定语从句及相关术语 1.定语从句：定语从句是由关系代词或关系副词引导的从句，其作用是作定语修饰主 句的某个名词性成分，相当于形容词，所以又称为形容词性从句，一般紧跟在它所修 饰的先行词后面。 2.关系词：引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词，关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系 代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系副词
有 where, when, why 等。关系 词常有 3 个作用：1，引导定语从句。2，代替先行词。3，在定语从句中担当一个成 分。 注：关系代词有主语.宾语之分。一般 whom 作为宾语 3.定语：定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词的，是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、 短语或句子，汉语中常用?……的?表示。主要由形容词担任。此外，名词，代词，数 词，分词，副词，不定式以及介词短语也可以来担任，也可以由一个句子来担任．单 词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前，作前置定语。短语和从句作定语时则放在所 修饰的词之后，作后置定语。 （一） 限定性定语从句 一、关系代词（在句中作主语、宾语或定语） 1. that 既可代表事物也可代表人，which 代表事物；它们在从句中作主语或宾语， that 在从句中作宾语时常可省略关系词，which 在从句中作宾语也可以省略。[eg：this is the book （which）you want。]而且，如果 which 在从句中作“不及物动词＋介词”的介 词的宾语，注意介词不要丢掉，而且介词总是放在关系代词 which 的前边，但有的则放 在它原来的位置 限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况 1．当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代 词时，或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much，each 等修饰时 (1) Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said? (3) All that can be done has been done (2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world. (4) There is little that I can do for you. 注意 1：部分时候 that 可以省略，如部分例句将 that 用括号括住。 注意 2：当先行词指人 时，偶尔也可以用 who 如：Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won?t do such a thing. 2. 当先行词被序数词修饰 (1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 (1) This is the best film that I have seen. 4. 当形容词被 the very, the only，the same,the last 修饰时 (1) This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy, (2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. 当先行词指人时，偶尔也可以用 who 如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting？ 5. 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 (1) Who is the man that is standing there?
(2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 6. 当先行词既有人，也有动物或者物体时 (1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? 2.who 指人在从句中做主语 (1) The boys who are playing football are from Class One. (2) Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. whom 指人，在定语从句中充当宾语，常可省略。 （注：who 和 whom 已无太大区别， 可以通用。 ） (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. (2) Mr. Ling is just the boy whom I want to see. (3) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替，可省略。 如果在从句中做宾语,就用 whom 或 who.比如: He is the man whom/who I talk to. 如果是在从句中作主语就只能用 who.比如: He is the man who has an English book. 3.which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时可省略 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 4. whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语 (1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in.whose 指物时，常用以下结构来 代替 (3) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. (4) The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. 二、关系副词（在句中作状语） 1. when 指时间，在定语从句中做时间状语 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. 2. where 指地点，在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 3. why 指原因，在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don?t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意：关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which./where I was born. 三、“介词+关系词”的用法
why=for which where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配 ) when=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配)
1、关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语时，介词常可以提前，但介词提前时，关系代词 只能用 which 或 whom。 如：The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. →The school in which he once studied is very famous. Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. →Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. We'll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. →We'll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 2、关系副词 when, where, why 和介词+which 之间的关系。 关系副词 when, where, why 可以用适当的介词+which 来替代。介词的位置非常灵活， 有时放在关系代词之前，有时放在动词之后。如： when=in/on/at…+which, where=in/on/at…+which, why=for+which 如：I won?t forget the date when( on which) I was born. This is the room where (in which) I lived. = This is the room which I lived in. I don?t know the reason why (for which) he hasn?t come today. Tom still remembers the days when (in which) they lived in Tianjin. 注意： 1). 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of 等 如：This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (√) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F) 2). 若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom，不可用 who 或者 that；指物 时用 which，不能用 that；关系代词是所有格时用 whose 如：The man with whom you talked is my friend. (√) The man who/that you talked with is my friend. (F) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (√) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3).“介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或 者数词 如：He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 4). 把握“介词＋关系代词”结构中介词的选用 介词的选择与主句中先行词的搭配密切相关。 如：That”s the reason for which he was late for school. This is the book on which I spent 8 Yuan. 介词选择的三大规则： 1. 取决于从句中的谓语动词同介词的搭配。（V+ pre.） 如：He is the man whom I talked with this morning. 2. 取决于先行词同介词的常规搭配。 四组常考的搭配：1）extent degree （程度）同 to 搭配 2） price(具体多少钱时与 at; 若指价格方面与 in 搭配) speed rate 同 at 搭配 3）field area aspect sphere （领域，方面）同 in 搭配 例句：The field in which I studied in university is psychology.
4) basis ground foundation （基础）同 on 搭配 四、判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。不及物动词 后面无宾语，就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词；而及物动词后接宾语， 则要求用关系代词。例如： This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 判断改错（注：先显示题，再显示答案，横线；用不同的颜色表示出。 ） （错） This is the mountain village where I visited last year. （错） I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. （对） This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. （对） I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countr yside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错 在关系词的误用上。 方法二： 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)，也能正确 选择出关系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案：例 1 D，例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句： This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.例 2 变为肯定句： This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中，is 后应跟表语，只有 the one 可以，而后面的 you visited a few days ago 则做 one 的定语从句。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全，从句部分为句子的状语表地点，既可用副词 where， 又因 in the museum 词组， 可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。 而此题中， 介词 on 用 的不对，所以选 A。 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分，先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时，选 择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose)； 先行词在从句中做状语时，应选择关系 副词 ( where 地点状语，when 时间状语，why 原因状语) （二） 非限定性定语从句 非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明，通常是引导 词和先行词 之间用逗号隔开，将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立 1. which 引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分 2.当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时，其后的定语从句通常是非限 制性的，例如： Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理· 史密斯去年退休 了，他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely ga rden.我去年买的的那幢房子带 着个漂亮的花园。
This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人，我已 经读了三遍。 3.非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词 要用第三人称单数，例如： He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我 的意思，这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽，这就叫 做蒸发。 4. 有时 as 也可用作关系代词 5. 在非限定性定语从句中，不能用关系副词 why 和关系代词 that，而用 who, whom 代表人，用 which,whose 代表事物.； （三）as 的用法 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句， 和 which 可代整个主句， as 相当于 and this 或 and that。 As 一般放在句首，which 在句中。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 1)as 用于限制性定语从句 so …as；such…as；the same…as； 2)as 用于非限制性定语从句。代表所修饰的句子，作用相当于 which，但比 which 多一层“正 如”的意思。 e.g.She is very careful, as (= which) her work shows. It is like a snake, as (= which) anybody can see. 但要注意，当 as 从句置于句首时，as 不能由 which 取代。 e.g. As he had hoped, he saw the play. 3)as 的习惯用语 as we all know 众所周知 as is well-known 众所周知 as has been said before 如上所述 as we had expected 正如人们所预料的那样 as anybody can see 正如人人都看到的那样 as often happens 正如经常发生的那样
在表示方式的“the way”之后的定语从句有三种引导方式 I don’t like the way you answered my question. I don’t like the way that you answered my question. I don’t like the way in which you answered my question.
1.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child. A. which B. that C. where D. when 2. Carol said the work would be done by October, _________ personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. when D. which 3. Dorothy was always speaking highly of the role in the play, ________, of course, made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what 4. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 5. The film brought the hours back to me ________I was taken good care of in that far-way village. A. until B. that C. when D. where 6. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., _________ many people have got home. A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which 7. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 8. He was very rude to the Customs Officer, ________ of course made things even worse. A. who B. whom C. what D. which 9. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________________ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose 10. It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year, ___________ for the first time in years their team won the World Cup. A. that B. while C. which D. when 11. Have you seen the film Titanic, ___________ leading actor is world famous? A. its B. it?s C. whose D. which 12. John said he had been working in the office for an hour, __________ was true. A. he B. this C. which D. who 13. Is this the reason _____________ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 14. The famous basketballer, ____________tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B. when C. which D. who 15. We are living in an age _________ many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when 16. York, __________ last year, is a nice old city.
A. that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited 17. Luckily, we had bought a road map without ________ we would have lost our way. A. it B. that C. this D. which 18. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% _________ are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that 19. There are two buildings, ___________ stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which 20. The English play _____________ my students acted at the New Year?s party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which