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虚拟语气总体概括


虚拟语气 (一) 语气是动词的一种特殊形式,它用来表示说话者对说话内容的看法和态度。在英语中,语气 可以通过限定动词来表示。英语的语气可分为以下三种。 (1) 陈述语气:陈述事实、提出疑问或表示感叹。 e.g. Ⅰ) She is very kind to children. 她对孩子们很和蔼。 Ⅱ) He works for a law firm. 他在一家律师行工作。 (2)

祈使语气:提出请求、命令、劝告等。 e.g. Ⅰ) Please close the door when you leave. 出门请顺手把门带上。 Ⅱ) Let's all get together during Christmas. 我们圣诞节聚一下吧。 (3) 虚拟语气:表示主观愿望、建议、假想、虚拟、委婉的请求和祝愿等。 e.g. Ⅰ) I wish I were a butterfly. 若我是蝴蝶该有多好。 Ⅱ) I wouldn't worry about it if I were you. 如果我是你,我就不会担忧。 1.虚拟语气在条件句中的应用 英语的条件句有两类:真实条件句和虚拟条件句。如果提出的条件是可以实现的或 者与现实情况相吻合, 就是真实条件句。 这类条件句中的谓语动词通常使用一般性质的陈述 语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) If the boss agrees , we will hold a nice party for new employees. 如果老板同意,我们就开个迎新会。 Ⅱ) If you need money, I can lend you some. 如果你需要钱,我可以借你一些。 如果提出的条件与现实相反或不大可能实现, 则为虚拟条件句。 这类条件句中的谓 语动词需要使用虚拟语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) If he were a little taller, he would have been enrolled. 如果他再高一点,或许就被录用了。 Ⅱ) If you had adopted Mary's advice, you would have finished the task by now. 如果你当时接受了玛丽的建议,你可能已经完成任务了。 1.1 与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句 在表示与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句中,动词形式可以用下表来表示: 条件从句中的谓语 主句中的谓语

动词过去式 (be 动词则用 were)

should/would/could/might+动词原形

e.g.Ⅰ) If he were still alive, I would tell him that I loved him. 如果他还活着,我会告诉他我爱他。 Ⅱ) If I were rich, I could support these poor children and make sure they get a good education.

如果我是富人,我就会捐钱给穷孩子们, 让他们接受良好的教育。 从句有时可用 If it were not for...这种句型, 表示 “若不是……”的意思, 相当于 but for...。 这时,if 可以省略,但语序要改为倒装,即 Were it not for...。 e.g. Ⅰ) If it were not for your cold, you would not have failed the exam. 如果不是因为你感冒,你考试也不会不及格。 Ⅱ) Were it not for that kind lady, I would lose my way. 若不是因为那位善良的女士,我可能就迷路了 1.2 与将来情况相反的虚拟条件句 在表示与将来情况相反的虚拟条件句中,动词形式可以用下表来表示: 条件从句中的谓语 should/were to +动词原形 主句中的谓语 should/would/could/might +动词原形

e.g. Ⅰ) If he were to harass you again, you should report him to the police. 如果他再骚扰你,你就报警。 Ⅱ) If I were to do this job, I would do it in a different way. 如果让我做这份工作,我会用一种不同的方法。 在包括 were 和 should 的虚拟条件句中,if 有时可省略,这时语序要改为倒装。 e.g. Ⅰ) Should you have any problems, please find the manager. 如有疑问,请找经理。 Ⅱ) Were I to tell you that Steve is still alive, what would you do? 如果我告诉你史蒂夫还活着,你会怎么做? 在少数情况下,从句中的谓语可以省略 should 直接用动词原形,主句中的谓语可用 陈述语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) If anyone be found guilty, he should have the right of appeal. 一旦发现谁有罪,他就有权上诉。 Ⅱ) If that be true, there is no reason to forgive her. 若这是真的,就没有任何理由原谅她。 1.3 与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句 在表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句中,动词形式可以用下表来表示: 条件从句中的谓语 had + 过去分词 主句中的谓语 should/would/could/might have + 过去分词

e.g. Ⅰ) You wouldn't have slipped if you had looked down at the road. 如果你看着路就不会滑倒了。 Ⅱ) If you had practiced more , you would have broken the record. 如果你再勤加练习,就可能已经破纪录了。 从句有时可用 If it had not been for...这种句型,表示“若不是……”的意思,相当于 but for...。这时,if 可以省略,但语序要改为倒装,即 Had it not been for...。 e.g. Ⅰ) If it had not been for these unexpected guests, I would have finished the job earlier. 若不是有这些不速之客,我可能可以更早一些完成工作的。

Ⅱ) Had it not been for the hurricane, people living in this area would have lived a happy life. 若不是飓风频繁,那个地区的人们或许也能幸福地生活下去。 在与过去事实相反的 if 虚拟条件句中,if 有时可省略,这时语序要改为倒装。 e.g. Ⅰ) Had they caught the early train, they would have been here by now. 如果能赶上早班火车,他们早就已经到这儿了。 Ⅱ) Had I known you were coming, I would have made supper for you. 早知道你要来,我就帮你准备晚餐了。 1.4 错综时间条件句 在上述表格中, 条件从句与主句的谓语动词形式不是一种固定的搭配。 如果主从句的 内容所表达的时间不一致,如从句的动作是过去发生的,主句的动作是现在发生的,那么主 从句的谓语动词形式则应根据各自所表示的时间来调整。 e.g. Ⅰ) If he had arrived ten minutes earlier, he wouldn't be punished by the professor. 如果他早十分钟到,就不会被教授惩罚了。 Ⅱ) If you haven't handed in the paper by now, you would fail the course. 如果你到现在还没交论文,你这门课就要挂了。 1.5 含蓄条件句 有些虚拟条件句不用 if 从句表现出来,而是通过介词、副词或利用上下文等形式表 现出来。这类词语包括 without, with, under, but for (要不是,后接名词或代词), except for, but that (要不是,后接从句), or, otherwise 等。 e.g. Ⅰ) This construction could not have been built without the fund. 没有资金这项工程就无法动工。 Ⅱ) The traffic is terrible. Otherwise we would have arrived on time. 路太堵了。要不然我们就不会迟到了。 Ⅲ) He would have come but that he had been on a business trip at that time. 要不是那时他刚好在出差,他就过来了。 Ⅳ) The market would be much better under more favorable conditions. 要是条件再好一些,这个市场就会更繁荣了。 虚拟语气(二) 1. 作表语 (1)在一些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令等含义的动词后接的宾语从句中,谓语动词要用 虚拟语气,这类虚拟语气被称为命令式虚拟语气。命令式虚拟语气由“ should+动词原形” 构成, should 可以省去。 这类常见的动词有 advise, ask, beg, command, decide, demand, desire, direct, insist, instruct, move, order, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge 等。如果 主句中含有以上动词的被动语态,从句中也要用命令式虚拟语气。与此同时,由这些动词所 派生的名词后面的表语从句和同位语从句也需要用这类虚拟语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) They urged that the library (should) be kept open during the holidays. Ⅱ) It was proposed that we (should) postpone making a decision until next month. Ⅲ) He agreed with my suggestion that we (should) change the date. Ⅳ) The doctor recommended that the patient (should) undergo an operation immediately. 当 suggest 意为“暗示,表明” ,insist 意为“坚决认为”时,从句中的动词用陈述语 气。 e.g. Ⅰ) Mike insisted that he was right. Ⅱ) Opinion polls suggest that only 10% of the population trusts the government.

(2) 在“It is+adj.+that...”句型中,如果形容词包含建议、请求、命令等含义时,that 所引导的 主语从句中的谓语动词也需用“should+动词原形”所构成的虚拟语气。常见的这类形容词有: advisable, best, crucial, esirable, essential, important, necessary, urgent, vital 等。 e.g. Ⅰ) It is important that students (should) learn good study habits early. Ⅱ) It was critical that the negotiations (should) be kept secret until the crisis had passed. (3) 在由 lest 引导的副词从句中,谓语多用“should +动词原形” ,should 可以省略,意为“以 防??,生怕??,唯恐” 。 e.g. We should speak with him in person lest he (should) misunderstand our intentions. 2. 虚拟语气的其他用法 (1) 在由 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气。 表示现在情况时,谓语动词用一般过去式;表示过去情况时,谓语动词用完成式。 e.g. Ⅰ) She looked at me as though we had never discussed this before. Ⅱ) He talks as if he knew the city quite well. 但在 look, seem, taste, smell 等词后,as if/as though 引导的从句可以用陈述语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) Mrs. Crump looked as if she was going to explode. Ⅱ) It looks as if we will be delayed by the traffic. (2) 在由 if only 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟语气。if only 表示一种假设的祈愿, 意为“但愿,要是??就好了” 。如果表示对现在的愿望,谓语动词用一般过去式;如果表 示对过去的愿望,谓 语动词用完成式。 e.g. Ⅰ) If only we hadn't spent so much money on this. Ⅱ) If only we had met sooner! (3) 在 wish 所引导的宾语从句中,谓语动词也要用虚拟语气,表示难以实现或与事实违背 的愿望, 具有较强的感情色彩。如果表示对现在的愿望, 从句谓语动词用一般过去式;如 果表示对过去的愿望,从句谓语动词用完成式或用“could have+ 完成式”的结构;如果表 示对将来发生的事情的愿望,从句谓语动词用“would/could +动词原形”的结构。 e.g. Ⅰ) She wished she had stayed/could have stayed at home. Ⅱ) I wish I knew what was going to happen. Ⅲ) I wish the rain would stop so that the match could continue. (4) 在 would rather 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词也要用虚拟语气。当表示与现在或将来事 实违背时,从句中的谓语动词要用一般过去式;当表示与过去事实违背时,从句谓语动词要 用完成式。 e.g. Ⅰ) I'd rather you finished your homework before watching TV. Ⅱ) They would rather we had taken the time to do this properly. Ⅲ) I would rather you hadn't spent so much time and energy on such a minor project. (5) 在 “It is (high/about) time (that)...”的结构中, 从句中的谓语动词一般都要用过去式来构成 虚拟语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) It's about time our team won . Ⅱ) It's high time that you started preparing for your exams. (6) 在 may 用来表示“愿望,希望”的从句中,谓语动词应用原形构成虚拟语气。 e.g. Ⅰ) May you both be very happy! Ⅱ) They are a fine couple and may their life together continue !


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