年考研英语模拟试题二( 2010 年考研英语模拟试题二(1)(2010-01-04 11:09:10) 标签:2010 年考研 英语模拟试卷 文都 教育 教育
来源:《2010 考研英语考前必做三套题》 《 考研英语考前必做三套题》 Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions:
Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points) In the United States, the first day nursery was opened in 1854.Nurseries were established in various areas during the 1 half of the 19th century; most of 2 were charitable.Both in Europe and in the U.S., the day nursery movement received great 3 during the First World War, when 4 of manpower caused the industrial employment of unprecedented numbers of women.In some European countries nurseries were established 5 in munitions(军火) plants, under direct government sponsorship.6 the number of nurseries in the U.S.also rose 7 , this rise was accomplished without government aid of any kind.During the years following the First World War, 8 , Federal State and local governments gradually began to exercise a measure of control 9 the day nurseries, chiefly by 10 them and by inspecting and regulating the conditions within the nurseries. The 11 of the Second World War was quickly followed by an increase in the number of day nurseries in almost all countries, as women were 12 called up on to replace men in the factories.On this 13 the U.S.government immediately came to the support of the nursery schools, 14 $ 6,000,000 in July, 1942, for a nursery school program for the children of working mothers.Many states and local communities 15 this Federal aid.By the end of the war, in August, 1945, more than 1,000,000 children were being cared 16 in daycare centers receiving Federal 17.Soon afterward, the Federal government 18 cut down its expenditures for this purpose and later 19 them, causing a sharp drop in the number of nursery schools in operation.However, the expectation that most employed mothers would leave their 20 at the end of the war was only partly fulfilled. 1.\[A\] latter\[B\] other\[C\] late\[D\] first 2.\[A\] those\[B\] them\[C\] whose\[D\] which
3.\[A\] impetus\[B\] input\[C\] imitation\[D\] initiative 4.\[A\] sources\[B\] abundance\[C\] shortage\[D\] reduction 5.\[A\] hardly\[B\] entirely\[C\] only\[D\] even 6.\[A\] Because\[B\] As\[C\] Since\[D\] Although 7.\[A\] unanimously\[B\] sharply\[C\] predominantly\[D\] militantly 8.\[A\] therefore\[B\] consequently\[C\] however\[D\] moreover 9.\[A\] over\[B\] in\[C\] at\[D\] about 10.\[A\] formulating\[B\] labeling\[C\] patenting\[D\] licensing 11.\[A\] outset\[B\] outbreak\[C\] breakthrough\[D\] breakdown 12.\[A\] again\[B\] thus\[C\] repeatedly\[D\] yet 13.\[A\] circumstance\[B\] occasion\[C\] case\[D\] situation 14.\[A\] regulating\[B\] summoning\[C\] allocating\[D\] transferring 15.\[A\] compensated\[B\] facilitated\[C\] supplemented\[D\] expanded 16.\[A\] about\[B\] after\[C\] of\[D\] for 17.\[A\] pensions\[B\] subsidies\[C\] revenues\[D\] budgets 18.\[A\] prently\[B\] furiously\[C\] statistically\[D\] drastically 19.\[A\] abolished\[B\] diminished\[C\] jeopardized\[D\] precluded 20.\[A\] nurseries\[B\] homes\[C\] jobs\[D\] children Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions:
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points) Text1 As a young bond trader, Buttonwood was given two pieces of advice, trading rules of thumb, if you will: that bad economic news is good news for bond markets and that every utterance dropping from the lips of Paul Volcker, the then chairman of the Federal Reserve, and the man who restored the central bank's credibility by stomping on runaway inflation, should be respected than Pope's orders.Today's traders are, of course, a more sophisticated bunch.But the advice still seems good, apart from two slight drawbacks.The first is that the well chosen utterances from the present chairman of the Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan, is of more than passing difficulty.The second is that, of late, good news for the economy has not seemed to upset bond investors all that much.For all the cheer that has crackled down the wires, the yield on ten year bonds which you would expect to rise on good economic news is now, at 4.2%, only two fifths of a percentage point higher than it was at the start of the year.Pretty much unmoved, in other words. Yet the news from the economic front has been better by far than anyone could have expected.On Tuesday November 25th, revised numbers showed that America's economy grew by an annual 8.2% in the third quarter, a full percentage point more than originally thought, driven by the ever spendthrift American consumer and, for once, corporate investment.Just about every other piece of information coming out from special sources shows the same strength.New houses are still being built at a fair clip.Exports are rising, for all the protectionist crying.Even employment, in what had been mocked as a jobless recovery, increased by 125,000 or thereabouts in September and October.Rising corporate profits, low credit spreads and the biggest ever rally in the junk bond market do not, on the face of it, suggest anything other than a deep and long lasting recovery.Yet Treasury bond yields have fallen. If the rosy economic backdrop makes this odd, making it doubly odd is an apparent absence of foreign demand.Foreign buyers of Treasuries, especially Asian certral banks, who had been swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow, seem to have had second thoughts lately.In September, according to the latest available figures, foreigners bought only $5 6 billion of Treasuries, compared with $25.1 billion the previous month and an average of $38.7 billion in the preceding four months.In an effort to keep a lid on the yen's rise, the Japanese central bank
is still busy buying dollars and parking the money in government debt.Just about everyboby else seems to have been selling. 21.The advice for Buttonwood suggests that. [A] Paul Volcker enjoyed making comments on controlling inflation [B] the Federal Reserve has an all capable power over inflation control [C] economy has the greatest influence upon the daily life of ordinary people [D] the economic sphere and bond markets are indicative of each other 22.The word "passing"(Line 7, Paragraph 1) most probably means. [A] instant[B] trivial[C] simple[D] negligible 23.Which of the following is responsible for the rapid economic growth in the US? [A] Domestic consumers.[B] Foreign investments. [C] Real estate market.[D] Recovering bond market. 24.According to the last paragraph, most Asian central banks are becoming. [A] rather regretful[B] less ambitious [C] more cautious[D] speculative 25.The phrase "keep a lid on"(Line 6, Paragraph 3) most probably means. [A] put an end to[B] set a limit on [C] tighten the control over[D] reduce the speed of Text2 Pressure is mounting on Ahold's embattled supervisory board following the Dutch grocery group's decision to pay its new chief executive more than C= 10m to lead its recovery from a ruining accounting scandal.
Anders Moberg's pay package and the timing of its disclosure at a shareholder meeting last week has confronted Ahold with a new credibility crisis as it struggles to restore confidence after the C=970m ( $1 bn) scandal. The dispute evident in a sea of critical media comment in the Netherlands at the weekend threatens to divert management from its recovery strategy, built on significant divestments and a likely rights issue to reduce C=11bn in net debt.Units deemed unable to attain first or second position in food retail within three to five years will immediately be put up for sale. The board's position appears all the more delicate following comments made by Mr.Moberg to the Financial Times, in which he criticized non executive directors for ignoring his advice to disclose his salary in May, when he agreed his contract. Instead Ahold waited more than four months to make the announcement, on the day share holders were asked to approve Mr.Moberg's appointment. "I was the one who said I liked transparency, and I had hoped [the supervisory board] had shown [the salary package] in May to avoid a situation like this," Mr.Moberg told the FT.As the row prompted the left leaning Dutch Daily to call for a boycott of Ahold's Dutch Albert Heijn supermarket chain where only last week Ahold announced 440 redundancies it was clear the supervisory board had badly misjudged the reaction. While Henny de Ruiter, supervisory board chairman, said the salary was a fair reflection of what a company in Ahold's unfavorable circumstances had to pay to attract a top manager,furious investors accused it of pushing through the package regardless of investor opinion. Furthermore, Dutch media commentators noted that the scandal at Ahold had been the trigger for the Dutch government to appoint a commission to strengthen corporate governance. That commission has recommended a limit on executive bonuses, far below the potential two and a half times annual salary that Mr.Moberg could earn. Meanwhile, Mr.Moberg is trying to distance himself from the row and focus on strategy.He told the FT that measures had already been taken to raise its stake in the ICA Ahold joint venture in Scandinavia.
Ahold had included in its forecasts an amount necessary to buy the shares of either of its joint venture partners, who should exercise a "put option" and sell their stake from April 2004. 26.The decision on Anders Moberg's pay package has. [A] incurred much criticism from the shareholders [B] helped restore public confidence in Ahold [C] saved the supervisory board from another crisis [D] put pressure on the new chief executive 27.The recovery strategy by Ahold's management includes. [A] avoiding the next accounting scandal [B] diverting investment to other fields [C] issuing rights to more retailers [D] selling the retailers with poor performance 28.Anders Moberg thought that if his salary had been announced earlier,. [A] the board's position would have become less difficult [B] he would have agreed to the contract with Ahold [C] more time could have been devoted to his recovery plan [D] the shareholders wouldn't have strongly opposed 29.Before the scandal at Ahold, the executive bonuses in Dutch companies. [A] were higher than what Moberg earned [B] were regulated by a commission [C] were not monitored by the government [D] were not set by corporate management
30.According to Moberg's recovery strategy, Ahold will. [A] sell its stake to other joint venture companies [B] buy shares of its Scandinavian partners [C] choose to put money in its chain shops in Scandinavia [D] exerc ise its potential influence on partners Text3 We're moving into another era, as the toxic effects of the bubble and its grave consequences spread through the financial system.Just a couple of years ago investors dreamed of 20 percent returns forever.Now surveys show that they're down to a "realistic"8 percent to 10 percent range. But what if the next few years turn out to be below normal expectations? Martin Barners of the Bank Credit Analyst in Montreal expects future stock returns to average just 4 percent to 6 percent.Sound impossible? After a much smaller bubble that burst in the mid 1960s Standard & Poor's 5000 stock average returned 6.9 percent a year (with dividends reinvested) for the following 17 years.Few investors are prepared for that. Right now denial seems to be the attitude of choice.That's typical, says Lori Lucas of Hewitt, the consulting firm.You hate to look at your investments when they' re going down.Hewitt tracks 500,000 401 (k) accounts every day, and finds that savers are keeping their contributions up.But they're much less inclined to switch their money around."It's the slot machine effect," Lucas says."People get more interested in playing when they think they've got a hot machine" and nothing' s hot today.The average investor feels overwhelmed. Against all common sense, many savers still shut their eyes to the dangers of owning too much company stock.In big companies last year, a surprising 29 percent of employees held at least three quarters of their 402 (k) in their own stock. Younger employees may have no choice.You often have to wait until you're 50 or 55 before you can sell any company stock you get as a matching contribution. But instead of getting out when they can, old participants have been holding, too.One third of the people 60 and up chose company stock for three quarters of their plan,
Hewitt reports.Are they inattentive? Loyal to a fault? Sick? It's as if Lucent, Enron and Xerox never happened.No investor should give his or her total trust to any particular company's stock.And while you're at it, think how you'd be if future stock returns averaging good years and bad are as poor as Barnes predicts. If you ask me, diversified stocks remain good for the long run, with a backup in bonds.But I, too, am figuring on reduced returns.What a shame.Dear bubble, I'll never forget.It's the end of a grand affair. 31.The investors' judgment of the present stock returns seems to be. [A] fanciful[B] pessimistic[C] groundless[D] realistic 32.In face of the current stock market, most stock holders. [A] stop injecting more money into the stock market [B] react angrily to the duing stock [C] switch their money around in the market [D] turn a deaf ear to the warning 33.In the author's opinion, employees should. [A] invest in company stock to show loyalty to their employer [B] get out of their own company's stock [C] wait for some time before disposing of their stock [D] give trust to a particular company's stock 34.It can be inferred from the text that Lucent, Enron and Xerox are names of. [A] successful businesses [B] bankrupted companies [C] stocks [D] huge corporations
35.The author's attitude towards the long term investors' decision is. [A] positive[B] suspicious[C] negative[D] ambiguous Text4 The real heroine of the novel stands at one remove to the narrative.On the face of it, readers are more likely to empathize with, and be curious about, the mysterious and resourceful slave, Sarah, who forms one point of an emotional triangle.Sarah is the property of Manon, and came with her to a failing Louisiana sugar plantation on her marriage to the good for nothing, bullying owner.But Manon's husband is soon struck by Sarah, and the proof lies in their idiot small son, Walter. However, the reader is forced to see things through Manon's eyes, not Sarah's, and her consciousness is not a comfortable place to be.Never a please or a thank you passes her lips when talking to slaves, though manners is the order of the day in white society.Manon is enormously attracted by inter racial marriage (for the place and time—the early 19th century—such a concern would not be unusual, but in her case it seems pathological).Walter, with "his father's curly red hair and green eyes, his mother's golden skin, her full, pushing forward lips", is the object of her especial hatred, but she chatters on about all the "dreadful mixed blooded", the objectionable "yellow" people. Beyond Manon's polarized vision, we glimpse "free negros" and the emerging black middle class.To Manon's disgust, such people actually have self respect.In New Orleans buying shoes, Manon is taken aback by the shopkeeper's lack of desired respect.Mixed race prostitutes acquired the affections of male planters by giving them something mysterious their wives cannot often What that might be, and why wives can't offer it too, are questions Manon can't even ask, let alone answer. The first third of the book explores the uneasy and unsustainable peace between Manon, Sarah and the man always called just "my husband" or "he".Against the background of violent slave revolts and equally savage revenges, it's clear the peace cannot last.It's part of the subtlety of this book that as the story develops and the inevitable explosion occurs, our view of all the characters swiftly changes.Sarah turns out to deserve all the suspicion Manon directs at her; at the point of death Manon's husband displays an admirable toughness and courage; and Manon herself wins the reader's reluctant admiration for her bravery, her endurance, and her total lack of self pity.
Perhaps the cruelest aspect of this society is the way it breaks down and distorts family affections.A slave's baby is usually sold soon after birth; Sarah's would be husband, if he wants her, must buy her; and Manon herself, after all, is only the property of her husband. 36.Which of the following reflects Manon's attitude towards colored people? [A] Sympathetic.[B] Suspicious.[C] Concerned.[D] Disgusted. 37.It can be inferred from the text that the novel is written. [A] with a mobile point of view[B] with a limited third person singular [C] from Manon's perspective[D] from Sarah's eye as a slave 38.According to Manon, black people should. [A] emerge as free middle class citizens [B] behave submissively towards the whites [C] have self respect in the mixed race marriage [D] learn to offer more affection to their wives 39.We learn that as the story develops. [A] readers will think differently of all the characters [B] Manon's husband will win back her admiration [C] the emotional crisis will be swiftly resolved [D] all the suspicion will be proved against Sarah 40.From the text we learn that. [A] Manon's husband is a nameless but bullying person [B] Manon is the real heroine who deserves readers' sympathy [C] Sarah is in fact smarter than her master Manon
[D] Walter is a proof of the mixed race prostitution
年考研英语模拟试题二( 2010 年考研英语模拟试题二(2)(2010-01-04 11:12:00) 标签:2010 年考研 英语模拟试卷 文都 教育 教育
来源:《2010 考研英语考前必做三套题》 《 考研英语考前必做三套题》 Part B Sample One Directions:
In the following article, some sentences have been removed.For Questions 41 45, choose the most suitable one from the list A G to fit into each of the numbered blank.There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points) Theories of the value of art are of two kinds, which we may call extrinsic and intrinsic.The first regards art and the appreciation of art as means to some recognized moral good, while the second regards them as valuable not instrumentally but as objects unto themselves.It is characteristic of extrinsic theories to locate the value of art in its effects on the person who appreciates it.(41). The extrinsic approach, adopted in modern times by Leo Tolstoy in Chto takoye iskusstvo? (1896; What Is Art?), has seldom seemed wholly satisfactory.Philosophers have constantly sought for a value in aesthetic experience that is unique to it and that, therefore, could not be obtained from any other source.The extreme version of this intrinsic approach is that associated with Walter Pater, Oscar Wilde, and the French Symbolists, and summarized in the slogan "art for art's sake." (42). Between those two extreme views there lies, once again, a host of intermediate positions.We believe, for example, that works of art must be appreciated for their own sake, but that, in the act of appreciation, we gain from them something that is of independent value.(43). The analogy with laughter which, in some views, is itself a species of aesthetic interest introduces a concept without which there can be no serious discussion of the value of art: the concept of taste.(44).
Similarly, we regard some works of art as worthy of our attention and others as not.In articulating this judgment, we use all of the diverse and confusing vocabulary of moral appraisal; works of art, like people, are condemned for their sentimentality, coarseness, vulgarity, cruelty, or self indulgence, and equally praised for their warmth, compassion, nobility, sensitivity, and truthfulness.(The same may apply to the object of natural beauty.) Clearly, if aesthetic interest has a positive value, it is only when motivated by good taste; it is only interest in appropriate objects that can be said to be good for us.(45). [A] Thus a joke is laughed at for its own sake, even though there is an independent value in laughter, which lightens our lives by taking us momentarily outside ourselves.Why should not something similar be said of works of art, many of which aspire to be amusing in just the way that good jokes are? [B] All discussion of the value of art tends, therefore, to turn from the outset in the direction of criticism: Can there be genuine critical uation of art, a genuine distinction between that which deserves our attention and that which does not? (And, once again, the question may be extended to objects of natural beauty.) [C] Art is held to be a form of education, perhaps an education of the emotions.In this case, it becomes an open question whether there might not be some more effective means to the same result.Alternatively, one may attribute a negative value to art, as Plato did in his Republic, arguing that art has a corrupting or diseducative effect on those exposed to it. [D] Artistic appreciation, a purely personal matter, calls for appropriate means of expression_r_r.Yet, it is before anything a process of "cultivation", during which a certain part of one's "inner self" is "dug out" and some knowledeg of the outside world becomes its match. [E] If I am amused it is for a reason, and this reason lies in the object of my amusement.We thus begin to think in terms of a distinction between good and bad reasons for laughter.Amusement at the wrong things may seem to us to show corruption of mind, cruelty, or bad taste; and when it does so, we speak of the object as not truly amusing, and feel that we have reason on our side. [F] Such thinkers and writers believe that art is not only an end in itself but also a sufficient justification of itself.They also hold that in order to understand art as it should be understood, it is necessary to put aside all interests other than an interest in the work itself.
Sample Two Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order.For Questions 41 45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A G to fill in each numbered box.The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points) [A] Is that what the American viewing public is getting? Perhaps 10% of prime time network programming is a happy combination of entertainment and enrichment.There used to be television movies rich in human values, but they have now become an endangered species.I find television too much concerned with what people have and too little concerned with who they are, very concerned with taking care of No.1 and not at all concerned with sharing themselves with other people.All too often it tells us the half truth we want to hear rather than the whole truth we need to hear. [B] Why is television not more fully realizing its humanizing potential? Is the creative community at fault? Partially.But not primarily.I have lived and worked in that community for 32 years, as both priest and producer.As a group, these people have values.In fact, in Hollywood in recent months, audience enrichment has become their thing.A coalition of media companies has endowed the Humanitas Prize so that it can recognize and celebrate those who accomplish it. [C] Every good story will not only captivate its viewers but also give them some insight into what it means to be a human being.By so doing, it can help them grow into the deeply centered, sovereignty free, joyously loving human being God made them to be.Meaning, freedom and love are the supreme human values.And this is the kind of human enrichment the American viewing public has a right to expect from those who make its entertainment. [D] The problem with American TV is not the lack of storytellers of conscience but the commercial system within which they have to operate.Television in the U.S.is a business.In the past, the business side has been balanced by a commitment to public service.But in recent years the fragmentation of the mass audience, huge interest payments and skyrocketing production costs have combined with the FCC's abdication of its responsibility to protect the common good to produce an almost total preoccupation with the bottom line.The networks are struggling to survive.And that, the statistics seem to indicate, is mindless, heartless, escapist fare.If we are
dissatisfied with the moral content of what we are invited to watch, I think we should begin by examining our own consciences.When we tune in, are we ready to plunge into reality, so as to extract its meaning, or are we hoping to escape into a sedated world of illusion? And if church leaders want to elevate the quality of the country' s entertainment, they should forget about boycotts, production codes and censorship.They should work at educating their people in media literacy and at mobilizing them to support quality shows in huge numbers. [E] It is not a question of entertainment or enrichment.These are complementary concerns and presuppose each other.The story that entertains without enriching is superficial and escapist.The story that enriches without entertaining is simply dull.The story that does both is a delight. [F] That is the only sure way to improve the moral content of America' entertainment. s [G] Despite questions of the motivation behind them, the attacks by the President and the Vice President on the moral content of television entertainment have found an echo in the chambers of the American soul.Many who reject the messengers still accept the message.They do not like the moral tone of American TV.In our society only the human family surpasses television in its capacity to communicate values, provide role models, form consciences and motivate human behavior.Few educators, church leaders or politicians possess the moral influence of those who create the nation's entertainment. Order: G→ 41 → 42 → 43 → 44 → 45 → F Sample Three
Direction: You are going to read a text about the season for relief, followed by a list of examples.Choose the best example from the list A F for each numbered subheading (41 45).There is one extra example which you do not need to use.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points) Winter's harsh weather, shorter hours of daylight and family demands can all aggravate feelings of stress.According to Dr.Paul Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, one Midwestern headache clinic reported that complaints of tension and migraine headaches increased 40 percent from Thanksgiving to Christmas, compared with other six week periods during the year. Many physicians are now trained in techniques to relieve tension and stress.But which strategies do they themselves use? Here top health professionals reveal their favorite stressbusters.Six in all, they are: (41) Soothe with food.When nutritional biochemist Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food.But in her case, it's a healthy rice cake or two. (42) Run from your problem.Dr.Kenneth H.Cooper handles his own stress with a daily after work run. (43) Check your perspective.Driving in for a busy day as a MayoClinic stress management expert, psychologist John Taylor saw the oil maintenance light pop on in his minivan.He faced a nonstop schedule of patients and had to pick up his three year old after work."I felt myself tense up,"recalls Taylor, who then tried his quick stress busting strategy.He asked himself, Is this a matter of life or death? No.The oil could safely be changed the next week. (44) Look to the light side.On his way to the hospital where his father was to undergo surgery, author and educator Joel Goodman shared a hotel courtesy van with the anxious relatives of several patients.The driver began telling his stressed out passengers a few jokes."Then he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,"Goodman says."In that five minute ride he taught us that humor can relieve our stress."The surgery was successful. (45) Take a timeout.A major cause of anxiety is an overloaded schedule.It's one source of stress you can ward off by preparing ahead.
Say a little prayer.Psychologist and medical scientist Joan Bprysenko of Boulder, Colo., maintains that since most people spend too much time agonizing over the past or worrying about the future, the key to lessening stress is learning how to live emotionally in the present. "It helps to have some ritual to do this,"says Borysenko.For her the most relaxing ritual is"each morning when I pray."Prayer has been shown to reduce the impact of stress hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline. But remember, says Borysenko, doctors can't turn on their patient'"internal healing system".That inner clam is up to you.So you're sick of stress,heal thyself. [A] Williams counts himself among the 20 percent of adults whose susceptibility to anger is high enough to threaten their health.But everyone can try his approach to handling the stressors that set anger off—and it needn't be in a work environment. [B] "Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress and make the transition into family time,"says the expert.But, he cautions, don't let exercise itself become a stress.Even moderate activity—such as a daily 30 minute walk can improve health and mood."That's why I tell my patients to be sure to walk their dog every day,"he says with a chuckle,"even if they don't have one." [C] "My research suggests that carbohydrates raise levels of the mood regulating brain chemical serotonin, which exerts a calming effect on the entire body," says the M.I.T research scientist."So symptoms of stress—such as anger, tension, irritability and inability to concentrate—are eased." [D] He tells patients to do only those tasks that would have serious consequences if left undone."Will you die if you don't do the laundry?"he asks.Taking at least half an hour a day to do something you enjoy, he notes, lets you recharge you batteries.Especially around the holidays,skip some routine chores to make time for family and friends. [E] When cardiologist Ray Rosenman was associate chief of medicine at San Francisco' s Mount Zion Hospital, he would block off half an hour a day on his schedule. "If an emergency came up, I moved patients into that slot,"says Rosenman, co author of Type A Behavior and Your Heart."Or used that half hour to return calls or go through my mail.You can't control everything, but you can control your schedule to create some breathing space for yourself."
[F] He was so moved by his experience that he researched laughter's power."A good laugh relaxes muscles, lowers blood pressure, suppresses stress related hormones and enhances the immune system,"he says.In his workshops he tells clients to ask themselves how their favorite comedian would see this stressful situation. Sample Four Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about explorations into maple lores.Choose the most suitable heading from the list A F for each numbered paragraph (41 45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered.There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points) [A] The influence of maples on the Canadian culture. [B] The token of maples in Canada. [C] Contemplation of global distribution of maples. [D] The triumph of Nokomis over the devils with the help of maples. [E] The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth. [F] The maple signals the approach of fall. The maple smoke of autumn bonfires is incense to Canadians.Bestowing perfume for the nose, color for the eye, sweetness for the spring tongue, the sugar maple prompts this sharing of a favorite myth and original etymology of the word maple. 41 The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales.The time of year for sugaring off is "in the Maple Moon."Among Ojibwa, the primordial female figure is Nokomis, a wise grandmother.In one tale about seasonal change, cannibal wendigos creatures of evil—chased old Nokomis through the autumn countryside.Wendigos throve in icy cold.When they entered the bodies of humans, the human heart froze solid.Here wendigos represent oncoming winter.They were hunting to kill and eat poor Nokomis, the warm embodiment of female fecundity who, like the summer, has grown old.
42 Knowing this was a pursuit to the death, Nokomis outsmarted the cold devils.She hid in a stand of maple trees, all red and orange and deep yellow.This maple grove grew beside a waterfall whose mist blurred the trees'outline.As they peered through the mist, slavering wendigos thought they saw a raging fire in which their prey was burning.But it was only old Nokomis being hidden by the bright red leaves of her friends, the maples.And so, drooling ice and huffing frost, the wendigos left her and sought easier prey.For their service in saving the earth mother's life, these maples were given a special gift: their water of life would be forever sweet, and Canadians would tap it for nourishment. 43 Maple and its syrup flow sweetly into Canadian humor.Quebeckers have the standard sirop d'erable for maple syrup, but add a feisty insult to label imitation syrups that are thick with glucose glop.They call this sugary imposter sirop de Poteau "telephone pole syrup"or dead tree syrup. 44 The contention that maple syrup is unique to North America is suspect, I believe.China has close to 10 species of maple, more than any country in the world.Canada has 10 native species.North America does happen to be home to the sugar maple, the species that produces the sweetest sap and the most abundant flow.But are we to believe that in thousands of years of Chinese history, these inventive people never tapped a maple to taste its sap? I speculate that they did.Could Proto Americas who crossed the Bering land bridge to populate the Americas have brought with them a knowledge of maple syrup? Is there a very old Chinese phrase for maple syrup? Is maple syrup mentioned in Chinese literature? For a non reader of Chinese, such questions are daunting but not impossible to answer. 45 What is certain is the maple's holdfast on our national imagination.Its leaf was adopted as an emblem in New France as early as 1700, and in English Canada by the mid 19th century.In the fall of 1867, a Toronto schoolteacher named Alexander Muir was traipsing a street at the city, all squelchy underfoot from the soft felt of falling leaves, when a maple leaf alighted to his coat sleeve and stuck there.At home that evening, he wrote a poem and set it to music, in celebration of Canada'
s Confederation.Muir's song,"The Maple Leaf Forever,"was wildly popular and helped fasten the symbol firmly to Canada. The word"maple"is from"mapeltreow", the Old English term for maple tree, with "mapl"—as its Proto Germanic root, a compound in which the first"m"—is, I believe, the nearly worldwide"ma", one of the first human sounds, the pursing of a baby's lips as it prepares to suck milk from mother's breast.The"ma"root gives rise in many world languages to thousands of words like"mama","mammary", "maia", and"Amazon."Here it would make"mapl "mean"nourishing mother tree," that is, tree whose maple sap in nourishing.The second part of the compound,"apl ", is a variant of Indo European able"fruit of any tree"and the origin of another English fruit word, apple.So the primitive analogy compares the liquid sap with another nourishing liquid, mother's milk.
年考研英语模拟试题二( 2010 年考研英语模拟试题二(3)(2010-01-04 11:15:15) 标签:2010 年考研 英语模拟试卷 文都 教育 教育
来源:《2010 考研英语考前必做三套题》 《 考研英语考前必做三套题》 Part C Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese.Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points) Gandhi's pacifism can be separated to some extent from his other teachings.(46)Its motive was religious, but he claimed also for it that it was a definitive technique, a method, capable of producing desired political results.Gandhi's attitude was not that of most Western pacifists.Satyagraha, (47)the method Gandhi proposed and practiced, first evolved in South Africa, was a sort of non violent warfare, a way of defeating the enemy without hurting him and without feeling or arousing hatred.It entailed such things as civil disobedience, strikes, lying down in front of railway trains, enduring police charges without running away and without hitting back, and the like.Gandhi objected to "passive resistance" as a translation of Satyagraha: in Gujarati, it seems, the word means "firmness in the truth".(48)In his early days Gandhi served as a stretcher bearer on the British side in the Boer War, and he was prepared to do the same again in the war of 1914 1918.Even after he had completely abjured violence he was honest enough to see that in war it is usually necessary to take sides.Since his whole political life centred round a
struggle for national independence, he could not and, (49)indeed, he did not take the sterile and dishonest line of pretending that in every war both sides are exactly the same and it makes no difference who wins.Nor did he, like most Western pacifists, specialize in avoiding awkward questions.In relation to the late war, one question that every pacifist had a clear obligation to answer was: "What about the Jews? Are you prepared to see them exterminated? If not, how do you propose to save them without resorting to war?" (50)I must say that I have never heard, from any Western pacifist, an honest answer to this question, though I have heard plenty of evasions, usually of the "you're another" type.But it so happens that Gandhi was asked a somewhat similar question in 1938 and that his answer is on record in Mr.Louis Fischer's Gandhi and Stalin.According to Mr.Fischer, Gandhi's view was that the German Jews ought to commit collective suicide, which "would have aroused the world and the people of Germany to Hitler's violence." Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51.Directions: Suppose Wang Ming, one of your friends, is ill.Write a letter of consolation.Your letter should include: 1) your purpose of writing this letter 2) your true feeling and best wishes You should write about 100 words.Don' sign your own name at the end of the letter.Use t "Li Hong" instead.You don't need to write the address.(10 points) Part B 52.Directions: Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay to 1) describe the drawing, 2) deduce the purpose of the painter of the drawing, and 3) suggest counter measures.
You should write about 160 200 words neatly ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
年考研英语模拟试题二参考答案及解析( 2010 年考研英语模拟试题二参考答案及解析(1)(2010-01-04 11:16:36) 标签:2010 年考研 英语模拟试卷 教育 分类:【专区】英语
来源:《2010 考研英语考前必做三套题》 《 考研英语考前必做三套题》 Section Ⅰ Use of English 1.【答案】 A 本题考查词语搭配. 【解析】第一句提到在 1854 年成立了第一家日间托儿所,所以可以知道日间托儿所在各地 普遍建立是在 19 世纪的后半叶,所以[A]选项正确.[B]其他的,常和 one...the other 搭配,或 other 后面接复数名词;[C]迟到的,已故的;[D]第一的. 2.【答案】 B 本题考查代词用法. 【解析】 该句前是分号, 表示下文的部分是个独立成分, 其实英语中的分号起到句号的作用. 如果把分号改为逗号,那就是表示逗号后是定语从句,可以用 which,所以这一句里只能用 复数代词 them 来代替前面的 nurseries.\[A\] 那些;\[C\] 谁的;\[D\] 哪一个. 3.【答案】 A 本题考查词义区别. 【解析】 本句提到第一次世界大战对日间托儿所是个促进, 所以选\[A\] 推动, 促进. \[B\] 输入;\[C\] 模仿;\[D\] 主动性. 4.【答案】 C 本题考查词义区别. 【解析】 该句提到当时男性劳动力的短缺使得产业工人中出现了数量空前多的女性. \[A\] 来源;\[B\] 丰富;充裕; \[C\] 短缺;\[D\] 减少. 5.【答案】 D 本题考查词义区别. 【解析】 军火厂是很危险的地方,常识告诉我们是不能建托儿所的,但由于是战时所以只 好建在那里了.\[A\] 几乎不;\[B\] 完全,全部地;\[C\] 仅仅,只是;\[D\] 甚至. 6.【答案】 D 本题考查逻辑关系. 【解析】 分析全句,便可得知这是个让步关系的从句,故选择连词\[D\].\[A\] 因为,由 于;\[B\] 随着,由于,正如;\[C\] 既然. 7.【答案】 B 本题考查词语搭配.
【解析】 能够和 rose(上升)搭配的副词就只有 sharply(急剧地,大量地),其他三个选项 \[A\] 全体一致地,无异议地;\[C\] 主要地,占主导地位地;\[D\] 好战地,激进地. 8.【答案】 C 本题考查逻辑关系. 【解析】前一句说到联邦政府没有资助托儿所,但在这一句里,联邦政府和地方政府开始采 取措施来规范管理控制托儿所. 这两句之间存在逻辑上的转折关系. \[A\] 和\[B\] 两个选 项都表示"因此,所以"之意.\[D\] 进一步来说. 9.【答案】 A 本题考查词语搭配. 【解析】 对什么的控制要用介词 over,比如 advantage over something(比什么有优势), triumph over something(对什么的战胜),victory over something(对什么的胜利),edge over something(对什么有优势),其他三个答案都不能和其搭配. 10.【答案】 D 本题考查动宾搭配. 【解析】 该句的意思是政府主要通过特许或颁发执照,检查和规范托儿所内部状况来控制 托儿所.所以选\[D\] 特许,颁发执照.其他三个选项:\[A\] 阐述,说明;\[B\] 贴标签, 分类;\[C\] 申请专利.因此都不太合适. 11.【答案】 B 本题考查形近词. 【解析】 对付这类题主要是弄清楚各个选项的意思.\[A\] 开端,开始;\[B\] 爆发,发 生;\[C\] 突破;\[D\] 崩溃;故障.这些名词都是由动词转化而来,比如 set out(出发,开 始),break out(爆发,发生),break through(突破),break down(出故障),类似这样的 构词而来的词还有 output(产量),outcome(结果),outlet(发泄机会,出口)等. 12.【答案】 A 本题考查语篇关系. 【解析】 在第一段里提到妇女招收进工厂代替男工的短缺. 该段提到第二次世界大战爆发同 样使得妇女再一次招收进厂.这种跨段落的关系题是完形填空的最难点,从中可以看出,完 形填空题的四个选项不在于词汇量大,而重在对句子之间的衔接关系,相互照应.\[B\] 因 此;\[C\] 不断地,反复地;\[D\] 然而. 13.【答案】 B 本题考查词语固定搭配. 【解析】 只有 occasion 和 on 搭配,circumstance(情况)常和 under 或 in 搭配,under no circumstances(在任何情况下不,决不), case 常和 in 搭配,in no case(决不),in any case(无论如何),situation 和 in 搭配.
14.【答案】 C 本题考查动宾搭配. 【解析】 政府应该是拨款给 600 万美金.\[A\] 控制,调节;\[B\] 召集,召唤;\[C\] 分 派,分配,拨款,另外拨款英语里还可以用 appropriate, grant 来表达;\[D\] 转移,调动, 转学. 15.【答案】 C 本题考查动宾搭配. 【解析】 在政府拨款之后,州和地方应该是对联邦政府的拨款做些补充.\[A\] 赔偿,补 偿;\[B\] 使容易,使便利;\[D\] 扩大,扩充. 16.【答案】 D 本题考查词语固定搭配. 【解析】 care 常和 for 搭配表示"喜欢,照顾"的意思;和 about 搭配表示"在乎,在意" 的意思,和其他的介词不搭配. 17.【答案】 B 本题考查词义区别. 【解析】 该句子意思是托儿所的孩子要接受联邦政府的补助. \[A\] 养老金, 退休金;\[B\] 补助,津贴;\[C\] 公司或国家收入,税收; \[D\] 预算. 18.【答案】 D 本题考查词语搭配. 【解析】 能够和"削减支出"搭配的副词应该是"大量地,急剧地"的意思.\[A\] 流行 地, 盛行地;\[B\] 猛烈地, 狂暴地(常表示态度); \[C\] 统计上地;\[D\] 大量地, 急剧地. 19.【答案】 A,本题考查动宾搭配. 【解析】 政府应该是在大幅度减少支出之后, 废除了这种做法. \[A\] 废除, 取消;\[B\] 减 少,缩小;\[C\] 危害,伤害;\[D\] 排除. 20.【答案】 C 本题考查动宾搭配. 【解析】 该句说让大多数雇佣的母亲离开她们的工作岗位只是得到部分实现.\[A\] 托儿 所;\[B\] 家庭;\[C\] 工作;\[D\] 孩子. 全文翻译 美国第一家日间托儿所建立于 1854 年, 随后在 19 世纪后半叶, 托儿所在全国各地相继建立, 其中大部分托儿所都是慈善组织.第一次世界大战促进了欧洲和美国托儿所运动的极大发 展, 当时劳动力短缺使得工业史无前例地雇佣大量妇女工作. 在一些欧洲国家政府的直接资 助下,托儿所甚至建在了军火厂里.尽管美国托儿所的数量也在急剧增长,但是托儿所数量
的增加并没有得到政府的任何资助.然而,在第一次世界大战结束后的几年里,联邦政府和 地方政府主要是通过对托儿所颁发执照, 检查和约束托儿所内部的状况来对它们开始采取控 制措施. 随着第二次世界大战的爆发, 几乎各国托儿所的数量都迅速增加, 妇女又再一次因为男工的 短缺而招收进工厂.这一次,美国政府直接支持建立托儿所,并于 1942 年 7 月拨款 600 万 美金, 来支持为工作母亲的孩子提供托儿所这一计划. 许多州和当地社会都相继对联邦政府 的资助进行补充.到 1945 年 8 月二战结束时,一百多万儿童在接受联邦政府补助的托儿所 里得到了照顾.之后不久,联邦政府大幅度削减支出,后来把这些拨款取消了,使得在运营 中的托儿所的数量急剧下降. 然而, 让大多数受雇母亲在战后离开她们的工作岗位的这一愿 望只是部分得到实现. Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Text1 21.【答案】 D 【解析】 本题考查推理引申. 第一段首句提到巴腾渥德得到的两条建议. 第一条建议是: "经 济方面的坏消息对于债券市场来说却是好消息".由此可知,从经济领域和证券市场中一方 的状况可以反推出另一方的状况.因此[D]正确,be indicative of sth.意为"表明,暗 示,标示".第二条建议是:"美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言".由此只能推 知这位美国联邦储备局前主席说的话很有分量,不能推出他"喜欢评论(enjoyed making comments)".从该句可知,沃尔克曾通过重踏来势迅猛的通货膨胀重建了央行的信誉. restore 一词表明联邦储备局, 美国的中央银行在控制通货膨胀上也曾经失利, [B] 即, 排除 . [C] 无从推知. 22.【答案】 D 【解析】本题考查词义理解.passing 一词出现在第一段第四句.其上文提到,"债券交易 员得到的两条建议有两处细微的缺陷. 第一点是要从现任联邦储备局主席的嘴里听到精确而 有分量的话不只是……的困难(more than passing difficulty)".显然这一内容是针对 上文第二条建议(即,美国联邦储备局前主席说的话都是金玉良言)而讲的.由"缺陷" (drawbacks)一词可知,从现任联邦储备局主席那听到金玉良言是非常困难的,这种困难 不是"微不足道的",因此[D]正确. 23.【答案】 A
【解析】本题考查事实细节.由第二段第二句可知,美国经济第三季度呈现快速增长,这种 增长是由一直以来挥霍无度的美国消费者以及仅此一次的公司投资带来的 (driven by...) . 由此可知[A] 是促进经济增长的原因之一.另外一个原因是"公司投资(corporate investment)",而非"外国投资",排除[B] .下文虽然提到"新房子建造速度快", 但它是经济增长的表现,而非原因.[D]在文中没有作为经济增长的原因被提及. 24.【答案】 C 【解析】本题考查推理引申.文章最后一段第二句提到,一直以来作为美国国债最大的外国 买家的亚洲中央银行最近改变了过去的做法. 接着该段以具体数据说明外国买家购买美国国 债的数量下降. 从文中 "swallowing American government debt like there was no tomorrow" 可看出作者认为大举购买国债的做法是"不谨慎"的,而下文"have had second thoughts" 他表明它变得更加慎重,因此[C] 为正确答案. 25.【答案】 B 【解析】 本题考查词义理解."keep a lid on"出现在最后一段倒数第二句,表示对"日 元升值"做的动作.下文提到具体做法是:日本中央银行忙于购进美元并且把这些钱转为政 府债务.四个选项都是同一方向的表达,根据经济常识,应选[B],表示"限制日元的升 值". 全文翻译 作为一名年轻的债券交易员,巴腾渥德得到了两条建议,如果采纳的话,它们是贸易的经验 法则:一,经济方面的坏消息对于债券市场来说就是好消息;二,从美国联邦储备局前主席 保罗沃尔克口中说出的每一句话,都要比大教皇的命令还值得重视.沃尔克通过控制来势 迅猛的通货膨胀重建了央行的信誉.当然,如今的交易员是一群更精明的人.但是这些建议 除了有两处细微的缺陷外,看上去仍是不错的.首先,要从现任联邦储备局主席阿伦格林 斯潘嘴里听到精确而有分量的话不只是微不足道的困难. 第二, 最近经济的好消息似乎并没 有让债券投资者很不安. 尽管欢呼声已经四处响起, 但是本来期待由于经济好消息而上涨的 10 年期债券的收益率现在是 4.2%,这仅仅只比年初高了 0.4 个百分点,换句话说,是几乎 没有改变. 但是到目前为止,前沿经济信息比任何人预期的都要好.在 11 月 25 日周二,修改后的数据 显示,美国经济第三季度年增长率为 8.2%,比人们最初设想的多了整整一个百分点.这种 增长是由一直以来挥霍无度的美国消费者以及仅此一次的公司投资带来的. 从特殊渠道传出 的消息每隔一条就呈现这种强劲的增长势头. 新房子仍在迅速地建造. 尽管地方保护主义者 不停地叫嚣,出口量却仍在增长.甚至曾被嘲讽为"失业型复苏"的劳动力市场,在九,十 月份也增加了 125,000 个左右的就业岗位.表面上看,公司利润的上升,信贷息差的降低,
和迄今为止垃圾债券市场中最大的止跌回升, 都在暗示一个全面的, 持久的经济复苏. 然而, 国债收益率却下降了. 如果说大好的的经济背景使这一切变得奇怪, 那么显而易见的国外需求的疲软就令其更加奇 怪了. 国债的外国买家, 尤其是一直以来不顾后果, 大举购买美国政府债务的亚洲中央银行, 最近似乎变得谨慎起来.根据最新数据显示,九月份外国买家仅仅购买了 56 亿美国国债, 与八月份的 251 亿美元和前四个月平均达到的 387 亿美元相比, 实在相形见绌. 为了努力限 制日元的升值, 日本中央银行仍在忙于购进美元并且把这些钱转为政府债务. 但是其他国家 几乎都在抛售. Text2 26.【答案】 A 【解析】本题考查事实细节.第一段提到,在荷兰食品集团决定付给新任命的首席执行官高 额薪水来引导它从会计丑闻中恢复之后,阿霍德公司四面楚歌的监事会面临的压力日趋上 升.第二段进一步说明,首席执行官安德斯莫博格的薪酬使阿霍德公司面临一场新的信用 危机. 第八段提到, 虽然监事会主席认为这样一个薪酬公平地反映了像阿霍德这样一个处于 不利条件的公司需用多少薪酬才能吸引高层管理人员, 但是愤怒的投资者仍然谴责监事会不 顾他们的意见强行这样做.至此可以推出,薪酬的决定受到他们的批评.[A]项正确. [B]和[C]项是高薪聘用的意图,[A]项才是结果.第四段提到,首席执行官批评非执 行董事没有接受他公布薪酬的建议.第六段又引用他的话指出,如果一开始将薪酬透明化, 就可以避免现在的不利形势.因此,首席执行官感到的不是压力,而是对薪酬不能公布于众 的做法不满. 27.【答案】 D 【解析】本题考查事实细节.第三段提到,关于薪酬问题的争议威胁到管理层的注意力将从 复兴策略上转移.该策略通过企业出售(divestments)和可能的授权来减少债务.那些被 认为不能在三至五年内获得食品零售第一,二位的零售企业(units)将立即被拍卖.因此, [D]项正确.[A]和[B]项文中未提,[C]项虽然出现了原词 issue rights,但出现 了没有的信息 more retailers,也应排除. 28.【答案】 A 【解析】本题考查推理引申.注意题干中 if 条件句中用的是虚拟语气,因此正确选项应是 一种未能实现的结果. 第四段提到安德斯 莫博格批评公司非执行董事没有接受他在 5 月份 公布薪酬的建议.第六段引用他的话中又提到, "我真希望监事会 5 月份已经公布这个薪酬 来避免这样的情形(监事会处境困难)".因此[A]项正确.
第四段末句中 when 引导的时间状语从句说明 5 月份的时候他已同意签定合同.因此[B]项 不是虚拟结果.文中未把"薪酬"与"复兴计划"联系起来说明两者的相互影响,因此[C] 项无从得知.第八段提到股东反对给莫博格的薪酬,但没有说明是因为公布时间造成的,因 此我们无法得出公布早一些,股东就不会反对.[D]项无从推出. 29.【答案】 C 【解析】本题考查推理引申.第九段提到,荷兰媒体评论员指出,阿霍德公司的丑闻引起荷 兰政府任命一个委员会来加强对公司的管理.这个委员会对管理人员的红利提出了一个限 度,这个限度远远低于莫博格可能挣到的 2.5 倍年薪.可见,丑闻前后的变化在于政府开始 关注并监控管理人员的红利.因此[C]项正确.其他项都不能从文中推出. 30.【答案】 B 【解析】本题考查事实细节.倒数第二段提到,莫博格努力让自己远离争吵,将注意力集中 在复兴计划上.他告诉《金融时报》(FT)说,他已经采取措施增加在斯堪的纳维亚与 ICA 公司合资中的股份.因此[B]项正确. 最后一段提到, 阿霍德在它的预测中已经包括了足够多的资金来购买任何一家合资伙伴的股 份.合资伙伴都应该运用卖出选择权(put option),从 2004 年 4 月开始出售他们的股份. [A] 项显然不对,它把"买"变成了"卖".[C] 项文中未提.[D]项描述不确切, "购买股份"并不是"施加潜在的影响". 全文翻译 荷兰食品集团决定付给它新任命的首席执行官 1000 多万欧元的高额薪水从而引导它从毁灭 性的会计丑闻中恢复,这之后,阿霍德公司四面楚歌的监事会面临的压力日趋上升. 自 9 7 亿欧元(折合 10 亿美元)的丑闻后阿霍德公司一直在努力恢复信心.首席执行官 安德斯 莫博格的薪酬——它的公布时间选择在上周的股东会议上——使阿霍德公司再次面 临一场新的信用危机. 这周荷兰媒体大量的批评性评论反映出来的关于薪酬问题的争议, 威胁到管理层的注意力将 从复兴策略上转移.该策略以相当多的企业出售和可能的授权为基础来减少 11 亿欧元的债 务.那些被认为不能在三至五年内获得食品零售第一,二位的零售企业将立即被拍卖. 在莫博格先生作出评论后, 董事会的立场显得更加微妙. 他在金融时报的采访中批评非执行 董事没有接受他的建议,在他已同意签约的 5 月份就公布薪酬.
然而, 阿霍德公司等到 4 个月后才作出公布, 并在当天要求股东们同意任命莫博格先生. "我 说过我喜欢事情透明化,我真希望监事会 5 月份已经公布薪酬来避免这样的情形发生".莫 博格先生对金融时报说. 当这场争论促使左翼的《荷兰日报》要求抵制阿霍德在荷兰的超市连锁店 Albert Heijn 的 商品时, 很显然监事会对这个反应已经作出了错误的判断. 上周阿霍德公司刚宣布该连锁店 裁减员工 440 名. 虽然监事会主席亨利 德 鲁伊特认为这样一个薪酬公平地反映了像阿霍德这样一个处于不 利条件下的公司需用多少薪酬才能吸引高层管理人员, 但是愤怒的投资者仍然谴责监事会不 顾他们的意见强行这样做. 此外, 荷兰媒体评论员指出, 阿霍德公司的丑闻已经引起荷兰政府任命委员会来加强对公司 的管理. 这个委员会对管理人员的红利提出了一个限度, 这个限度远远低于莫博格可能挣到 的 2.5 倍年薪. 与此同时,莫博格先生努力让自己远离争吵,将注意力集中在复兴计划上.他告诉《金融时 报》,他已经采取措施增加在斯堪的纳维亚与 ICA 公司合资中的股份. 阿霍德公司已经预计要使用足够多的资金来购买任何一家合资伙伴的股份. 合资伙伴可以运 用"卖出选择权",从 2004 年 4 月开始出售他们的股份. Text3 31.【答案】 A 【解析】第一段提到,投资者几年前的梦想是永远拿到 20%的(股票投资)回报.现在调查 显示它降到了"现实的"8%至 10%的范围.第二段作者先提出疑问:但是如果未来几年里这 个值低于正常的期望呢?接着以银行信用分析家 Martin Barnes 和标准普尔 5000 指数为例 指出,未来股票投资回报率必然是下降的.第二段末句作者指出,很少有投资者为此作好了 准备. 由此可推出, 面对股票投资回报下降的趋势, 投资者的判断是不够现实的, 是幻想的. 另外,第一段的 dreamed of,realistic 的引号,以及第二段 sound impossible 后面的问 号也都暗示了这一点.因此[A] 项正确. 32.【答案】 D 【解析】 本题考虑事实细节题.第四段第一句提到,许多投资者(savers)对拥有太多公 司股票的危险视而不见.[D]项是该句的改写,其中 turn a deaf ear 对应原文中的 shut their eyes to,the warning 对应 the dangers.
第三段作者通过休伊特(Hewitt)咨询公司的职员的介绍说明,投资者仍在不断地投钱 (keeping their contributions up),但是他们不太愿意把资金转投其他地方了(less inclined to switch their money around).由此排除[A]和[C]项.第三段末句"投 资者普遍感到吃惊(overwhelmed)"指的就是持股者对股市不景气的反应.因此[B]项与 事实不符. 33.【答案】 B 【解析】本题考查作者观点.第五段中作者提到,年青的雇员没有选择,只能等到 50 或 55 岁才能卖掉公司的股票以作为配送缴款(matching contribution).第六段则提到,而老 雇员在能够退出(getting out)的时候却没有.60 岁和以上的人中 1/3 的人选择公司股票 作为他们 3/4 的投资计划. 该段末句作者连续用几个问号对这种做法进行了质疑: 难道他们 疏忽了?过度忠诚?疾病?由此我们可推出作者的观点是反对投资自己公司的做法.因此 [B]项正确,排除[A] 项. 第七段首句作者则提到,投资者不应该完全信任任何一家公司的股票.因此[D] 项是作者 反对的.[C] 项文中未提.词汇补充:to a fault"过度地",如 generous to a fault (过度慷慨). 34.【答案】 B 【解析】题干中的几个专有名词出现在第六段末,该句用虚拟语气指出,就好像朗讯,安然 和施乐的事情从来未发生过一样. 联系上下文, 上文作者对雇员购买公司股票的行为表示质 疑,下文则提出不应完全信任任何一家公司.由此可推出,这是三家作为反面例子的公司, 由于它们的先后破产,使持有这些公司股票的人受到很大的损失.[B]项最恰当. 35.【答案】 A 【解析】最后一段作者给出了自己对股票投资的看法:多样股可以长远地保持稳定,再加上 债券的支持.可见,作者鼓励投资者做长远地考虑.上文中作者对投资公司股票行为的警告 也是在劝告投资人不要抱有一劳永逸的想法, 要有长远的计划, 预期可能出现的风险. 所以, \[A\] 为正确选项. 全文翻译 当泡沫的毒效和它的严重后果在整个金融系统中散开时, 我们正在进入另外一个时代. 就在 几年前投资者还在梦想永远拿到 20%的股票投资回报.现在调查显示它降到了"现实的"8% 至 10%的范围.
但是如果未来几年里这个值低于正常的期望呢?蒙特利尔银行信用分析家马丁 巴恩斯预计 未来的股票投资回报率平均为 4%至 6%.听起来不可能?一个较小的泡沫于 20 世纪 60 年代 破灭之后,在接下来的 17 年里标准普尔 5000 股票的回报率平均一年为 6.9%(包括红利再 投资).很少有投资者为此作好了准备. 现在看来,投资者似乎选择了否认的态度.休伊特咨询公司的职员洛丽卢卡斯指出,这很 具代表性.你不会愿意看到自己的投资效益减少.休伊特公司每日跟进 500,000 401 (k)帐 户, 发现投资者仍在不断地投钱, 但是他们不太愿意把资金转投其他地方了. 卢卡斯说, "这 是老虎机效应, 当人们认为他们找到了一台赌运极佳的机器时会对玩更有兴趣, 但如今没有 什么是幸运的.投资者普遍感到吃惊." 违背常识的是,许多投资者对拥有太多公司股票的危险视而不见.不可思议的是,去年大公 司中 29%的雇员在他们自己的股票投资中至少有 3/4 的 402(k).年轻的雇员没有选择,只 能等到 50 或 55 岁才能卖掉公司的股票以作为配送缴款. 但是据休伊特公司报导, 老雇员在 能够退出的时候却也一直死抱着股票不放.60 岁和以上的人中 1/3 选择公司股票作为他们 3/4 的投资计划.难道他们疏忽了?过度忠诚?疾病?就好像朗讯,安然和施乐的事情从来 未发生过一样. 投资者不应该完全信任任何一家公司的股票. 当你投资时, 考虑一下如果未来的股票投资回 报(好的年份和不好的年份一平均)像巴恩斯所预测的那样糟糕,后果会如何? 如果你问我,我认为多样股加上债券的支持可以长远地保持稳定.但是,我也在计算股票投 资回报的减少.多么的羞耻.亲爱的泡沫,我永远不会忘记它,它是重大事件的终止.
年考研英语模拟试题二参考答案及解析( 2010 年考研英语模拟试题二参考答案及解析(2)(2010-01-04 11:19:00) 分类:【专区】英语 标签:2010 年考研 英语模拟试卷 教育
来源:《2010 考研英语考前必做三套题》 《 考研英语考前必做三套题》 Text4 36.【答案】 D 【解析】本题考查推理引申.第二段第二句介绍了玛侬和奴隶谈话从不注意礼貌.第二段第 三句提到,玛侬对异族通婚有着强烈的兴趣(enormously attracted)……她的过度关注却 是病态的(pathological).该段末句提到,玛侬喋喋不休地谈论着所有"可怕的混血", 讨厌的"黄种"人.综合上述内容可知,玛侬对有色人种是厌恶的.[D]正确. 37.【答案】 C 【解析】 本题考查推理引申.第二段首句提到,读者被迫通过玛侬,而不是莎拉的视角去 看这一切.由此可知[C] 正确,排除[D].第四段第三句提到,这本书的微妙之处在于
随着故事情节的发展读者对所有人物的看法突然发生了改变. 因此持变化观点的是读者, 而 非作者,排除[A].第四段首句提到,玛侬的丈夫总是被称之为"我的丈夫"或"他", 没有给出名字,但由第二段首句可知,主人公玛侬是第一称.因此[B]也不正确. 38.【答案】 B 【解析】本题考查推理引申.第三段第二句提到,让玛侬感到厌恶的是,黑人实际上也有自 尊. 接着下文分别举出买鞋子和妓女的事例说明玛侬不会接受黑人胆敢不尊重白人和黑人妇 女得到白人男人的爱.由此可推出[B]是玛侬对黑人的看法.[A]在该段首句中提到,是 社会背景,不是玛侬的观点.由第二段末句中"可怕的混血,讨厌的黄种人"可知,玛侬显 然是蔑视异族通婚的,排除[C].[D] 无从推知. 39.【答案】 A 【解析】 本题考查事实细节.第四段第三句提到,随着故事情节的发展,我们对所有人物 的看法突然都发生了改变.因此[A]正确.该段末句只提到,玛侬的丈夫最后表现出令人 钦佩的坚强和勇气,而玛侬本人则赢得了读者的钦佩.但玛侬和丈夫之间的关系没有提及, 因此排除[B].文中也没有提到"情感危机"的结局,排除[C] .[D] 错在"所有的 怀疑",文中是"玛侬对莎拉所有的怀疑",因此也应排除. 40.【答案】 B 【解析】本题考查事实细节.文章首句提到,这篇小说中真正的女英雄离所叙述的内容有一 段距离.因此文章一开始就埋下了伏笔.接下来文章介绍了小说的主人公及大概情节.到了 第四段末,文章指出,读者对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变.玛侬对莎拉的怀疑都是有 根据的,而且玛侬还赢得了读者对她个性的由衷的钦佩.由此可见,玛侬是文章一开始提到 的"真正的女英雄".[B]正确.玛侬的丈夫在第一段中是"仗势欺人的人",但到了第 四段则"表现出令人钦佩的坚强和勇气",因此[A] 不正确.[C]无从推知.由第一段 末可知,沃特是男主人和莎拉的私生子,[D]错在 prostitution. 全文翻译 这篇小说中真正的女英雄离所叙述的内容有一段距离. 表面上看, 读者更容易对神秘而足智 多谋的女奴莎拉产生同情和好奇, 因为她成为了三角恋爱关系中的一角. 莎拉是玛侬的财产, 因此当女主人来到路易斯安那州破败的糖料种植园,嫁给懒惰,仗势欺人的男主人时,莎拉 也跟随而来. 但是玛侬的丈夫很快被莎拉迷住, 这从他们生下来的弱智的小儿子沃特那得到 了证明. 然而,读者被迫通过玛侬,而不是莎拉的视角去看这一切.玛侬意识让人很不舒服.虽然礼 貌在白人社会中是司空见惯的,但她和奴隶谈话时从不说"请"或"谢谢".玛侬对异族通
婚有着强烈的兴趣,(在这个故事发生的时间——19 世纪初——和地点,这种关注是寻常 的,但她的过度关注却是病态的).沃特继承了他父亲的红色卷发和绿眼睛,他母亲的金色 皮肤和丰满的,向前凸起的嘴唇,因此成了玛侬特别憎恨的对象.但是她仍然喋喋不休地谈 论着所有"可怕的混血",讨厌的"黄种"人. 在玛侬矛盾的观点之外,我们可以粗略瞥见"自由的黑人"和正在兴起的黑人中产阶级.让 玛侬感到厌恶的是,这些人实际上都有自尊.在新奥尔良买鞋子时,玛侬对店主出乎意料的 粗鲁感到吃惊. 异族的妓女们得到了男种植园主们的喜爱, 因为她们可以提供妻子不能给予 的一些神秘的东西. 那些东西到底是什么?为什么妻子不能给予?这都是玛侬不可能提出来 的问题,更别提回答了. 该书前三分之一的内容是有关玛侬,莎拉和那个总是被称之为"我的丈夫"或"他"的男人 之间的不稳定的,难以持续的和平关系.在风起云涌的奴隶起义和奴隶报复行动的背景下, 显然和平不会持续太久. 这本书的微妙之处在于随着故事情节的发展, 当感情不可避免地突 然爆发时, 我们对所有人物的看法突然都发生了改变. 原来玛侬对莎拉的所有的怀疑都是有 根据的;在死亡之际,玛侬的丈夫表现出令人钦佩的坚强和勇气;而玛侬本人则赢得了读者 对她的勇敢,坚忍和毫不自怜的个性的由衷的钦佩. 也许这个社会最残忍的地方是它支解和扭曲家庭感情的方式. 奴隶的孩子出生后很快就会被 卖掉; 莎拉未来的丈夫如果想要得到她就要用钱买; 而玛侬自己也究竟只不过是她丈夫的财 产. Part B Sample One 41.C42.F43.A44.E45.B 分析 本文为一篇"一般一特殊型"思维的文章.文章主要谈论的是艺术价值,首先指出两种普遍 的极端的观点,然后指出一些折中和特殊的观点. 全文翻译 艺术价值理论有两种, 我们称之为外在理论和内在理论. 前者将艺术和对艺术的欣赏看作是 达到某种公认的道德利益的手段; 而后者看到的不是它们工具性的价值而是投向自身物体的 价值. 外在理论的特点是将艺术价值定位于其对艺术欣赏者的影响. 艺术被认为是一种教育 形式,也许是一种情感教育.在这种情况下,是否有一些达到同样效果的更有效的方法成了 公开的问题.或者,人们也许认为艺术有负面价值,正如柏拉图在他的《理想国》一书里所
认为的那样,艺术会影响那些接触它的人,使其堕落,或起不到教化作用.现代社会中被列 夫托尔斯泰吸收进 1896 年出版的《艺术论》一书中的外在理论,似乎不能完全令人满意. 哲学家们一直在不懈地探索唯美体验中的价值. 这种价值是独一无二的, 因此不能从别处获 得.极端的内在理论与华特佩特,奥斯卡王尔德及法国印象主义者联系在一起,总结为 一句口号:"为艺术而艺术".这些思想家和作家相信:艺术的目的在于其本身,而且艺术 也是对其自身的证明.他们还相信,若要以正确的方式理解艺术,必须放弃对其他方面的关 注而只关注艺术作品本身. 在这两种极端的观点之间,有一些折中的观点.比如,我们认为对艺术品的欣赏必须基于作 品本身, 而我们在欣赏过程中能从中获得一些独立的价值. 对笑话发笑是因为笑话本身可笑, 但笑声本身又有独立的价值,这一价值使得我们能在片刻间脱离自己,点亮生活.在这一点 上,艺术作品又何尝不具有相似性?许多艺术作品渴望着与好的笑话一样具有娱乐性. 有些人认为,这种和笑声的类比本身就是一种审美价值.它引进了一个新的概念——品味. 若没有这一概念, 就不可能对艺术价值做严肃的讨论. 若我感到有趣, 肯定有其原因. "原 此 因"存在于令我感到有趣的对象.因此,我们开始考虑对令人发笑的好的原因和坏的原因进 行区分.对不好的事情感到有趣说明我们思想堕落,残忍或审美眼光差;出现这样的情况, 我们会说对象本身并不真正有趣,我们之所以感到有趣是因为我们自身的原因. 与之相似的是,我们认为某些艺术品值得关注,而另外一些却不值得.在作此判断时,我们 会利用各种令人费解的,评判道德的词汇;艺术品和人一样,会因为其感伤,粗俗,残忍, 或自我放纵受到谴责,会因为其热情,同情,高尚,敏感和真实受到褒扬.显然,若要有积 极的审美价值,必须有好的审美眼光;只有对恰当的物体感兴趣才对我们有益处.因此,所 有对艺术价值的讨论都趋向背离了起初的评论方向: 会有对艺术的真正临界评价吗?即, 在 值得关注的作品和不值得关注的作品之间,存在着真正的界限吗? Sample Two 41.C42.E43.A44.B45.D 分析 本文是一篇"问题——分析——解决"型文章.作者在第 1 自然段指出了电视对美国人的影 响,在第 2,3 自然段分析了电视"娱乐"以及"教化"的关系,在第 4 段分析了电视目前 存在的问题,在第 5,6 自然段分析了存在问题的原因.最后给出了解决的方法. 全文翻译 虽然人们质疑他们的动机,可是总统,副总统对电视娱乐节目的道德内涵所做的攻击,已在 美国人灵魂的殿堂中引起回响.许多人并不认同发言者的看法,可是仍然认同他们的寓意.
他们都不喜欢美国电视节目的道德腔调. 在我们的社会中, 论及传达价值观, 提供角色典范, 形成良知与启发行为等方面,电视的影响力大概只有家庭能够与之相比.教育家,宗教领袖 或政治领袖当中也很少有人的道德影响力能超过那些创造娱乐节目的人. 凡是好节目,不仅要牢牢抓住观众,也要能启发观众了解做人的意义.这样的节目可以帮助 人们成长,成为上帝创造人的本来面目:沉稳,独立自由,充满欢乐与爱.意义,自由与爱 ——这些就是最高的人性价值.美国观众有权要求娱乐节目的制作者提供这种人性的养料. 问题不在于娱乐与教化之间的抉择.这两样是互补的,分开都无法成立.只有娱乐而没有教 化的节目太肤浅,而且逃避现实.只有教化而没有娱乐的节目就是枯燥乏味.两者兼具有的 节目会让人惊喜. 美国观众看到的是这样的节目吗?各大电视网黄金时段的节目大概有 10%是娱乐与教化的巧 妙结合.从前的电视影片有些是富有人性价值的,可是现在都成了稀有品种了.我觉得电视 节目太关切人们拥有的,太不关心人的本质;相当关切人如何照顾自己,完全不关心如何将 自我与别人分享. 电视往往告诉我们的是我们要听的那一半的真理, 而不是我们该听的全部 的真理. 电视为什么不能更完整地实现它促进人性的潜力?是否该归咎于创作电视节目的这圈子?有 一部分是的,但不是主要的部分.我在这个圈子生活和工作有 32 年了,我既是神父也是制 作人.这个圈子的人是有一批有人生价值的人.事实上,这几个月来,好莱坞正在流行如何 教化观众.一些媒体公司也联合起来出资设立"人道奖",以褒扬,奖励达到教化观众目标 的节目. 美国电视的问题不是在于缺乏有良心的节目工作者, 而是在于他们不得不在其工作的商业体 系.美国的电视是一门生意.在过去,生意一直通过在公共服务这方面的承诺来加以平衡. 近年来,大众传播的听众群被瓜分,利息支出庞大,制作成本高涨,再加上联邦通讯委员会 放弃了维护公益的职责, 于是造成电视节目几乎完全以盈亏为依据. 各大电视网在挣扎求生. 而从统计数字上看,观众要的仿佛是没有大脑,没有良心,逃避现实的节目.如果我们对电 视公司请我们观赏的节目的道德内涵不满意, 我想我们首先该反省一下自己的内心. 我们打 开电视,是打算投入现实,以获取其意义,还是希望逃避到一个加了镇静剂的虚幻世界?如 果宗教领袖想要提升美国娱乐的品质,不要再搞抵制,制作准则或审查制度,应该致力于教 育人民了解媒体基础知识,并动员他们大批地出来支持高品质的节目. 要改进美国娱乐节目的道德内涵,这是唯一可靠的办法. Sample Three 41.C42.B43.D44.F45.E
分析 本文谈论的中心是缓解压力的方法.使用的主要思维方式是"一般——特殊型".从各个侧 面谈论了如何有效地缓解压力. 注意在做此类题型时, 一般不要从专有名词的照应角度去看. 从这种角度去看往往会落入命题干扰的"陷阱".语义的一致性是最基本的原则. 全文翻译 冬日恶劣的天气, 白昼时间的缩短和家庭的需求等都可能加剧人的压力感. 据美国压力学院 院长保罗 罗施博士透露, 美国中西部某头痛诊所曾报道, 与一年中其它的六周时间段相比, 在从感恩节到圣诞节这六周时间里,感到紧张和周期性偏头痛的人增加了 40%. 目前许多医生在接受缓解紧张和压力方面的技术培训. 但他们自己又使用哪些方法呢?在这 里,一些优秀的健康专家与我们分享他们最喜欢用的缓解压力的方法.方法共有六种,它们 是: 食物镇静法.当营养生化学家朱迪思沃尔特曼受到压力困扰时,她所做的和这个季节里其 他人所做的没什么两样:吃些东西.但她吃的是一两块有益于健康的米糕. "我的研究结果 表明, 碳水化合物能提高大脑中调节情绪的化学血清素的水平, 这对整个人体都起到镇静作 用,"这位麻省理工学院的科学家说,"因此压力的症状诸如愤怒,紧张,易怒,无法集中 精力等便被缓解了." 跑步避开你的问题.肯尼思H库珀医生用每天下班后跑步的方法应付自己所面临的压力. 这位专家认为: "增氧健身运动是驱除压力和从工作过渡到家庭生活的最佳方法."但他提 醒说, 不要让运动本身变成压力. 即使轻度的活动——譬如说每天散步半个小时——也有利 于强健体魄,调节情绪."这便是我告诉患者务必每天遛狗的原因,"他笑着说,"即使他 们没有狗." 调整看问题的方法.梅奥诊所应付压力专家,心理学家约翰泰勒驾车驶入医院准备投入一 天紧张的工作时, 他看到他微型汽车的汽油更换指示灯啪地一声打开了. 他面对的是不间断 会见病人的日程表,下班后还要去接三岁的孩子."我感到非常紧张",他回忆说,接着他 试用他驱赶压力的方法.他问自己,这是生死攸关的问题吗?不是,油完全可以下个星期去 换. 他告诉患者只做那些不做就会造成严重的事情. "你不洗那些衣服就会死去吗?" 他问. 他特别提出,每天应留半小时做你喜欢做的事情,给自己重新充电.尤其是在假日里,放下 一些日常的家务事,为与家人和朋友相处留些时间. 朝轻松的方面看. 作家兼教育家乔尔 古德曼和几位忧虑的病人亲戚们一起乘坐一辆旅馆免 费接客车.司机开始给饱尝压力的乘客们讲笑话. "后为他变了几个小戏法使我和母亲笑了 起来."古德曼说,"在乘车的五分钟内,他教会我们幽默可以缓解压力".古德曼被自己 这段经历所打动,对笑的力量进行了研究.他认为:"开心的笑可以放松肌肉,降低血压,
抑制与压力有关的荷尔蒙的分泌并增强免疫系统."在他的研讨会上,他让客人们自问他们 最喜欢的喜剧演员会如何看待这个让人感到压力的处境. 给自己留出休息时间. 超负荷的日程表是导致忧虑的主要原因. 这种压力的产生可以通过提 前做准备加以阻止.心脏病学专家雷罗森曼在旧金山芒特蔡恩医院做内科副主任时,他 每天在日程表中留出半小时."如果有急论,我就把这段时间留给病人,"《甲种行为与你 的心脏》的合著者罗森曼说, "不然我就用这半小时回电话或翻看信件.你虽然不可能控制 所有的事情,但你可以控制你的日程表,给自己留出一点休息的时间." 做点祷告.科罗拉多州博尔德市的心理学家和医学科学家琼博里森科主张,因为大多数人 花费太多时间为过去感到极度痛苦或为将来感到忧虑, 所以减轻压力的关键在于学会如何使 现在的生活富有激情. "要做到这一点,依靠某种仪式是有益处的,"博里森科说.她感到最放松的时候是"我每 天早晨所祈祷时" 祷告已显示出可使新甲肾上腺素和肾上腺素这类造成压力的荷尔蒙减少. . 但要记住,博里森科说,医生无法打开病人的"内在愈合系统."那种内在的平静只有通过 你自己的努力才能达到.如果你饱受压力之苦,就自己行动起来吧. Sample Four 41.E42.D43.A44.C45.B 分析 本文为一篇"一般——特殊型"思维的文章.文章主要谈论的是枫树的传说.篇章具体谈论 了传说,加拿大人对枫树的喜爱,枫树的象征意义和枫树一词的词源探索等方面. 全文翻译 对加拿大人来说, 秋天篝火中燃烧的枫树冒出的烟气就是薰香. 糖枫树给人带来扑鼻的香气, 耀眼的色彩和令人咂舌回味的甘甜, 它促使我写下这篇文章, 告诉大家我最喜爱的一个神话 以及"maple"(枫树)一词的独特词源. 在奥吉布瓦族印第安人的民间传说里,枫树总会赫然显现出来,占有重要的地位.每年熬制 枫糖的时节就"在'枫树月'里".在奥吉布瓦人的心目中,最原始的女性形象是一个聪明 的老奶奶,名叫诺柯米丝.有一个关于四季轮回的传说讲到,一群叫温迪格的食人恶鬼在秋 天的乡野追赶诺柯米丝.温迪格们是在滴水成冰的严寒里生长起来的.它们侵入人体时,人 的心脏就冻成冰块.在这个故事里,温迪格们代表将要来临的冬天.它们正在追逐可怜的诺 柯米丝,要把她杀死吃掉,因为她像夏天一样已经衰老.
诺柯米丝知道,她若是被抓则必死无疑,于是她运用智谋蒙蔽那群冷酷的恶鬼.她躲进一片 红色,橙色,深黄色的枫树林里.树林长在一挂瀑布旁边,瀑布的水雾使树林的轮廓变得模 糊.当那些口滴馋涎的温迪格们透过水雾费力地窥探时,以为看见了一团熊熊的烈火,以为 自己追逐的猎物正在烈火中燃烧. 其实诺柯米丝老奶奶只不过是被她的枫树朋友用红得发亮 的叶子掩蔽起来了.于是温迪格们不追了,它们流着口水,喘着粗气,口水顷刻结成了冰, 呵气顷刻凝成了霜;它们就这样走了,去寻找更容易捕获的猎物.那些枫树由于救了大地母 亲诺柯米丝的命而得到了上天的特别恩赐: 它们的生命液将永远甘甜, 加拿大人将汲取这汁 液来获取营养. 枫树和枫糖浆甜蜜地进入了加拿大式幽默之中.魁北克省人以"sirop d'erable"亲切地 称呼枫糖浆,而对各种含有黏乎乎葡萄糖液的仿制枫糖浆,总要加上一个带强烈贬意的词, 把这种含糖的"冒牌货"叫作"sirop de Poteau",意为"电线杆糖浆"或"死树糖浆". 有人说,枫糖浆只是北美洲才有,我认为这种说法不可信.中国有近百种枫树,比世界上任 何国家都多.加拿大只有十个原生的品种.诚然,北美洲有幸成为汁液最甜,流量最多的糖 枫故乡. 可是, 要是说在中国几千年的历史上, 善于创新的中国人从来没有采过枫树的汁液, 没有尝过它的味道,我们能相信吗?我想他们是尝过的.那些最早跨过白令海峡"陆桥"来 北美洲和南美洲繁衍生息的原始印第安人, 有没有可能带来关于枫糖浆的知识呢?中文里有 没有表述枫糖浆的古老词语呢?中国文学里有没有提到枫糖浆呢?我这个不懂中文的人对 这些问题有些望而怯步,但也不是找不到答案. 有一点是肯定的,枫树总是牵动着我们民族的想象力.早在 1700 年,枫叶就被用作"新法 兰西"殖民地的徽记了.到了 19 世纪中期,枫叶已成为英属加拿大省份的徽记了.1867 年 秋季,多伦多市一个名叫亚历山大缪尔的小学教师疲惫地走在市区的一条大街上,整个路 面覆盖着一层松软的落叶,踩在脚下发出扑哧,扑哧的声响.他走着走着,突然间一片枫叶 落到他的外衣袖子上,粘住了.当天晚上,他在家写下一首诗,并谱了曲,以庆祝加拿大自 治领成立.缪尔创作的这首名为《永远的枫叶》的歌曲,受到公众的热烈欢迎,它还把枫叶 这个象征物与加拿大紧密地联系在一起. "maple"(枫树)来自古英语表述枫树的词,"mapeltreow"."maple"的原始日尔曼语 词根是 mapl , 这是一个复合词根, 我相信它的第一部分 m 就是那几乎遍及全世界的 ma, 即人类最早发出的声音之一,也就是婴儿撅起嘴唇要吮吸母乳时发出的声音.Ma 这个词根 在世界上许多语言里都有,构成了几千个词,如"mama" (妈妈), "mammary" (乳房的), "maia"(母亲\[源于希腊神话\] ),"Amazon"(亚马逊族女武士)等.在这里,它可 以使 mapl 指"有营养的母亲树",也就是说,一棵有着营养丰富的枫液的树.这个复合 词根的第二部分 apl ,是印欧语系的 abel 的变体,意为"任何树产的水果",它也是英 语中另一个表示水果的词"apple"(苹果)的词源.因此,这种原始的类比法就使枫叶的 汁液与另一种有营养的汁液——母乳——相媲美了.
Part C (46)其动机是宗教性质的,但他也说这是一种明显的技巧,一种方法,它可以产生预期的政 治效果. (47)这个由甘地提出并付诸实践的方法,最早起源于南非,是一种非暴力的斗争方式,用既 不伤害对方又不会引发仇恨的手段打败敌人. (48)早年间, 在布尔战争期间甘地曾经为英方抬过担架, 而且在 1914 1918 年战争期间他 又准备这么做. (49)而且也确实没有采取毫无意义的, 不诚实的态度, 假装说在所有战争中参战双方完全一 样,因而谁获得胜利都无所谓. (50)我必须说, 我从未从任何一个西方和平主义者那里听到过对该问题的诚实的答复, 但是 却听大了大量的躲闪之词,通常都是"你是另外一回事"之类的回答. Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Dear Wang Ming, I feel awfully sorry indeed that you have been ill for a couple of days.I have learned from your roommate that you are recovering well and that you will go out of hospital within three days.I am really relieved to know this exciting news. In the following few days I sincerely hope you should take a good rest, have an excellent state of mind, and follow the doctor's advice strictly.Just take it easy and don't worry about the study.I shall help you make up the content you have missed while you are in hospital. With the best wishes for your quick and complete recovery. Yours ever Li Hong Part B
52. When the issue of poisonous milk powder gains an overwhelming focus from the public, what are these malefactors doing?As we can see from the depiction,enterprise, milk station, milk cow and even grass are trying to find someone scapegoating for this credit crisis,in my view point, that's nothing to do with the credit but the problem of responsibility. Responsibility is a keyword that we should never disregard,defined not only as the courage to face every foreseeable risk, but as the braveness to entail every malpractice when it really takes place as well.The causes of the shortage of responsibility or even conscience may be as follows. Firstly, inner cause ascribing probably to the destructive influence emanating from the decay of morality may result in the over materialism.Furthermore,outerly,deficient supervisal gives rise to the fearless adventurer who is at the risk of anything,not to say to deviate from his own liability,to pursue as many as profits.A case in point is the Melamine laced Milk Incident which almost destroyed the whole of China's milk industry. It is imperative that drastic measures should be taken to end this thorny situation, such as enacting related law to reinforce our supervisal mechanism to avoid the behavior of kicking the ball when something bad happen and promoting social entities to regain one of Chinese traditional virtues,which is called "who would enter the hell if I wouldn't",that means,undoubtedly,to learn to be responsible for the blunder means sensible Unflinchingness