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2013版英语全程复习方略课件(江苏):选修8 Unit 2 (译林牛津版)


Unit 2 The universal language 世界通用语言

Ⅰ. 单词盘点
根据词性和汉语意思写出词汇 universal 1. __________ (adj. ) 2. _______ (vt. &vi. ) cast 共同的,普遍的,全体的,全世界的 选派角色;投射(光、影);向??投 以(视线、笑容) 3. ____

___(vt. & vi. &aux. ) 敢于,胆敢 dare seize 4. _______ (vt. ) 逮捕,捉拿;抓住,捉住;夺取,攻占

demand 5.__________ (vt. ) (n. )

强烈要求;需要 要求;需求

6. __________(vt. ) scold
opportunity 7. __________ (n. ) personnel 8. __________(n. ) decline 9. _______ (n. )

训斥,责骂
机遇,时机

人事部门;职员,全体人员
衰落,衰败;减少;下降

(vi. &vt. )
10. ______(n. ) trend

衰落;下降;婉言谢绝
趋势,动向

seek 11. ________(vt. &vi. )

试图,设法;寻找,寻求

disturb 12. disturbing _________(adj. )令人不安的;引起恐慌的→ _________ (v. )
disturbed 打扰→ _________ (adj. )心乱的;心理不正常的

unwilling 13. _________(adj. )不情愿,不愿意;勉强的,无奈的→
willingness willing _________ (adj. )热心的,自愿的→ ___________ (n. )乐意 merciful mercy 14. _________(adj. )仁慈的,慈悲的,宽大为怀的→_________ (n. )仁慈,怜悯,宽容

employment unemployment 15. ______________(n. )失业→____________ (n. )雇用,工作, employ employer 职业→ ____________ (v. )雇用→____________ (n. )雇主 employee →____________ (n. )雇员 collection 16. ____________ (n. )作品集;收藏品;一批(人或物品);取走 collect → ____________ (vt. )收集 gradual 17. ____________(adj. )逐渐的,逐步的;平缓的,不陡的→ gradually ____________ (adv. )逐步地

【品词自测】根据所给词的适当形式填空

unemployment ①There was so high______________ in the city that some
employers employ employees __________decided to _________more_____________.

(unemployment)
disturbing ②The ___________news made people present at the disturbed meeting__________. (disturbing)

Ⅱ. 短语回放 1. 选派??扮演戏剧中的某角色

be cast in ____________
2. 以??为背景 3. 被处以某种刑罚 4. (向女方)求婚 be set in ____________ be condemned to something _________________________ ask for somebody?s hand in _______________________ marriage ___________ 5. 相爱,坠入爱河

fall in love ____________

6. 呈现;雇用;承担;从事 7. 不愿意做某事 8. 依赖,依靠 9. 举起,张贴,提供食宿 10. 申请

take on ______________ be unwilling to do sth. ____________________ depend on ______________ put up ______________ apply for ______________ split up ______________ spring up ______________ break up ______________

11. 分裂,分解
12. 突然兴起,迅速出现

13. 破裂,解散;破碎

Ⅲ. 句式扫描

1. Last night, I witnessed the first of only eight performances of
being Giacomo Puccini?s world-famous opera, Turandot, _______ performed __________(正在被演出)in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. 2. Just imagine performing such an opera in the Forbidden could not be a more awesome setting City —there _________________________________(不可能有比 这更好的场景)!

before he 3. Unfortunately, Puccini died of a heart attack____________ completed this final scene ________________________(他尚未写完最后一幕), and it had to be completed by one of his former students, Franco Alfano. 4. An opera company staged the opera in Beijing in the 1990s, the first time but the performance I saw was ____________(第一次)Turandot was staged inside the Forbidden City. Wherever the Beatles went 5. ________________________(不管甲壳虫乐队到哪里), there was a phenomenon called?Beatlemania?—thousands of fans would surround them, screaming and going crazy trying to see them.

【仿句自测】根据下面句式仿写句子 ①witness. . . being done看到??正在被??

仿写:就在那时我看到一个老年妇女正被她的儿子虐待。
Just at that time, I witnessed an old woman being abused by

her son.
②否定词+a/an+比较级+单数名词 仿写:我从未听过比这更好的嗓音。 I have never heard a better voice.

③before引导时间状语从句
仿写:我还没来得及记下黑板上的单词和短语,老师就将它们 擦掉了。 The teacher had wiped the words and phrases off the blackboard before I could write them down.


心 要

dare seek break up

三年2考 三年2考 三年2考



1. condemn vt. 判刑,宣判;指责,谴责

be condemned to something

被处以某种刑罚;使某人
被迫接受困境

condemn sth. as unfit for/to do . . .
宣告某物不适合??

condemn sb. for sth.

因??而谴责某人

①She knew that society would condemn her for abandoning her child.

她知道社会会谴责她遗弃孩子。
②The meat was condemned as unfit to eat. 这种肉被宣告不宜食用。

③They were condemned to a life of hardship.
他们不得不过着艰难的生活。 ④He was sentenced to death for murder and later hanged. (句 型转换) was condemned to =He _____ __________ __death for murder and later hanged. 他

因谋杀罪被判处死刑,后被绞死。

2. dare vt. & vi. &aux. 敢于,胆敢 dares to say ①He _____ __ ____“No” to his boss.

他敢对老板说“不”。
②I show him my new coat, but I daren?t tell him how much it

cost. 我让他看了我的新外套,但是我不敢告诉他花了多少钱。
③How dare you say that to your father? 你怎么敢对你父亲说那些话呢? ④I dare say you are wrong. 很可能你错了。

【点津】
(1)dare用作情态动词时,只用于疑问句、否定句和条件句中, 没有人称和数的变化,后面跟动词原形,其否定式为dare not。 (2)dare用作实义动词时,有人称、数和时态的变化,常用于搭 配: dare to do sth. ,在否定句和疑问句中, to可以省掉。 (3)I dare say为习惯说法,意为:我想;很可能;大概。

【想一想】 以前我们还学过一个词既可以作情态动词使用也可以作实义动 词使用,你能记起是哪个词并能说出它的用法吗?

【拓展延伸】

与dare用法相似的单词是need,它既可用作情态动词,也可用
作实义动词。但是,don?t need to do中to不能省略;另外,

need用作实义动词时,和want,require一样,后接动名词作宾
语,用主动形式表示被动含义,也可跟不定式的被动结构,即 need doing=need to be done。

3. demand vt. 强烈要求;需要 n. 要求;需求 (1)demand sth. of/from sb. demand to do sth. demand that sb. (should) do sth. (2)in demand on demand satisfy/meet one?s demand(s) 对某人要求某事 要求做某事 要求某人做某事 非常需要 一经要求 满足某人的要求

①Many cities have speeded up in house building to meet the demand. 许多城市在房屋建设方面加快了速度,以满足要求。

demand to see ②You can _______ ___ ____the Insurance Company?s all files.
你可以要求查阅这家保险公司的所有档案。 ③They demanded that some skilled workers were sent to help them. (单句改错) 答案:were→be/should be

【点津】与demand相关的名词性从句,包括主语从句、表语 从句、宾语从句和同位语从句,其谓语都是由should do构成, 其中should可以省略。

4. seek (sought; sought) vt. &vi. 试图,设法;寻找,寻求 (1)seek advice/help/permission/fame 征求建议/寻求帮助/征求同意/追求名利 seek sth. from sb. seek to do sth. seek one?s fortune 向某人寻求某物 (正式)试图做某事 寻找致富或成功的机会

(2)seek out
seek through

搜寻出;找出;挑出;努力寻找
搜遍

seek after/for

追求;寻找

①I can seek you out wherever you may hide yourself. 无论你躲藏到什么地方,我都能找到你。 ②The house was sought through but nothing was found. 屋子被彻底搜查过了,但没有发现任何东西。 sought for ③We ______ ____an answer to the question, but couldn?t find one. 我们寻找这个问题的答案,可是没能找到。 sought to hide ④I have never ______ __ _____my views. 我从不企图隐瞒自己的观点。

5. break up 破裂,解散;拆开;破碎;分开;学期结束

①After the midnight, the meeting broke up.
午夜之后,会议散了。

②The sentences can be broken up into clauses and clauses into
phrases.

句子可以分成从句,从句可以分成短语。

【拓展】
break away from 放弃,脱离

break down
break into

出故障,坏掉,垮掉
破门而入

break in
break out

插话,打断
突然发生,爆发

break through

突破

选用上面方框中的短语填空

break away from ③Let us learn how to ________________everyday stresses and
relax.

让我们学习如何摆脱日常的压力并且学习放松。
break out ④Armed conflict may __________at any moment.

武装冲突可能在任何时候发生。

【真题链接】 [2009江苏,24]— I?m surprised to hear that Sue and Paul have ________. —So am I. They seemed very happy together when I last saw them. A. broken up C. divided up B. finished up D. closed up

【解析】选A。考查动词短语。句意:——听说苏和保罗离婚

了我很吃惊。——我也是。上次见到他们时他们看上去很幸福
美满。break up 断绝关系;finish up 结果成为;最终到来; divide up 分担,分配,分享;close up (伤口)愈合。

6. Just imagine performing such an opera in the Forbidden

City —there could not be a more awesome setting!
想像一下在紫禁城上演这出歌剧吧——不可能有比这更好的场

景了!
此句应用了“no/never+a/an+比较级+单数名词”的结构,可以 看成是省略了than in the Forbidden City。

下列结构均表示最高级意义: (1)否定词+比较级 any other +单数名词 all (the) other+复数名词 anyone else (2)比较级+than+ any of the other +复数名词 the rest of+复数名词或不可数 名词

so+adj. /adv. (3)完成时+never+

so+adj. +a/an+n.
such+adj. +n.

adj. /adv. enough
(4)can?t. . . + too+adj. /adv.

①We can?t have a worse day.
今天真是再糟糕不过了。 ②I have never seen such a glorious sunrise. 我从未见过这样壮观的日出。 ③他比班里的其他学生都聪明。(一句多译)

He is cleverer than any other student in his class.
all the other =He is cleverer than ____ ___ _______ students in his class.

any of the other =He is cleverer than ____ __ ___ _____students in his class.
the rest of =He is cleverer than ___ ____ __students in his class.

7. Unfortunately, Puccini died of a heart attack before he completed this final scene, and it had to be completed by one of his former students, Franco Alfano.

不幸的是,普契尼还没写完最后一幕就死于心脏病,这一幕不
得不由他以前的学生Franco Alfano完成。 before引导时间状语从句,表示“尚未来得及”。

①Before John stopped her, she ran out. 约翰还没来得及阻止她,她就跑出去了。 before的其他含义: (1)在??之前 (2)??(之后)才?? (3)(不多久)就?? (4)以免??

根据语境,写出before的汉语意思

②We lived in Paris before moving to London. ( 在??之前 )
③It was a long time before I got to sleep again.

( ??(之后)才?? )
④It wasn?t long before he came back. ( (不多久)就?? )

⑤Lock your bike before it gets stolen. (

以免

)

8. Wherever the Beatles went, there was a phenomenon called?Beatlemania?—thousands of fans would surround them, screaming and going crazy trying to see them. 无论甲壳虫乐队到哪儿,总有一种被称为“披头士狂热”的现 象——成千上万的粉丝总在他们周围,尖叫着,疯狂地试图看 见他们。 wherever 意为“无论去哪里,无论在什么地方”,引导让步状 语从句。

①Wherever he goes, he always brings a notebook with him. 他 无论去哪里,都随身带着一个笔记本。

【点津】 疑问词+ever可以引导让步状语从句,相当于no matter+疑问词。

②However great the difficulties are, we must complete the task in time. (句型转换) No matter how _____the difficulties are, we must complete =__ ______ ____ great the task in time. 不管困难有多大,我们都必须及时完成任务。 ③Whoever tells you the news, don?t believe it. No matter who =___ ______ ____tells you the news, don?t believe it. 无论谁告诉你这个消息,别相信。

【想一想】 疑问词+ever是高中学习必须掌握的内容,高考也常以它作为

考点。但是疑问词+ever不只引导让步状语从句, 想一想,它还
可以引导什么从句呢?

【拓展延伸】 whatever, whoever, whichever, whomever等除了引导让步状语 从句外,还可以引导名词性从句,但是whenever, wherever, however只可引导让步状语从句。 He won?t believe whatever I say. (宾语从句) 我说什么他都不信。 Whatever I say, he won?t believe me. (让步状语从句) 无论我说什么,他都不相信。

1. cast vt. &vi. 选派角色;投射(光、影);向??投以(视线、 笑容) (1)cast a play/film cast a glance at/on 为戏剧/电影选派演员 对??瞥了一眼

cast sb. as/in
(2)cast down cast light on cast doubts on cast aside

为(戏剧、角色)选派演员
使沮丧,使气馁 阐明,使更为清楚,使人了解 使人对??产生怀疑 抛弃

①Improperly casting a film can be a disaster for your movie. 演 员选择不当,对你的电影的影响是灾难性的。

选用适当的介、副词填空 ②“I am honored to be cast as the leading role in this film, ” ___ she said. 她说:“能在这个影片中演主角我感到非常荣幸。”

aside ③As soon as she became rich, she cast______ all her old friends.

她一变富就把所有老朋友都抛弃了。
④Missing the chance to travel to Thailand because of the flood down cast him______. 因为洪灾而错过了去泰国旅游的机会使他很沮丧。

2. merciful adj. 仁慈的,慈悲的,宽大为怀的

mercy n.

仁慈,慈悲;宽恕

have mercy on sb. =show mercy to/towards sb.

对某人怜悯
without mercy 毫不留情地

at the mercy of sb. /sth.

任由某人/某事物摆布/控制

①They asked her to be merciful to the prisoners.

他们要求她对犯人慈悲为怀。
②They showed no mercy to their hostages.

他们对人质丝毫不讲仁慈。
at the mercy of ③The houses near the forest fire are __ ___ ______ __the winds.

森林大火附近的房屋任凭大风摆布。

3. decline n. 衰落,衰败;减少;下降

vi. &vt. 衰落;下降;婉言谢绝
on the decline 在削减,在衰退

fall/go into decline
decline to do sth.

陷入衰退,失去力量/影响
谢绝做某事

①Their spokesman declined to comment on the allegations.

他们的发言人拒绝对这些指控加以评论。
②The town fell into decline after the mine closed.

这个镇在矿井关闭后开始衰弱。
on the ______. ③Actually, the world?s birth rate is___ ____ decline

事实上,世界的出生率在下降。

4. trend n. 趋势,动向;潮流

①We?ve seen a trend towards more violent films this year. 我们
看到今年电影有向更加暴力的方向发展的趋势。 ②Everyone seems to be following the trend for sleek shiny hairstyles. 人人似乎都在赶时髦,梳起整齐油亮的发型。 ③His designs are setting new trends in women?s fashion. 他的设 计正引领着女装新时尚。

【归纳】 a trend towards /to. . . follow a trend set a trend 趋向?? ____________ 赶时髦 ____________

引领时尚 ____________

(1)seize与其他动词的辨析
(2)personnel作主语时,主谓一致的用法 (3)the first time的用法

1. He decided to_______ the moment and ask her to marry him.

A. achieve

B. keep

C. seize

D. hold

【解析】选C。考查动词辨析。句意:他决定抓住机会向她求

婚 。 seize 在 此 处 表 示 “ 抓 住 ( 机 会 、 机 遇 )” , 宾 语 一 般 是
moment, chance, opportunity等。

2. All the personnel_________ encouraged to give their personal

opinions about how the work should be done.
A. is B. are

C. has been

D. is being

【解析】选B。考查主谓一致。句意:全体员工被鼓励就如何

做这项工作发表个人看法。personnel强调“全体员工”,谓语
动词用复数形式。

3. _________he came to this small town, he began to like it.

A.For the first time
C.At the first time

B.By the first time
D.The first time

【解析】选D。句意:他第一次来到这个小镇,就开始喜欢上
它了。the first time第一次,引导时间状语从句。

代词和介词 代词和介词常见于高考试题之中,主要考查it的用法,替 代词的辨析,不定代词的辨析,介词(短语)的辨析,以及介词 的搭配。复习时注意以下几个方面:1. 掌握代词it的用法;2.

理解并掌握不定代词以及替代词的区别;3. 了解反身代词的用
法;4. 牢记常见的介词短语;5. 弄清近义介词的区别。

1. [2011山东, 24]The two girls are so alike that strangers find

_______difficult to tell one from the other.
A. it B. them C. her D. that

【解析】选A。考查代词用法。句意:两个女孩长得如此相像
以至于陌生人都发现很难将其中一个与另外一个区分开来。it 在句中充当形式宾语,代替后面的真正的宾语to tell one from the other。

2. [2011辽宁, 27]—Would you like tea or coffee? —_________, thank you. I?ve just had some water. A. Either B. Both C. Any D. Neither

【解析】 选D。考查代词辨析。句意:——您想喝茶还是咖 啡?——都不喝,谢谢。我刚刚喝了些水。根据后面一句“刚

刚喝了水”可知回答者是什么也不喝,要用neither来否定两者。
either两者选一;both都,肯定两者;any三者或三者以上的任 何一个。故选D。

3. [2011陕西, 16]—Would you get me a bar of chocolate from
the kitchen, dear? —_______one? A. Other B. Every C. Another D. More

【解析】选C。考查代词用法。句意:——亲爱的,能否帮我 从厨房拿块巧克力?——再来一块?如果想表达“再来一块” 的含义,可以用One more? 来表达,故排除D项;every one意

为“每一个人/物”,意思不符;other往往后面跟名词的复数
形式;another又一,再一,符合句意,故选C项。

4. [2011湖南, 24]I knew that_______would ever discourage

him; he would never give up wanting to be a director.
A. something B. anything

C. everything

D. nothing

【解析】选D。考查不定代词。句意:我知道没有什么会使他

灰心,他永远不会放弃成为导演的梦想。由句意可知此处应填
表示否定意义的代词。

5. [2011上海,26]To stay awake, he finished a cup of coffee and ordered________. A. the other C. the others B. other D. another

【解析】选D。考查代词用法。句意:为了保持清醒状态,他 喝完一杯咖啡后又要了一杯 。another指在原 来的基础上的

“再一(个),又一(个)”,表示增加,由句意可知他是在喝完一
杯咖啡后又要了一杯,故用another;the other指的是两者之中 的“另外一个”;other意为“另一,另一些”,但没有增加的

意思;the others表示其余的全部,由句子语境可知A、B、C
三个选项都不符合句意。

6. [2011全国卷Ⅱ, 11]I got this bicycle for_______; My friend

gave it to me when she bought a new one.
A. everything B. something

C. anything

D. nothing

【解析】选D。考查不定代词。句意:我免费得到这辆自行车:

我朋友买了辆新的就把它给了我。for nothing不花钱,免费。

7. [ 2011 安 徽 , 22 ] Surprisingly,

Susan?s beautiful hair

reached below her knees and made_______almost an overcoat
for her. A. them B. her C. itself D. herself

【解析】选C。考查反身代词。句意:令人惊奇地是,苏珊的 秀发直抵膝盖以下,就像给她披上了一层外衣。根据句意及句

子结构,选项表示的是主语hair,故应选择与主语hair同义的
反身代词itself。

8. [2011福建,21]We have various summer camps for your

holidays. You can choose ________ based on your own interests.
A. either B. each C. one D. it

【解析】选C。考查代词用法。句意:我们有各种各样的夏令 营,你可以根据自己的兴趣选择一个。either两者中的任何一 个;each每一个; one一个,为泛指,泛指同类事物或人中的某 一个;it为特指,特指上文提到的某人或某物。根据语境可知, 此处应是表示泛指的某一个。

9. [2011四川, 8]Nick, it?s good for you to read some books

_______China before you start your trip there.
A. in B. for C. of D. on

【解析】选D。考查介词。句意: 尼克,去中国旅游之前,读
点关于中国的书是有好处的。介词on 表示“关于;论及”之 意。介词in, for, of 皆无此意,故选D。

10. [2011山东, 30]I?m sorry I didn?t phone you, but I?ve

been very busy _______ the past couple of weeks.
A. beyond B. with C. among D. over

【解析】选D。考查介词用法。句意:很抱歉没有给你打电话,
在过去的几周时间里我一直很忙。over在句中为介词,意为 “在??期间”,与句意相符;beyond 超过,超越;with带有, 具有;among 在中间,在??之中。

11. [2011浙江, 5]I always wanted to do the job which I?d

been trained________.
A. on B. for C. by D. of

【解析】选B。考查介词。句意:我一直想做我曾经受过培训
的工作。“be trained for. . . ”,表示“为了??接受培训”, 所以只有B项正确。

12. [ 2011 天 津 , 11 ] He was a good student and

scored________average in most subjects.
A. below B. of C. on D. above

【解析】 选D。考查介词。句意:他是一个好学生,在大部分
科目上得分都高出平均分。below average“低于平均分”;on average“平均”;above average“高于平均分”。根据句意选D。

13. [2011上海,25]Graduation is a good time to thank those
who have helped you _______ the tough years. A. through B. up C. with D. from

【解析】选A。考查介词用法。句意:毕业是感谢那些曾经帮 助你度过艰难岁月的人的好时刻。help sb. through sth. 帮助某

人度过某段时期(尤指艰难的时期);help sb. up把某人扶起来;
help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事;from来自,自??以来。 由句意和这几个介词的意义可知选A。

14. [ 2011 江 苏 , 32 ] We?d better discuss everything

________before we work out the plan.
A. in detail B. in general

C. on purpose

D. on time

【解析】选A。考查介词短语辨析。句意:我们最好在制订计

划之前详细地讨论一切事情。in detail详细地;in general一般
来说,大体上;on purpose故意地;on time按时。

15. [ 2011 全 国 卷 Ⅱ, 14 ] This shop will be closed for

repairs________further notice.
A. with B. until C. for D. at

【解析】选B。考查介词。句意:这家商店因修理将关闭, 营业
时间另行通知。在此until是介词,表示“到??为止”。

16. [2011重庆, 24]Shirley, a real book lover, often brings

home many books to read _______ the library.
A. in B. for C. by D. from

【解析】 选D。考查介词。句意:雪莉,一个十足的读书爱好
者,经常从图书馆借很多书回家看。表示“从某处”用介词 from。

17. [2011安徽, 25]Sometimes proper answers are not far to

seek_______food safety problems.
A. in B. to C. on D. after

【解析】选B。考查介词。句意:有时不难找到解决食品安全
问 题 的 适 宜的 办 法 。 本题 的 中 心 词是 answers, 后 面 的 food safety problems是answers的定语;而与answers搭配使用的介 词只有to,即answers to food safety problems, 因此选B。

18. [ 2011 北 京 , 35 ] With new technology, underwater valleys can be taken _______color. A. by B. for C. with D. in

pictures of

【解析】选D。考查介词用法。句意:用新的科技,水下山谷 能被拍下彩色照片。by多用于无形的工具或方式手段之前,如 by hand等;with用于有形的工具或身体某些器官之前,其后 的名词多被冠词、物主代词等修饰,如:with a spade, with

our eyes等;in表示使用语言、原料、材料等,如in English。 故D项为正确答案。

表1 常用代词用法辨析
代 词 要 点 典 句 例 示

指代前面提到的同一事物; Your story is interesting, but I don?t like it. 指代动物、婴儿或未知的人; Look at the baby. Isn?t it lovely?

it

指天气、时间、距离、自然 现象、环境等; 作形式主语或形式宾语代 替不定式,动名词、名词 性从句;

It is half past two now.
①It is the teachers? duty to teach the students. ②He found it not easy to learn a foreign language well.

代 词













表示“喜欢、恨”等心理方面 I will appreciate it if you can give me a 的动词后面接it, 构成固定结构, hand. 这类动词常用enjoy, prefer, love, like, hate, dislike, appreciate等。

it

常用在以下固定句型中: It takes sb. some time to do. . . It?s (about/high)time that sb. should do It?s the first(second. . . )time that sb. have done sth.

①It took me two weeks to finish the work. ②It?s high time that you should get down to the work. ③It?s the first time I have been to Beijing.

代 词













It?s. . . since. . .

④It?s two weeks since we last met.
⑤It won?t be long before we meet again.

It will be/was. . . before. . .

it

It

is/was+ 被 强 调 部 分

+that/who+ 句 子 的 其 他 成 分 (强调句型)

⑥It?s from the sun that we get
light and heat.

代 词













代替单数可数名词,表示 泛指; ones为其复数形式, 其前后均可被定语修饰。 one the one替代前面的单数名词, 表示特指,其后往往带定语, the ones是the one的复数形 式。

①I don?t have a computer. I want to buy one next year.

②I want large ones, not small ones.

①This dress is larger but cheaper than the one on the top hanger. ②I love reading poems by Emerson better than the ones by Whitman.

















that

①The book on the desk is better 既可以替代特指的单数名 词,相当于the one, 也可 than that/the one under the desk. 以替代特指的不可数名词, 常带后置定语。其复数形 ②My questions are similar to 式为those, 相当于the those you raised. ones。

















all

指三个或三个以上的人或 ①They all agreed to the plan. 物,可以和of短语连用。 ②So all is going well. 作主语,指“所有的人” 时,谓语用复数,指“所 有的事”时,谓语用单数。

















both

指两个人或物,可以和of短语 连用

You are both too young. /Both of you are too young.

each

①Each of my children goes to a 表示两者或两者以上的每一个, different school. 表示个体,既可作定语,又可 ②The tickets cost 10 dollars each. 充当主语、宾语、同位语,可 ③The tickets each costs 10 dollars. 以与of短语连用。 ④You may find that each child in the kindergarten gives a different answer to the question.

















every

表示三者或三者以上的每一 个,都强调整体,仅作定语, 后接单数可数名词。every还 可表示“每(隔)……的”。

①Every one has strong and weak points.
②Take this medicine with warm water every other day. There?s coffee and tea—you can have either. ①Neither was satisfactory.

either

表示“两者中的任何一个”

neither

neither (pron. )和“neither of+n. ”作主语时,谓语动词用 单数。

②Neither of the two boys has passed the geography examination.

代 词













none

1. 既可指人,也可指物,后可接of短语, ①—How much money do 常用来回答how many/much的问题。 you have? 2. 代指可数名词时,指三者或三者以上, —None. 作主语时谓语动词用单复数均可。 3. 代指不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数。 ②None of the books are/is 4. none在句中作主语或宾语,不作定语。 interesting.
③None of the rubbish has been removed. 表示泛指,无范围,仅指人,不指物; who表泛指用nobody/no one回答。 —Who will go there? —No one/Nobody.

no one

















another

1. 指至少有三个以上的另外任何一个, 它由an, other合并构成,故不与冠词 连用,所跟的名词是可数的。 ①He will stay here for 2. 当another表示“又一,再一”的 意思时,可以跟数词或few引导的复 another three days. 数名词词组连用。 another的搭配: ②Please come another day. one after another相继地;one way or another无论怎样;another day改天。 ①Would you please make it some other day? ②He has no other close friends like John. Some students are cleaning the classroom, others are playing on the playground.

other

另外的,相当于形容词,只作定语, 修饰后面的名词。

others

泛指别的人或物,是other的复数 形式,构成some. . . , others. . .

















1. 两者中的另一个,常与one 连用,构成one. . . the other. . . the other 2. 作定语修饰复数名词时, 表示“全部其余的”。 I have two sisters, one works as a worker, the other serves in the army.

the others

特指其余的人或物,相当于 the other+复数名词。

I have got ten pencils. Two of them are red, the others are blue.

















1. 常用it 作形式主语的句型: It is a pity that. . . 真可惜??It is no wonder that. . . 难怪?? It is obvious/clear that. . . 很 明 显??It seems/appears that. . . 看来/ 似乎?? It occurred to sb. that. . . 某人突然想 到??It was said/reported that. . . 据 说/据报道……

特 别 提

①Everyone isn?t going to
the Summer Palace

tomorrow.

并非每个人明天都去颐和
园。



It is no use/good doing sth. 做某事没用 处/没好处

















特 别 提



2. 部分否定 not 出 现 在 含 有 all, both, everyone, everybody, everything等不定代词的句子 中,表部分否定;此外, not与总括性副 词 如 everywhere, always, wholly, altogether等连用时也表示部分否定。 3. 含有反身代词的惯用语 for oneself亲自;of oneself自动的;to oneself 独 自 享 用 ; by oneself 单 独 地 ; enjoy oneself过得愉快;devote oneself to 专心于;apply oneself to 专心致志于; adapt oneself to适应;make oneself at home不要客气;find oneself +地点 发现 自己不知不觉来到??。

②Such a thing can?t be found everywhere. 这种事并非到处可见。

表2 几组常见的介词搭配
类 型 典 型 短 语

insist on坚持要 介词与 动词的 搭配

benefit by/from从……得到好处 stand for代表

differ from区别于

agree with同意某人的意见agree on就……达成一致agree to同意某建议 impress on给……留下印象 hope for希望得到 account for解释; 是……的原因prepare for准备hear from收到……的来 信 hear of听说













be interested in对……感兴趣 be strict with/in对某人(事)严格 介词与 形容词 的搭配

be keen on对……很热衷 be concerned about/with/over 对……很关心

be different from与……不同

be convinced of确信













toone?s delight/surprise/horror/sorrow/joy/regret令人快 to+n.

乐/吃惊/恐怖/悲哀/喜悦/遗憾的是; to the point切题
at most至多 at least至少 at present目前 at noon在中午 at table在用餐 at hand在手边,临近 at risk在危险中 at war处于战争中 at will随意地 in advance提前 in the long run从长远来说 in short简而言之 in other words换句话说 in conclusion总之 in detail详细地 in future今后 in a hurry匆忙地 in public公开地 in secret秘密地 in return作为回报 in reality实际上 in turn轮流地 in case以防万一 in vain白白地 in particular特别地 in color用颜色 in general一般地 in preparation在准备之中 in store(意外、问题等)将要发生, 就要出现 in doubt拿不准

介词 与名

at+n.

词搭
配 in+n.

类 介词 与名 词搭 配











for+n.

for the time being暂时
for good长期地

for the present现在
for sale待售













介词短语

in favor of赞成 by means of 借助于 in place of代替 in case of万一 by way of经由 in time of在??的时候 in spite of尽管 on behalf of作为??的代理 in addition to此外 for fear of惟恐 as a result/consequence of作为……的结果 for the sake of为了??起见 in terms of就??而言 in praise of赞扬 in preference to偏爱 in exchange for交换 in agreement with协调,一致 in search of寻找 in the form of以??的形式 in need of需要 in the direction of朝??的方向 on top of在??之上 with regard to关于 in face of面临



型 as for/to至于 instead of代替









along with和??一起 apart from除??之外

复合介词 together with与??一道

except for除??之外

according to根据,按照

表3 几组常见介词的词义辨析
介 词 要 点 典 句 例 示 He climbed in through the window.

through强调穿越,突破,度过。 through/ across/ over

across跨过,强调挨或贴着表面而过。 We swam across the river. over翻越,强调空间感。 above侧重于相对水平高度,不一定 在正上方,也不表示互相接触,反义 词是below。

She climbed over the wall.
The sun is above the mountain in the east.

above/ over/on

over侧重于垂直高度,即位于正上 方,一般没有接触的含义,其反义 词是under。 on侧重于与物体表面接触,其反义 词是beneath。

Be careful, there is a heavy box over your head.
He stood on the cliff top looking at the sea.

















besides意为“包括??在内”, Besides milk and cheese, we “除??之外还??”(=in addition to)。 need vegetables. except与but同义,有“除??之外” ①They didn?t open their

besides/ except/ except for/ apart from

的意思,表示从整体除去一部分,排 除或不包括在内,but习惯上只用于 no, nothing, nobody, nowhere, not anything, who等词之后,except除与 上述词连用外,还多与不定代词 everything, everybody, everyone, all或

mouths except to complain.

②Nobody knew her name
except me(=but). ③He had considered except the

everything

副词everywhere, always, usually连用。 weather.

















besides/ except/ except for/ apart from

except for表示部分地修正主句的内 容,带有一种惋惜的语气。而except 后面接从句,意思与except for相同。

①Except for an old lady, the bus was empty. ②I would buy the suit, except that it costs too much. ①There were three others present at the meeting apart from Mr. Jackson. (=besides) ②He has done good work, apart from a few slight faults. (=except for)

apart from意为“除??外”,它 既可以表示besides的意思,也可以 表示except或except for的意思

1. [2012石家庄模拟]_______will become more and more
important to have a good knowledge of English. A.What B.Which C.That D.It

【解析】选D。考查代词。句意:精通英语将变得越来越重要。 it在句中作形式主语,不定式短语to have a good knowledge of

English作真正的主语。

2.

Women?s

earnings

are

well

below

men?s_________

educational differences that are decreasing between the two sexes. A. in spite of C. in case of B. in favor of D. in terms of

【解析】选A。考查介词短语。句意:尽管两性间的教育差异 在减小,但是女性的收入远低于男性。in spite of 尽管; in

favor of 支持,赞成;in case of 倘使; in terms of 就??而言,
在??方面。

3. [2012重庆模拟]I?ll spend half of my holiday practising

English and________ half learning drawing.
A. another B. the other

C. other?s

D. other

【解析】选B。考查代词。句意:我要花一半的假期时间练习

英语,另一半的时间学习画画。the other指两者中的另一个。

4. [2012厦门模拟]—Which of these resorts do you like best?

—________. They are both hot and crowded.
A. Either B. None C. Neither D. Nothing

【解析】选B。考查代词。句意:——这些度假胜地你最喜欢
哪一个?——哪个也不喜欢。它们都很热且拥挤。从best可知 范围在三者或三者以上。none指三者以上的任何一个都不; either 指 两 者 中 的 一 个 ; neither 指 两 者 中 任 何 一 个 都 不 ; nothing没有什么东西。

5. The red flag looks extremely beautiful _______ the blue sky

and white clouds.
A. through B. across C. beyond D. against

【解析】选D。考查介词。句意:在蓝天白云的映衬下,红旗
看起来格外漂亮。 against 以??为背景,衬托;through通过; across通过;beyond超越。

6. [2012大连模拟]Try hard to make what the teacher teaches

________, and you?ll make rapid progress in your studies.
A. you B. yours

C. yourself

D. yourselves

【解析】选B。考查代词。句意:尽力使老师教的东西变成你

自己的,这样你会在学习上取得很大进步的。yours在句中作
宾语补足语,指你自己的东西。

7. [2012长春模拟]My parents always remind me to work hard at my lessons and I am allowed to do________except studying. A. something B. anything

C. nothing

D. everything

【解析】选C。考查不定代词。句意:我的父母总是提醒我努

力学习功课,除学习外,什么也不允许我做。根据句意可知用
nothing。

8. Owing to heavy traffic jams, many people would like to choose the train _______driving.

A. in preference to
C. as with

B. in addition to
D. as well as

【解析】选A。考查介词短语。句意:由于严重的交通堵塞,
许多人喜欢选择火车而不愿开车。in preference to优先于;in addition to 而 且 ; as with 与 ?? 一 样 ; as well as不 仅 ?? 还??。

9. [2012郑州模拟]Though the winter in Britain is cold and

there is often snow, there are________place for skiing.
A. some B. many C. few D. a few

【解析】选C。考查代词。句意:虽然英国的冬天很冷,而且
经常下雪,但是这里适合滑雪的地方很少。根据句意选few, 表示“(与复数名词连用)不多,很少”。

10. [2012杭州模拟]The invention of artificial hearts marked

a turning point in the battle________heart disease.
A. among B. for C. against D. between

【解析】选C。考查介词。句意:人造心脏的发明标志着在预
防心脏病的斗争中出现了转折点。此处against表示“防,预 防”。

11. [2012银川模拟]Rose was tired out. She had little time to
think of_______ but sleep. A. everything C. anything B. something D. nothing

【解析】选C。考查代词。句意:罗斯累坏了。她除了睡觉以 外 , 没 时 间 去 想 其 他 事 。 句 中 little 表 否 定 , 故 空 处 应 用 anything。

12. She has almost failed the exam, but her sister, _______ , has done very well. A. by contrast C. for example B. in general D. in addition

【解析】选A。考查介词短语辨析。句意:她几乎考试不及格, 相比之下,她妹妹在考试中考得很好。by contrast相比之下;

in general一般地;for example例如;in addition而且。

13. People working 10 or 11 hours a day are more likely to

suffer from health problems than _______who go off duty after
eight hours. A. those B. that C. these D. them

【解析】选A。考查代词。句意:每天工作10或11个小时的人 比那些8小时后下班的人更可能出现健康问题。此处用those是 为了避免重复,代替后面提到的每天工作8个小时的人。

14. She was told to wear flat shoes_______her back problem.

A. on account of
C. in terms of

B. regardless of
D. in case of

【解析】选A。考查介词短语辨析。句意:因为她的背部问题,
她被告知穿平底鞋。on account of表示“因为”。后三项分别

表示“不顾”“就??而言”“以防”,都与语意不符。

15. [2012通州模拟]The media believe the price of petrol will

rise by more than _______ two percent.
A. other B. another

C. any other

D. the other

【解析】选B。考查代词的用法。句意:媒体相信石油的价格

将会再上涨两个百分点以上,another表示“另一,又一”。

16. The Christmas gifts need to be ready _______next Friday. A. by B. of C. in D. at

【解析】选A。考查介词的用法。句意:圣诞礼物需要在下周 五之前准备好。by表示“在??之前;不迟于??”。

17. —The river has been terribly polluted and smells sick. —Indeed, _______should be done to stop it getting worse.

A. everything
C. nothing

B. something
D. anything

【解析】选B。考查代词的用法。句意:——那条河流已被污
染,气味难闻。——的确如此,应当采取某些措施以防情况恶 化。用something代指“某些措施”。

18. [2012常州模拟]—Lily made the same mistake again.

—Oh, it?s ________ me.
A. above B. with C. beyond D. over

【解析】选C。考查介词用法。“it?s beyond me ”在句中表示
“我无法理解”。be beyond sb. 表示“使人无法想像(理解等)”。

19. When_______ comes to baseball, Dorothy knows little about

it.
A. this B. that C. it D. one

【解析】选C。考查it的用法。句意:说到棒球,Dorothy对此
了解甚少。“when it comes to. . . ”是固定句式,表示“当说到 某事(谈到某事)时”。

20. —How can I reserve the tickets?

—________phone.
A. On B. With C. By D. In

【解析】选C。考查介词与名词的习惯搭配。句意:——我怎
样才能预订到票?——通过电话。by phone 意思是“通过电

话”,即通过电话订票。by后接交通工具或通讯工具时,名词
前不用冠词。


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