1．calculate [′k?lkj?leIt] vt.计算；预测→ calculation n．预测；计算 2． simplify [′sImplIfaI] vt.简化；使单纯→ simplifiedadj. 简化的 3． totally [′t??tlI] ad
anyhow [′enIha?] adv.无论如何 4．
5． finance [′faIn?ns] n．财政；财政学 6． universal [? ju?nI′v?? sl] adj.普遍的
7． intelligence [In′telId??ns] n．智力；智能 8． application [? ?plI′keI?n] n．应用；申请→ apply v．申请；应用 9． revolution [? rev?′lu??n] n．革命 10． personally [′p??s?n?lI] adv.就个人而言；亲自 11． solve 幸福的 [s?lv] vt.解决；解答 12． happiness [′h?pInIs] n．幸福；快乐→ happy adj.
13．appearance [?′pI?r?ns] n．外观；出现 14． logically [′l?d?IklI] adv.逻辑上；合逻辑地 15． network [′netw??k] n．网络；网状物 16． technology [tek′n?l?d?I] n．工艺；科技；技术→
technical adj.技术的 17． goal [ɡ??l] n．目标；目的；球门
18．explore [Ik′spl??] v．探索；探究→ exploration n． 探究；勘查 19． electronic [? elek′tr?nIk] adj.电子的 20． realize [′ri??laIz] v．实现；认识到→ reality n．现实
语境助记——词不离句，句不离段 With the electronic technology revolution going on， simplified calculation is solved in the application on finance by universal exploration.Our goal of making life happier is certain to be realized through man’s intelligence.
Ⅱ.短语与拓展 1．from... on 从??时起
2．as a result结果 as a consequence 结果 3． so ...that如此??以致于 4．in a way在某种程度上 in one’s way碍某人的路 with the help of? ? ?在??的帮助下 5. with the aid of ? ?
7．watch over 照顾；监视
8． in common共有；共用 9．make up 化妆；组成；编造 make up for 补偿，弥补 10． after all毕竟
11．take turns to do轮流做?? 12．in one’s opinion 在某人看来
Ⅲ.句式与运用 1．I developed very slowly and it took nearly two hundred years before I was built as an analytical machine by Charles Babbage.我发育缓慢，差不多到了两百年之后，查尔斯· 巴 比奇才把我制成了一台分析机。 句式分析 It took＋一段时间＋before从句意为“过了?? 后才??”。 句式仿写 过了很长时间他才意识到其重要性。 It took a long time before he realized its importance.
2．As time went by，I was made smaller.随着时间的推移，我 被制造得越来越小。 句式分析 as是连词，引导时间状语从句，意为“一 边??一边??；随着??”。 句式仿写 随着时间的推移，天气越来越热了。 As time goes by ，it’s getting warmer and warmer.
3．And my memory became so large that even I couldn’t believe it！我的储存容量变得如此巨大，甚至连我自己都 不能相信！ 句式分析 so＋adj./adv.＋that...意为“如此??以致 于??”，引导结果状语从句。 句式仿写 他说得太快以致于我们跟不上他。 He speaks so fast that we can’t follow him.
4．She programs us with all the possible moves she has seen while watching human games.她把观看人类比赛时所看到 的一切可能的动作编入我们的程序。 句式分析 状语。 句式仿写 吃饭时不要讲话。 Do not talk while eating . while watching...是“连词＋分词短语”作时间
5．What’s more，you can use the Internet to learn English. 而且，你还能利用因特网学英语。 句式分析 作插入语。 句式仿写 那辆车非常昂贵，而且外形非常独特。 That car is very expensive，and what’s more ，its shape is too unique. what is more意为“更重要的是；而且”，常
Ⅳ.高考源于教材 1．As a result I totally changed my shape.(教材原句) Jenny nearly missed the flight ________ doing too much A shopping. A．as a result of C．in front of (2009· 全国Ⅱ，13) B．on top of D．in need of
航班。as a result of由于??的结果；on top of在??顶 部；in front of在??前面；in need of需要。由句意知A 项正确。
2．This means that it should...and deal with telephone calls. (教材原句) In many people’s opinion，that company，though relatively small，is pleasant________. A A．to deal with C．to be dealt with (2010· 四川，11) B．dealing with D．dealt with
小，人们却能够与之愉快合作。该句可还原成 To deal with that company is pleasant。故选 A 项。
3．And my memory became so large that even I couldn’t believe it！ (教材原句) (2009· 山东，27) A．did the attack C．was the attack B．the attack did D．the attack was
So sudden ________ that the enemy had no time to escape. C
解析 在so＋adj....＋that...句型中，当so＋adj.臵于句首 时，其所在句子的谓语应用部分倒装形式，故选C项。
V.单元知识活用 翻译句子 1．Tom被雨淋了，结果得病，缺了几节课。(as a result of)
As a result of being caught in a rain，Tom was ill and absent from some classes .
2．放学后，大家轮流帮助他学习各门功课。(take turns to do) His classmates took turns to help him with his
lessons after school .
3．Tom学习刻苦，结果很快补上了落下的内容。(so...that， make up) Tom worked so hard that he soon made up his
lost lessons .
4．在老师和同班同学的帮助下，Tom在学习上赶上了其他同 学。(with the help of)
With the help of the teachers and his classmates，
Tom caught up with others .
5．大家认为，我们应相互帮助。(in one’s opinion)
In many people’s opinion，we should help each other .
连句成篇——用适当的关联词或句将上述句子连接成文 As a result of being caught in a rain，Tom was ill and absent from some classes.When he recovered from illness，his classmates took turns to help him with his lessons after school.Tom worked so hard that he soon made up his lost lessons.With the help of the teachers and his classmates，Tom made great progress and caught up with others.In many people’s opinion，we should help each other.
重点单词 1．signal v. & n．发信号；信号 signal to sb.to do sth.发信号要某人做某事 signal to sb.that...用信号通知某人?? signal for help 发出求救信号 traffic signals 交通信号 by signal 以信号
(1)In our class，when the bell rang and the teacher closed his book，it was a signal for everyone to stand up. (2009· 湖北，26) 在我们班上，当铃声响起，老师合上他的书时，那是一个 每个人要站起来的信号。 (2)The policeman signaled the traffic to move forward slowly. 警察示意车辆缓慢前进。 (3)The thief signaled to his friends that coming. 小偷用信号暗示同伴警察来了。 the police were
symbol，signal，sign，mark (1)symbol 指符号，象征，标志等。 (2)signal 指信号，暗号或警告等。
(3)sign 表示“记号，符号”时，同“symbol”。表示“告示， 牌示”时，侧重指用图画、文字表达的告示、图示，此外还可 以理解为“迹象，征兆”。 (4)mark 普通用词，含义广泛。既可指为便于辨认而有意作的 标记，又可指自然形成的标记或有别于其他事物的特征。
用symbol，signal，sign，mark的适当形式填空 (1)The siren was a signal for everyone to leave the building. (2)The children left dirty marks all over the kitchen floor. (3)Red is a symbol of danger. (4)Dark clouds are usually a sign of rain.
2．arise v．出现；发生 arise from...起因于??；由??产生 (1)While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful，problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. (2010· 山东，阅读理解 D) 虽然科学家们正想办法让电池变得更小且功能更强大，但 是当电池比设备本身还要大还要重时，可能会出现问题。
(2)A great wind arose when we were about to set off. 我们正要动身时刮起了大风。 (3)Remember that accidents often arise from 记住意外事故常常起因于粗心大意。 carelessness.
arise，rise，raise，arouse (1)arise vi.(arose；arisen)出现，发生。 (2)rise vi.(rose；risen)升高，增高；起来。
(3)raise vt.(raised；raised)举起；提升；饲养；抚养；引起(骚 乱、悬念等)；起(风)；引发(笑声等)。 (4)arouse vt.(aroused， aroused)唤醒； 唤起(感情、 兴趣)； 刺激。
一言辨异 The question who raised him arose，which aroused public
solve a difficulty 解决困难 solve a problem in maths 解答数学问题 a solution to the problem 问题的解决方案/法
(1)Instead，let him attempt to solve things by himself. (2009· 宁夏，阅读理解 D) 相反，让他自己试着解决一些事情。 (2)He tried to solve the mystery. 他试图解开那个秘密。 (3) Have you solved all the problems in the examination? 你答对所有的考试题了吗？
4．anyhow adv.无论如何；即使如此 anyhow＝anyway 无论如何；不管怎样；用任何方式
somehow 用某种方式；不知怎么地；不知为什么 somewhat 稍微，有点
注意： anyhow/anyway 作让步状语时一般臵于句中或句末， 其前常有连词 but。但如果表示“再说；至少；更何况”之 意，作状语对前面的话作补充时，常出现在句首。
(1)Don’t worry；we’ll get the money back somehow. 别担心，我们会把那些钱拿回来的。 (2) Anyway/Anyhow ，I must go now. 总之，我现在得走了。 (3)I was somewhat unhappy when he arrived ten minutes late. 他迟到了十分钟，我有点生气。
对点训练 Ⅰ.语境填词 1．Difficulties will
(发生) as we do the work.
2．The solution (解决) to the problem required many hours. 3．I know that when he looks at his watch，it’s a signal (信 号) for us to start the attack. 4．APC is a personal computer which can solve (解决)all kinds of problems and is widely used now. 5．I’m certain David’s told you his business troubles. Anyway (不管怎样)，it’s not a secret that he owes a lot of money to the bank.
Ⅱ.单项填空 1．The prices have been keeping________since the financial B crisis. A．arising B．rising C．arousing D．raising
解析 keep rising此处指“价格保持上涨”。
2．The Olympic________ remind us of where the Olympics are A held and the characteristics of the host country. A．symbols C．marks B．signals D．signs
解析 句意为：奥林匹克的标志物提醒我们奥林匹克运 动会在哪里举办和主办国家的特色。symbol标志物，符 合句意。
3．With the puzzle________，he felt relaxed. A A．solved C．set B．answered D．asked
解析 solve the puzzle解决难题。
4．I thought it would be easy，but a lot of problems have____. C A．risen C．arisen B．raised D．happened
5．—What about going out? —I’ve got a headache.And ________，Jack’s coming to B see me.I ought to stay in. A．however C．though B．anyhow D．while
解析 句意为：??无论怎样，杰克要来看我。我应该 在家。
重点短语与句型 1．make up编造，捏造；杜撰；弥补；组成；和解；整理； 化妆，打扮 make up for补偿；弥补 make out辨认出；理解；写出 make way for 为??让路 make one’s way 向前走；前进 make it 成功；办得到
(1)American Indians U．S.population.
make up about five percent of the
美洲印第安人占美国人口的 5%。 (2)He made up some excuses about his daughter being sick. 他编造了一些借口，说他女儿病了。 (3)I can scarcely make out 我几乎辨认不出他的笔迹。 his writing.
2．as a result of由于；作为??的结果 as a result结果
result from...由??产生 result in 导致；结果
(1)Over the past decades，sea ice has been decreasing in the Arctic as a result of 小。 (2)She was late as a result of the heavy snow. 由于下大雪，她来迟了。 (3)His illness global warming. (2009，浙江，9) 由于全球变暖，在过去的几十年里，北极的海冰已经在缩
resulted from eating some polluted food.
他生病是由于吃了受污染的食物。 (4)The accident resulted in the death of two passengers. 这起事故导致两名乘客丧生。
3．in a way 有几分；在某种程度上 all the way 一路上；一直；完全 by way of 经由，途经 by the way 顺便说 in the way 妨碍；挡路, in this way 以这种方法 in no way 决不，无论如何都不
on the way 在途中 on one’s way (to) ...在某人去??的途中；即将成为??
give way (to)让步，屈服
(1)You could also repeat the name sound forced or artificial. 字。
in a way
that does not
(2)In a way it was one of our biggest mistakes. 从某种意义上来说，这是我们所犯的最大错误之一。 (3)She didn’t speak a word to me all the way back home. 回家的路上，她没跟我说一句话。 (4)He refused to give way on any of the points. 他拒绝在任何一点上让步。
4．deal with处理，对付；对待；解决；涉及 (1)Have you dealt with these letters yet? 这些信件你已经处理了吗？ (2)I hate to deal/dealing with large impersonal companies. 我讨厌与那些没有人情味的大公司打交道。
deal with，do with
(1)这两个短语都可表示“处理”，但用法不同。用于特殊疑 问句时，deal with 常与 how 连用，do with 常与 what 连用。 (2)deal with 还可表示“与??相处；关于；与??有生意往 来”。 一言辨异 I don’t know how to deal with the book dealing with politics，but you know what to do with it very well.
5．And my memory became so large that even I couldn’t believe it！我的储存容量变得如此巨大，甚至连我自己都 不能相信！ 句式提取：so...that... so...that...意为“如此??以致于??”，引导结果状语从 句。 (1)so/such...that...句型的常见结构形式： ?so＋adj./adv.＋that... ? ?so＋adj.＋a/an＋单数名词＋that... ?so＋many/much/few/little (少)＋n.＋that... ?
?such a/an＋adj.＋单数名词＋that... ? ? ?such＋adj.＋复数可数名词/不可数名词＋that... ?
(2)so that以便于(引导目的状语从句)；结果(引导结果状语从 句) (3)so.../such...放于句首时，主句应部分倒装。
(1)I haven’t seen Ann for so long that I’ve forgotten what she looks like. (2008· 四川，1) 我那么久没见安，以致于我已忘了她长得什么样了。 (2)I made so many mistakes in the composition that the teacher criticized me. 我的作文中出现了如此多的错误，老师批评了我。 (3)He hurried up
he could catch the train. I couldn’t follow
他匆匆赶路为的是赶上火车。 (4) So fast did the teacher speak that him. 那个老师说得太快，我听不懂。
写作句组——满分作文之佳句 a．I’d like to smile at myself so that I can gain more confidence when I’m in trouble. (2009· 福建) b．To reach the goal，I must first try my best to pass the College Entrance Examination and enter a good university. (2010· 四川) c．In order to make your journey more wonderful and easier，I’ll introduce some Chinese customs to you. (2009· 四川) d．Students should also listen more to their classmates so as to learn from each other and strengthen friendship. (2008· 江苏)
6．As time went by，I was made smaller.随着时间的推移，我 被制作的越来越小。 句式提取：as 引导时间状语从句 连词 as 引导时间状语从句，意为“随着??”，with 也可 译成“随着??”，但其后接的是复合结构而不是句子。 (1)You will grow wiser as you grow older . 你会随着年龄的增长而越来越聪明。 (2)As our life improves，we find little time to gather with our friends. 随着生活水平的提高，我们和朋友的聚会变少了。
对点训练 Ⅰ.选词填空 by the way，result from，make up for，deal with，in no way 1． In no way can we miss the chance that someone will be sent abroad for further education. 2．The accident which happened yesterday resulted from the driver’s carelessness. 3．Saying you are sorry won’t make up for the damage of breaking the vase.
4． By the way ，I found that book you were looking for. 5．Last summer I took a course on how to poisonous gases. Ⅱ.翻译句子 1．随着时间的推移，我们的学校越来越美了。 With time passing by，our school is more and more
The window was covered so that it was not possible to see inside.
It was such fine weather that they all went
out for a walk.
As time went by，his knowledge broadened.
Ⅲ.单项填空 1．________ children get older，they become more and more C interested in the things around them. A．While C．As B．When D．With
2．My friend Martin was very sick with a strange fever； _____，he could neither eat nor sleep. A A．as a result B．after all C．any way D．otherwise 解析 后半句句意为：结果，他既不能吃也不能睡。
3．I’m terribly sorry to turn you down this time，but I promise I will________ to you next time. B A．turn it up C．pick it up B．make it up D．set it up
解析 句意为：非常抱歉，这次拒绝了你，但我答应下 次弥补。make it up弥补它，符合句意。
4．Top players must have excellent ball control，but it is not just________ they do with their feet________ counts. C A．how；that C．what；that B．that；what D．whether；what
what；第二空为强调句，强调主语not just what they do with their feet，故用that。
5．What he has said is reasonable________. D A．in the way B．on the way C．by the way D．in a way 解析 词组in the way的含义是“挡路”；on the way表
示“在路上，即将成为”；by the way表示“顺便说一 下”；in a way表示“在某种程度上”。
6．Tom’s sister gave me________ that I really don’t know C how to thank her. A．such much advice C．so much advice B．such many advices D．so many advices
解析 advice为不可数名词，要表达“如此多的建议”， 应用so much advice，固定用法。
定语从句与写作训练(2) 四、when引导 All the Chinese，at home and abroad，will forever remember the date when/on which the Red FiveStar Flag was raised in Hong Kong. 海内外的所有华人都会永远记住五星红旗在香港升起的 时刻。 This was a time when there were still slaves in the USA.这 是一个美国仍处在奴隶制度的时代。
注意：1.如果先行词是by the time，from the time，any time，the moment，all the time，the day，the year等，其后 接的定语从句也可以用that引导，that可以省略。 By the time (that) he was ten，he had built a chemistry lab for himself. 到10岁时，他已经给自己建了一个化学实验室。 2．当表示时间的先行词在从句中不是作状语，而是作主 语、宾语或表语时，必须用关系代词that或which引导定语从 句，而不用when。 The film reminded me of those miserable days (that/which) I spent in my childhood.这部电影使我想起了我童年时代度过 的那些苦难日子。
五、where引导 We’re just trying to reach a point where both sides will sit down together and talk. 我们尽量就双方坐下来进行会谈达成协议。 As a child，he used to work hard and help his father on the small farm where/on which they lived. 当他还是一个小孩的时候，他经常艰苦地劳动，并帮助 他的父亲在他们所生活的农场上干活。
注意：当表示地点的先行词在从句中不是作状语，而是 作主语、宾语或表语时，必须用关系代词that或which引导定 语从句，而不用where。 This is a beautiful place (that/which) people all over the world look forward to visiting. 这是一个世界各地的人都渴望参观的美丽的地方。 六、why引导 Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。 The reason why he succeeded in the exam is that he worked very hard. 他考试成功的原因是他学习非常努力。
【体验写作】 Ⅰ.使用正确的关系副词/代词填空，使句子完整、通顺 1．After graduation she reached a point in her career
she needed to decide what to do.
2．—Where did you get to know her? —It was on the farm where we worked. 3．The book was written in 1946，since when the education system has witnessed great changes. 4．The place that interested me most was the Children’s Palace. 5. As is known to us all，the 2010 Asian Games took place in Guangzhou.
Ⅱ.把下面每题中的两个句子合并为一个含有关系副词引导的 定语从句的主从复合句 1．I know the farmland.You can find wild strawberries there. I know the farmland where you can find wild
2．This is the village.Lei Feng was born there.
This is the village where Lei Feng was born.
3．The library is not far from here.The writer often does some reading there. The library where the writer often does some reading
is not far from here.
4．We shall remember the days.We studied together then.
We shall remember the days when we studied together. 5．I’ve always longed for the days.I will be able to be
I’ve always longed for the days when I will be able to be
6．There are moments.I forget all about it then.
There are moments when I forget all about it.
7．He wanted to know the reason.I was late for the reason.
He wanted to know the reason why I was late.
8．The reason is not very convincing.He came for the reason.
The reason why he came is not very convincing.
Ⅲ.使用定语从句翻译下列句子 1．他的父母知道他何时下载的这个文件。 His parents knew the time when he downloaded
I saw a film where man explores space.
Nobody knew the reason why he made up a lie.
I don’t understand the way that he dealt with it.
The Diaoyu Island where there are a lot of natural resources is under watch.