eople are coming to see you, and they have certain expectations. You have a lot to lose. " Anderson added, "I never stop being nervous until I've sung my last note. "
词汇： veteran adj．经验丰富的 mentor n．指导者 cellist n．大提琴演奏家 fallible adj．易犯错误的 注释：
jittery adj．紧张不安的 soprano n．女高音；女高音歌手 abdominal adj．腹部的 tenor n．男高音
1.Stage Fright：怯场 2.The veteran cellist Mstislav Rostropovich tripped him purposely to cure him of pre—performance panic.资深大提琴家 Mstislav Rostropovich 故意把 Vladimir Feltsman 绊倒，因而治愈了他的上台前的恐惧症。cure somebody of something(illness，problem)：医治好病(解决问题)。 3.?its symptoms：icy fingers，shaky limbs，racing heart，blank mind：怯场 的症状有：手指冰凉、四肢发抖、心跳加速、大脑一片空白。 4.Teachers and psychologists offer wide? ranging advice，from basics like learning pieces inside out?：老师和心理学家提出了方方面面的建议，从基础的做 法，比如，将演奏曲目烂熟于心??inside out：in great detail(详细的，从里到外的) 5.I came to a point where I thought，‘If I have to go through this to play music，I think l’m goingto look for anotherjob.’我曾经一度认为，如果演出要经 历这种慌乱，我宁可另找一份工作。 6.Recovery，he said，involved developing humility——recognizing that whatever his talent，he wasfallible，and that an imperfect concert was not a disaster.要克服怯场，就要学会谦虚，即认识到 不论自己有多大的才能，都可能犯错误; 一场音乐会即使有不完美的地方，也不是要命的事情。 练习： 1. Falling down onstage was not a good way for Vladimir Feltsman to deal with his stage fright.
C Not mentioned
2. There are many signs of stage fright. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 3. Teachers and psychologists cannot help people with extreme stage fright. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 4. To perform well on stage, you need to have some feelings of excitement. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 5. If you have stage fright, it's helpful to have friendly audience. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 6. Often people have stage fright because parents or teachers expect too much of them. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 7. Famous musicians never suffer from stage fright. A Right B Wrong C Not mentioned 答案与题解： 1.B 本文第一段讲的是钢琴家 Vladimir Feltsman 被 Mstislav Rostropovich 绊倒 后，他的怯场被治愈了的经历。 2.A 第二段的最后一句点出怯场的诸多症状：手指冰凉、四肢发抖、心跳加速、大脑 一片空白。 3.B 本文的第三、第四、第五和第六段都在讲老师和心理学家为怯场者提供全方位的 建议。 4.A 依据第三段的倒数第二句：some excitement is natural，even necessary for dynamic playing.(适度的兴奋对于精彩演出是正常甚至是必要的) 5.c 第四段提到克服怯场的方法之一是：在观众中选择三名比较友善的人，与他们做 眼神交流。所以克服怯场要靠自己而不是指望所有的观众都友好。 6.A 第五段讲了怯场的根源在于导师或父母对表演者要求太高。Extreme demands 就是 expect too much of them 的意思。 7.B 第七段讲的是：不只年轻艺术家会怯场，钢琴家 Vladimir Horowitz 和男高音 Franco Corelli 亦不能幸免。Never 一词不恰当。 译文：如何避免怯场 上台就跌倒。这是个奇特的办法！但不推荐。可它确实拯救了钢琴家弗拉基米尔·菲 兹曼，那个时候他才十几岁，正在莫斯科表演。资深大提琴手米提斯拉夫·罗斯特罗波维 奇故意在他上台前将他绊倒，帮助他摆脱上台前的恐慌。菲兹曼先生说：“所有的害怕都 烟消云散类。我已经摔倒了，还有比这更糟糕的吗？” 如今，音乐学校都在课堂中强调焦虑问题，因为这是讲授表演技巧和打好表演基础的 课程。怯场有很多表现，比如手指冰冷、四肢发抖、心跳加速、大脑一片空白，音乐家们 可以学着用许多多应变策略应对这些问题。
教师和心理学家给出了许多建议，从基础的做法，比如将演奏曲目烂熟于心，到精神 训练，比如想象演出场景，有步骤地进行放松等。他们强调，不要掩饰你的紧张感，适度 的兴奋对于精彩演出是正当甚至是必要的。为了积累经验，要常在公众场合演出。 黛安·尼克尔斯是一名心理治疗师，她给出了一些上台前的建议：“做两次深度的腹 式呼吸，扩胸，然后微笑，注意不是那种仿佛央求对方不要杀你的微笑，而是友好的微 笑。从观众中选出三名比较友善的人，这些是你愿意与之交流并为之演奏的人，并与他们 做眼神接触。”她不想让演奏者将观众当成是法官。 多萝西·德雷是一名著名小提琴教师，她认为来自导师和父母的苛刻要求常常是怯场 的根源。她告诉其他教师，对学生的要求要以学生本身所能达到的水平为基础。 林·哈雷尔 20 岁的时候成为克利夫兰管弦乐队的首席大提琴手，但是他怯场非常严 重。他说：“有时候我非常紧张，我甚至能肯定，观众一定能看到我的胸口随着心跳而搏 动，简直变成了慌乱。”后来我竟然到了这个地步，我想“如果演出要经历这种慌乱，我 宁可另找一份工作。”他说要克服怯场要谦虚，要认识到，不论自己有多大的才能，都可 能犯错误，一场音乐会即使有不完美的地方，也不是灾难。 当然，并不只有年轻人才会怯场。具有传奇色彩的钢琴家弗拉基米尔·霍洛维茨的敏 感神经同样尽人皆知。另一个例子是著名男高音弗朗科·科莱里，女高音蕾娜塔·思科多 这样形容他：“必须得有人推着他才肯上台。” 实际上，成名之后情况可能会变得更糟。“刚开始的时候，即使你怕得要死，也没有 人知道你是谁，因为对你不抱有多大期望。”女高音琼·安德森说道，“你不会有任何损 失。但你成名以后，人们专程来看你的表演，那时他们一定是满怀期待而来，这样，你损 失的东西就多了。” 安德森还说：“直到唱完最后一个音符之前，我一直都会紧张。” 二、阅读理解 第 29 篇：I'll Be Bach（B 级） I'll Be Bach Composer David Cope is the inventor of a computer program that writes original works of classical music. It took Cope 30 years to develop the software. Now most people can't tell the difference between music by the famous German composer J. S. Bach (1685-1750) and the Bach-like compositions from Cope's computer. It all started in 1980 in the United States, when Cope was trying to write an opera. He was having trouble thinking of new melodies, so he wrote a computer program to create the melodies. At first this music was not easy to listen to. What did Cope do? He began to rethink how human beings compose music. He realized that composers' brains work like big databases. First, they take in all the music that they have ever heard. Then they take out the music that they dislike. Finally, they make new music from what is left. According to Cope, only the great composers are able to create the database accurately, remember it, and form new musical patterns from it.
Cope built a huge database of existing music. He began with hundreds of works by Bach. The software analyzed the data: it broke it down into smaller pieces and looked for patterns. It then combined the pieces into new patterns; Before long,the program could compose short Bach-like works. They weren't good, but it was a start. Cope knew he had more work todo-he had a whole opera to write. He continued to improve the software. Soon it could analyze more. complex music. He also added many other composers, including his own work, to the database., A few years later, Cope's computer program, called "Emmy", was ready to help him with his opera. The process required a lot of collaboration between the composer and Emmy. Cope listened to the computer's musical ideas and used the ones that he liked. With Emmy, the opera took only two weeks to finish. It was called Cradle Falling, and it was a great success! Cope received some of the best reviews of his career, but no one knew exactly how he had composed the work. Since that first opera, Emmy has written thousands of compositions. Cope still gives Emmy feedback on what he likes and doesn't like of her music ,but she is doing most of the hard work of composing these days! 词汇： original adj．有独创性的 review n．评论
collaboration n．合作 feedback n．反馈
注释： 1.J.S.Bach：约翰?塞巴斯蒂安?巴赫(德语：Johann Sebastian Bach，1685 年 3 月 31 日--1750 年 7 月 28 日)，巴洛克时期的德国作曲家，杰出的管风琴、小提琴、大键琴演奏 家，同作曲家亨德尔和泰勒曼齐名。巴赫被普遍认为是音乐史上最重要的作曲家之一，并 被尊称为“西方‘现代音乐’之父”，也是西方文化史上最重要的人物之一。 练习： l. The music composed by David cope is about A classical music. B pop music. C drama.
D country music.
2. By developing a computer software, David Cope aimed A to be like Bach. B to study Bach. C to write an opera. D to create a musical database 3. What did Cope realize about a great composer's brain? A It forms new musical patterns all by itself. B It writes a computer program. C It can recognize any music patterns.
D It creates an accurate database. 4. Who is Emmy? A a database C a composer who helped David
B a computer software D an opera
5. We can infer from the passage that A David Cope is a computer programmer. B David Cope loves music. C Bach's music helped him a lot. D Emmy did much more work than a composer. 答案与题解： 1.A 第一段的第一句：David Cope 发明了一个可以编写出古典音乐的电脑软件。 2.c 从第二段的第一句可以看出，David 编写电脑软件的目的是写歌剧。A、B 和 D 都 属于创作歌剧的一部分。 3.D 第二段的后半部分讲的是伟大的歌剧作者与一般的歌剧作者的不同之处是通过对 数据进行准确的构建、记忆而后创作出新的音乐形式。 4.B 从第五段第一句可知 Emmy 是一计算机软件。 ’ 5.D 从本文第一句可知 David 是一个作曲家，不是计算机程序员，所以排除 A;B、C 内 容没有提及;从本文的第五段和第六段可知，Emmy 大大提高了 David 的创作速度，最后一 句，大部分困难的工作都由 Emmy 来做，所以作曲家只干一小部分工作。
译文：我也能成为巴赫 作曲家大卫·科普发明了一个电脑软件，它能写出古典音乐的原创作品。科普花了 30 年才完成这个软件，现在科普的电脑写出的作品与德国注明作曲家 J.S.巴赫写的作品很相 似，很少有人能分辨出其中的不同。 这一切始于 1980 年的美国，那时科普正在写一部戏剧，但是他无法创作出新的旋律， 于是他编写了一个电脑软件来帮他编曲。最开始的时候，软件写出的乐曲并不动听。科普 是怎么做的呢？他开始重新考虑人们作曲的方式。他认识到作曲家的大脑就像一个大数据 库，他们先是吸收他们听过的所有音乐，然后去除他们不喜欢的，最后再根据留下的音乐 来创作出新的旋律。科普认为，只有伟大的作曲家才能建立好数据库，并能熟记于心，从 而创造出新的音乐。 科普根据现有的音乐建立了庞大的数据库，最开始的时候，数据库包含了几百部巴赫 的作品。科普的软件将这些数据进行分析：首先它将音乐拆解成小的片段，从中找出固定 模式，然后将片段组合成新的模式。不久，这个软件就能够写出和巴赫风格很像的小曲 子。它们并不完美，但这只是个开始。 科普知道，他要做的还有很多——他得写出一整部歌剧。他进一步完善他的软件，不 久他就能够写出更复杂的音乐了。他还在数据库中加入了一些其他作曲家的作品，其中也 包括他自己的作品。
几年后，科普的软件“艾米”已经能够帮助他创作歌剧了。创作过程需要作曲家和艾 米共同配合。科普聆听艾米写出的音乐片段，从中选取他认为好的。有了艾米的帮助，科 普只用了两个星期就完成这部歌剧，叫做《摇篮坠落》。演出获得巨大成功，科普也得到 了他有生以来最高的评价，但是没有人知道他究竟是怎样创作出这部歌剧的。 从那以后，艾米已经写了上千部作品。科普现在依然会给艾米反馈，告诉她自己哪些 音乐是他喜欢的，哪些是不喜欢的，但是现在大部分艰巨的工作是由艾米来完成的。
三、补全短文 第十五篇：A Memory Drug?(A 级) A Memory Drug? It’s difficult to imagine many things that people would welcome more than a memory- enhancing drug. 1 Furthermore, such a drug could help people remember past experiences more clearly and help us acquire new information more easily for school and at work. As scientists learn more about memory, we are closing in on this tantalizing goal. 1 __________ Some of the most exciting evidence comes from research that has built on earlier finding,, linking LTP2 and memory to identify a gene that improves memory in mice. 2 __________ Mice bred to have extra copies of this gene showed more activity in their NMDA receptors, more LTP, and improved performance on several different memory tasks -- learning a spatial layout3, recognizing familiar objects, and recalling a fear-inducing shock. If these basic insights about genes, LTP, and the synaptic basis of memory can be translated to people- and that remains to be seen -- they could pave the way for memory-enhancing treatments. 3__________ As exciting as this may sound, it also raises troubling issues. Consider the potential educational implications of memory-enhancing drugs. If memory enhancers were available, children who used them might be able to acquire and retain extraordinary amounts of information, allowing them to progress far more rapidly in school than they could otherwise. How well could the brain handle such an onslaught of information? What happens to children who don't have access to the latest memory enhancers? Are they left behind in school -- and as a result handicapped later in life? 4__________ Imagine that you are applying for a job that requires a good memory, such as a manager at a technology company or a sales position that requires remembering customers' names as well as the attributes of different products and services. Would you take a memory-enhancing drug to increase your chances of landing the position? Would people who felt uncomfortable taking such a drug find themselves cut out of lucrative career opportunities?
Memory drugs might also help take the sting out of disturbing memories that we wish we could forget but can't. The 2004 hit movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind told the story of a young man seeking just such freedom from the painful memories of a romantic breakup. As you will see in the section on persistence later in the chapter, emotionally arousing events often create intrusive memories, and researchers have already muted emotional memories with drugs that block the action of key hormones. Should emergency workers who must confront horrifying accident scenes that can burden them with persisting memories be provided with such drugs? Should such drugs be given to rape victims who can't forget the trauma? Memory drugs might provide some relief to such individuals. But could they also interfere with an individual's ability to assimilate and come to terms with a difficult experience? 5 __________ 注释： 1.As scientists learn more about memory，we are closing in on this tantalizing goal.随着科学家们对记忆了解增多，我们正接近这一诱人的目标。 2.LTP&NMDA：(Lon9—term Potentiation)给突触前纤维一个短暂的高频刺激后，突触 传递效率和强度增加几倍且能持续数小时至几天保持这种增强的现象。LTP 发现海马 LTP 可能是学习记忆的分子基础。1973 年 Bliss 及其合作者，电刺激麻醉兔的内嗅皮层，使海 马表层的穿通纤维兴奋，可在齿状回记录到场电位。先用高频电刺激几秒钟后，再用单个 电刺激，记录到的部分场电位幅度大大超过原先记录的对照值,并可持续几小时，几天。这 一现象称为长时程增强效应(LTP)。1983 年发现 NMDA(N 一甲基一 D 一门冬氨酸)受体通道 复合体在 LTP 过程中起重要作用，进一步深化了对 LTP 在大脑学习记忆中作用的理解。 3.a spatial layout：空间布局 4.Memory drugs might also help take the sting out of disturbing memories that we wish we could forget but Can’t：增强记忆药对我们想忘记却又不能的令人烦 扰的记忆变得令人易于接受。take the sting out of：使??易于被接受;使??令人感 到愉快 5.But could they also interfere with an individual’S ability to assimilate and come to terms with a difficult experience?中的 come to terms with：让步;屈 服 练习： A Like steroids for bulking up the muscles,these drugs would bulk up memory. B A memory enhancer could help eliminate forgetting associated with aging and disease. C What are the potential implications of memory-enhancing drugs for the workplace? D We may find ourselves struggling with these kinds of questions in the not-too-distant future. E There is a pill that you could take every day to allow you to remember everything.
F The gene makes a protein that assists the NMDA2 receptor, which plays an important role in long-term memory by helping to initiate LTP. 答案与题解： 1.B 依据上一句的“很难想象一种提高人们记忆力的药会受到人们吹捧”;下面应该对 这一现象做出解释，即这种药物有什么疗效;而后一句的 Furthermore 这一指示词起到了递 进的作用，进一步说明这种药物的益处。More than：非常，极其，十分 2.F 前一句的关键词是 gene、LTP 和 mice，它讲的是有些令人兴奋的证据是从研究中 得出的;该研究基于早期连接 LTP 和记忆的发现，该结果确定了提高老鼠记忆的基因;而后 一句进一步阐述这一发现，开头的 mice 可以是一个连接词。 3.A 前一句讲：如果这种结果用于人类的话，人们就有可能把提高人的记忆力用于临 床。这一句讲：就像类固醇用于提高人的肌肉能力，这种药物也可以提高人的记忆力。 4.C 一般情况下，每一段的第一句都是本段的主题句。而该句是一个问句：这种提高 记忆力的药物用于职场有什么潜在的启示呢?紧接着本段其余几句都提出关于这种药物是否 会职场的提升有什么影响的问题。 5.D 本句是全文的最后一句。应该是总结性的。鉴于前面都列举了这种提高记忆力的 药所面临的一系列问题，所以，我们在不久的将来要面临这些问题。 译文：第十五篇记忆药物？ 很难想象还有比能增强记忆力的药物更受人们欢迎的东西了。增强记忆的药物能让人 消除因变老和疾病造成的遗忘。而且这种药物能够帮助人们更加清晰地记起过去的经历， 更容易地在学习和工作中获取新信息。随着科学家对记忆了解增多，我们正在接近这一诱 人的目标。 一些最激动人心的证据来自于一项研究，这项研究是基于早期通过将 LTP 和记忆连接 起来识别老鼠中能提升记忆力的基因所得到的发现。这种基因能够制造一种辅助 NMDA 受体 的蛋白质，这个受体通过帮助启动 LTP 而在长期记忆中起到重要作用。被喂养这种基因复 制品的老鼠的 NMDA 受体表现得更活跃，具有更多的 LTP，在许多不同的记忆实践中有更好 的表现——学习空间布置，辨认熟悉物品，回忆起引起惊吓的冲击。 如果这些有关记忆基因、LTP 的基本认识和记忆的突触原理能够转用到人身上去—— 那还有待观察——那么它们就为增强记忆的治疗铺平道路。就像类固醇可以强壮肌肉，这 些药物可以增强记忆。尽管听起来令人激动，它们也会引起令人苦恼的问题。考虑一下增 强记忆的药物潜在的教育影响，如果记忆增强剂能够实现，使用它们的孩子就有可能获取 并记住大量的信息，在学校里就比不用药物要进步更快。大脑对这些汹涌而来的信息能处 理得多好？无法得到最新记忆增强剂的孩子该怎么办？他们在学校中就会落在后面，以后 的人生就有残缺吗？ 增强记忆的药物在职场潜在的影响又是什么？想象一下你正申请一个需要记忆力好的 工作，比如一家科技公司的经理或需要记住顾客名字以及不同产品和服务特征的销售岗 位。你会服用增强记忆的药物来增加你得到职位的概率吗？服用这种药物感到不舒服的人 会失去获利颇丰的工作机会吗？ 记忆药物使我们想忘记却又不能忘记的令人烦扰的记忆变得令人易于接受。2004 年的 卖座电影《美丽心灵的永恒阳光》讲述的是一个年轻人找寻能够摆脱爱情破裂的痛苦记忆 方法的故事。正如你会在后面的情节中看到有关坚持不懈的那部分，从情感上唤起的事件 经常能够形成令人烦恼的记忆，并且研究者已经用阻挡主要荷尔蒙活动的药物消除了情感 的记忆。应该给那些必须直面恐怖的事故现场并且被相关记忆烦扰的急救人员提供这类药
物吗？应该给那些不能忘记创伤的被强奸的受害者服用这些药物吗？记忆药物可能会给这 些人带来一丝慰藉，但它们也会干扰一个人吸收消化的能力，以及对困境妥协让步的能力 吗？在不久的将来，我们可能会发现自己在与这类问题做斗争。
综合 A 类阅读理解新增文章 第 36 篇:Life as a Movie Extra（A 级） Life as a Movie Extra Ordinary people have always been attracted to the world of movies and movie stars. One way to get closer to this world is to become a movie extra. Although you have seen movie extras, you may not have paid attention to them. Extras are the people seated at tables in a restaurant while the two main actors are in conversation. They are the guests at the wedding of the main characters. They are the people crossing the street while “the bad guy" is being chased by the police. Extras don’t normally speak any lines, but they help make the scenes look real1. Being a movie extra might seem like a lot of fun. You get to see what life is like behind the scenes. But don’t forget that being an extra is really a job, and it’s mostly about doing nothing. First-time extras are often shocked to learn how slow the process of movie making is. In a finished movie, the action may move quickly. But it can sometimes take a whole day to shoot a scene that appears for just a few minutes on the screen. The main requirement for being an extra is the ability to wait. You may report to work at 5 or 6 a. m.，and then you wait until the director is ready for your scene. This could take several hours. Then there may be technical problems, and you have to wait some more. After the director says “action”and you do the first “take”，you may have to do it again if he or she is not satisfied with the scene. In fact, you may have to do the same scene over and over again. You could be on the set for hours, sometimes waiting outdoors in very hot or cold weather.2 You may not be finished until 11 p. m. or midnight. The pay isn’t good, either — often only a little bit above minimum wage. And you must pay the agent who gets you the job a commission of about 10 percent. So who would want to be a movie extra? In spite of the long hours and low pay, many people still apply for the job. Some people truly enjoy the work. They like being on a movie set, and they enjoy the companionship of their fellow extras. Most of them have flexible schedules, which allow them to be available.3They may be students, waiters, homemakers, retired people, or unemployed actors. Some unemployed actors hope the work will help them get real acting jobs, but it doesn’t happen often. Most people in the movie industry make a sharp distinction between extras and actors, so extras are not usually considered for large parts.
The next time you see a movie，don’t just watch the stars. Take a closer look at the people in the background, and ask yourself : Who are they? Why are they there? What else do they do in life? Maybe there is someone in the crowd who is just like you. 词汇： movie extra 群众演员 shoot vt.拍摄 commission n.佣金
注释： 1.Extras don’t normally speak any lines, but they help make the scenes look real.：虽然群众演员通常没有台词，但他们的存在使整个场景更加逼真。 2.You could be on the set for hours，sometimes waiting outdoors in very hot or cold weather.：在拍摄现场，你可能一演就是几个小时，有时还要一直待在很热或很 冷的环境中。on the set：在拍摄现场。 3.Most of them have flexible schedules, which allow them to be available.： 这些人中大部分都是时间比较灵活的人，这样他们就能腾出时间来演戏。 练习： 1.What is true about movie extras? A) Only agents get them jobs in movies. B) They often have to wait around on movie sets and do nothing. C) It’s a good way to get a real acting job. D) They can have drinks in a restaurant. 2.What might surprise movie extras the first time they do the job? A) It can take hours to do a scene that is only a few minutes long in the movie. B) They always do the same scene many times. C) The actors are interested in talking to them. D) The action moves very quickly. 3.Why do A) They B) They C) They D) They most people work as movie extras? like meeting famous movie stars. think they will become famous. want to be on a movie set. will get real acting jobs.
4.What are the job requirements for being a movie extra? A) You have to have a part-time job. B) You must be attractive.
C) You must be willing to repeat a scene many times. D) You must start working very early. 5.It can be inferred from the passage that . A) being a movie extra can be boring B) movie extras need acting experience C) movie extras can play larger parts D) movie actors are quite different from actors 答案与题解： 1.B 本文的第三段详细叙述了群众演员的主要工作要求是在拍摄现场等，不用做事， 所以答案为 B;第一段中描述了群众演员的工作;他们是演员的陪衬，不用讲话。虽然提到 他们是在餐馆里，但并没有提是否可以喝饮料，所以 D 可以排除;A 中的 only —词太笼 统，所以 A 不对;从第四段可以看出，从群众演员到演员的转型是相当困难的，所以 C 也不 对。 2.A 第二段中说明了令初做群众演员感到吃惊的是：拍一个场景需要一整天，而播放 时只有几分钟。虽然 B、D 都有所提及，但不是令他们吃惊的事情。 3.C 虽然做群众演员耗时长而薪酬低，但他们为什么还选择这一工作呢?答案在第四 段：他们喜欢这份工作，愿意与别的群众演员交流，他们自己的工作时间有弹性。A 没有 提到，B、D 不太可能。 4.C 做群众演员的条件是什么?在第三段和第四段，我们可知：要有耐心(长时间等 待，一个场景有时要拍好多次)，要肯吃苦(在恶劣的户外环境中拍戏)，报酬低，工作时间 有弹性。A、B 没有提到;在第三段的第二句提到：You may report to work at 5 or 6 a. m.，表明只是有时会很早开始工作，不是每日必须的，所以 D 不对。 5.A 从本文对群众演员的工作描述我们可以看出，群众演员只是演员的道具，所以是 乏味的。B 没有提到;据第四段的最后一句，C 不对;第四段的最后一句清楚表明，群众演员 和真正的演员差别很大，所以不是得出的推论，推论是通过字里行间推出来的，不是给出 的陈述。
综合 A 类新增文章概括大意 第 13 篇：Ward off Travel Bugs（A 级） Ward off Travel Bugs 1 As the holiday season approaches, so does the prospect of jet lag, an upset stomach or sunburn2. With care and some help from natural sources, however, it is quite possible to avoid these problems. 2 You can start to prepare a couple of poisoning will make any holiday miserable, lactobacillus and bifidobacteria3, you can to4 poisoning brought on5 by food or water weeks before you leave. Food but by taking some medicine such as reduce the likelihood of succumbing tainted with unfamiliar bacteria.
3 By improving the bacteria balance in your digestive tract, you crowd out the pathogenic bacteria and stop them gaining a foothold.6 The beneficial bacteria also produce gentle but effective natural antibiotics in your gut. 4 In many holiday locations you need to remember the basics: drink bottled water, avoid undercooked meat and ensure that food hygiene is adequate. If you do succumb to food poisoning, drink plenty of water to stay hydrated and see a doctor. However，if you detect diarrhea early enough, you might like to try taking about 10 or 15 pancreatic digestive enzymes, which can digest the multiplying bacteria before they take over. 5 Taking a teaspoon of silicol gel7 can also help. This lines the stomach and upper intestinal area and binds with bacteria and viruses，allowing them to be safely passed out of the gut. When you pack, include grapefruit-seed extract8, which is an excellent all-round anti-bacterial, anti- parasitic， anti-viral and anti-fungal agent. 6 Your flight can also be made more pleasant. Peppermint oil and ginger capsules9 ward off motion sickness，but a more delicious option is to nibble on crystallized ginger. If you tend to get earache on take-off and landing，you can use special earplugs with filler that slows down the rate of change in air pressure. 7 The greatest concern is “economy class syndrome”, the popular name for deep-vein thrombosis, which can lead to blood clots traveling from the legs to the lungs, heart or brain. To reduce this, you need a couple of hours to stay hydrated, and avoid alcohol. 8 You can also reduce the severity of inflammation by taking a daily gram of vitamin C with the bioflavonoid quercetin10. Vitamin C and quercetin also help to reduce prickly heat. 9 Finally, if any adverse symptoms persist while overseas, you should see a doctor. 词汇： bug n.臭虫;病菌;病毒 diarrhea n.腹泻 taint v.感染;污染 pancreatic adj.胰腺的 antibiotic n.抗生素 option n.选择 jet lag (跨时区高速飞行后)生理节奏的破坏，飞行时差反应 anti-parasitic adj.抗寄生虫的 anti-fungal adj.抗真菌的，杀真菌的 nibble vt.一点点地咬下 pathogenic adj.病原的;致病的;发病的 thrombosis n.血栓 anti-viral adj.抗病毒的
hydrate /'haidr(e)it/ v.保持水分 注释： 1.ward off ：避开;防止 2.As the holiday season approaches, so does the prospect of jet lag, an upset stomach or sunburn.：随着假日的临近，由于高空飞行时差引起的生理不适、胃痛 或日光灼烧等潜在问题也接踵而至。第二个分句是由 so 引导的倒装句。例如：“He is a doctor. ” “So am I.” 3.lactobacillus and bifidobacteria：乳(酸)杆菌和双歧杆菌 4.succumb to：屈服，屈从 5.bring on：引起，导致 6.By improving the bacteria balance in your digestive tract, you crowd out the pathogenic bacteria and stop them gaining a foothold.：通过改善消化道内的细 菌平衡，你就可以排出致病细菌，使它们没有立足之地。crowd out：驱赶出。 7.silicol gel：偏磷酸酪蛋白氧化硅胶 8.grapefruit-seed extract：葡萄軒榨汁 9.peppermint oil and ginger capsules：薄荷油和生姜胶囊。medicine —般指内服 药(包括液体药剂，例如可以说 a drop of medicine)，pill 指小的丸粒，tablet 指药 片，但有时 medicine 可代表药品的总称。 10.bioflavonoid quercetin：生物类黄酮槲皮素 A Basics of What to Eat and Drink B Medicine Against Bacteria and Viruses C Avoiding Holiday Troubles D Basics of Having a Pleasant Flight E A Teaspoonful of Helpful Silicol F Preparations Against Food Poisoning
练习： 1.Paragraph 1 ________. 2.Paragraph 4 ________. 3.Paragraph 5 ________. 4.Paragraph 6 ________. 5.Food-poisoning may pose a problem ________. 6.Special earplugs can make you feel better ________. 7.It is important to drink a lot of water ________. 8.Don’t forget to bring necessary medicine ________. A when your plane is about to land B when you are taking tablets C when you suffer from food-poisoning D when you are travelling E when you are packing for your tour F when you are having a cold 答案与题解： 1.C 实际上，这段也点明了全文的中心思想。
2.A 3.B 4.D 5.D 6.A 7.C 8.E
本段说明旅行时在吃与喝方面应注意的基本卫生问题。 注意 E 没有概括本段的中心意思。 本段开始介绍坐飞机旅行时的注意事项。 第二、第三、第四、第五段都谈到了注意旅行中的饮食卫生。 答案的根据为文章第六段的第三句。 第四段提到当食物中毒时要多喝水，以免脱水。 答案的根据在第五段。