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语法:虚拟语气和倒装句


虚拟语气 虚拟语气在英语里主要用来表达: 1.非真实的情景,不可能发生的事,即某种与事实相反或难以实现的情况,或说话人的 主观愿望。 2.强制性虚拟语气,表示建议、命令、劝告等意思,表示强烈地要求做到、必须做到这 样的含义。 虚拟语气的表达形式是通过动词的变化形式表达的, 其特点是主从句时态的不一致, 而 起一般有明显的标志。 难点释疑 一、If 型 If 条件状语从句表示的虚拟

语气,其句型结构如下:

从句 与过去事实相 had done 反 与现在事实相 did/were 反 与将来事实相 were to do/should 反 do/did

主句 would/could/might have done would/could/might do would/could/might do

特别值得注意的是, 这种虚拟语气的形式存在交叉虚拟, 即如果从句发生的动作和主句 发生的动作不一致(例如:从句动作发生在过去,主句动作发生在现在),谓语动词要根据表 示的时间进行调整。例如: If Peter had applied for the post, he would probably get it now.要是彼得申请了那职 位,他很可能现在就得到了。 If he had left for Shanghai yesterday, he would get there now.如果他昨天动身去上海 的话,他现在已经到那里了。 二、Wish 型 1.wish 后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,其句型结构如下:
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与过去事实相反 wish that 从句的谓语动词用 had done 与现在事实相反 wish that 从句的谓语动词用 did 与将来事实相反 wish that 从句的谓语动词用 would/could do 例如: I wish they would change the menu.他们要是改变一下菜单就好了。 I wish I hadn’t spent so much money.我要是没花那么多的钱就好了。 同样地,在 as if/as though 引导的宾语从句中和以 if only 引导的带有感叹色彩的虚拟 语气句子中,谓语动词与 wish 引导的宾语从句中的虚拟形式相同。 2.由 if only 引导的虚拟语气 与过去事实相反 if only 谓语动词用 had done 与现在事实相反 if only 谓语动词用 did 例如: If only she had asked someone’s advice! 她要是征求了别人的意见就好了! 3.由 as if/as though 引导的虚拟语气 与过去事实相反 as if/as though 谓语动词用 had done 与现在事实相反 as if/as though 谓语动词用 did 例如: He talks about Rome as if he had been there himself.谈论起罗马来就像他去过似的。 He orders me as though I were his wife.他向我发号施令就好像我是他的妻子似的。 三、强制性虚拟语气

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1.表示建议、命令、劝告、决心等主观色彩的动词 + that + (should) + 动词原形,其中 should 经常被省略。这类动词包括:advise,ask,command,decide,decree,demand, desire,determine, direct,insist, maintain, move(动议,规定),order, prefer,propose, recommend,require,stipulate,suggest 等等。例如: It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios (should) not be played after 11 o'clock at night.酒店管理人员恳请房客在晚上 11 点之后不要打开收音机。 2.以上动词转化为名词, 如 suggestion, proposal, demand, order, command, advice, desire,requirement,request,agreement,determination,preference,resolution, indication, 后接同位语从句或表语从句时, 从句要求用虚拟语气, 其谓语部分用 should + 动 词原形,should 可以省略。例如: We are all for your proposal that discussion should be put off.我们都支持你推迟讨论 的建议。 3.值得注意的是, 只有 suggest 意为“建议”、 insist 意为“坚持认为”时, 从句用虚拟语气, 当 suggest 意为“暗示”、insist 意为“坚持说”时,从句不用虚拟语气。例如: When the son suggested that they should go to park on Sunday, the expression on his father suggested that he agreed with him.当儿子提议星期天去公园时, 父亲用表情表示 了默许。 The boy insisted that he didn’t cheat in the exam.这个孩子坚持说他没有在考试中作 弊。(考试已经结束) The boy insisted that he shouldn’t cheat in the exam.这个孩子坚持认为不应该在考试 中作弊。(考试还未进行) 4.It is/was + 形容词/过去分词 + that + (should) + 动词原形,这些形容词主要表示必 要性、重要性、强制性、合适性、义务性,即某人对某事的反应。这类词包括:important, natural, desirable, possible, astonishing, advisable, anxious, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, eager, essential, fitting, imperative, improper, necessary, obligatory, preferable, proper, urgent, vital, shocked, requested, amazing, strange, odd, ridiculous, surprising, unthinkable,incredible 等等。例如:

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It is important that students graduating from universities should have not only theory but also practice.大学毕业生不仅要有理论知识,更要有实践经验,这一点很重要。 It is surprising that they should kill the time like that.他们竟然这样打发时间,真是太奇 怪了。

特殊虚拟语气句子 1.If it hadn’t been for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded. =But for your assistance ,we wouldn’t have succeeded. But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 2. If 虚拟条件句的倒装形式,即把 were, had, should 置于句首。例: Were I in school again (= If I were in school again), I would work harder.如果我能再上一次 学,我会学习得更努力。 Had you asked me, I would have told you. (=If you had asked me,…)如果你问我,我会告 诉你。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 3. If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。 4. *suggest 表“暗示”insist 表“坚持说”时不用虚拟语气

比较: He insisted that Ihad read his letter. 他坚持说我看过他的信。 He insisted that I should read his letter. 他坚持要我看他的信。 He suggested that we (should) stay for dinner. 他建议我们留下吃饭。 I suggested that you had a secret understanding with him. 我觉得你与他 心照不宣。 5. Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不
了他。

6. 原因状语从句中的虚拟语气
amazed, angry, annoyed, astonished, disappointed, frightened, happy, pleased, proud, s orry, surprised, upset 等后面的状语从句中常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: ① should + 原形动词(指现在或将来)。如: He was angry that you should call him by name. 他很生气,你竟然对他直呼其名。

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I was astonished that he should not answer such an easy question. 我很惊讶他竟答不 出如此简单的问题。 ② should + 完成式, 指过去。如: I’m very sorry that you should have failed the exam. 我很遗憾, 你这次考试竟然失败 了。 I was very surprised that Father should have known what I did yesterday. 我很吃惊, 父亲竟指导我昨天所作的事情(from www.yygrammar.com)。 倒装句 倒装是一种语法手段,用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。倒装句有两种:完全 倒装和部分倒装。 完全倒装 1) 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到主语之前(是整个谓语动词,而非助动词)。 例如:The teacher came in and the class began.(没有倒装) In came the teacher and the class began. (老师走了进来,然后开始上课。) 2) there 引 出 的 完 全 倒 装 句 : 除 了 最 常 见 的 there be 句 型 以 外 , there 还 可 以 接 appear,exist,lie,remain,seem to be,stand 等,一般都译成"有"的含义,构成完全倒装句。 例如:There appeared to be a man in black in the distance.(远处有个穿黑色衣服的人。) 3) 由地点和时间副词引出的完全倒装句: 以地点副词 here,there 和时间副词 now,then 开头, 后面的动词是 be,come,exist,fall,follow,go,lie,remain,seem,stand(表移动或动态的不及物 动词) 等, 而主语又是名词时, 构成完全倒装句。 Up climbed the boy when his mother came. 4)表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词且主语是名词时使用完 全倒装 5)在强调状语时 1)当句首状语为方位词或拟声词,谓语动词为 go,come 等表示位置转移 的动词时句子须倒装。例如: 1 Up went the plane. 2 In came the chairman and the meeting began. 注:如果主语是代词则不发生倒装。例如: 1 Out they rushed! 2 Lower and lower he bent. (2) 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,句子须倒装。例如: 1 Round the corner walked a large policeman. 2Under the table was lying a half-conscious young man. 3 当句首状语由“only +副词”,“only +介词词组”,“only +状语从句”构成时,句子 须倒装。例如: 1 Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing. (不属于完全倒装)

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2 Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end. (6) 当句首状语为 here,there,now,then 等时, 句子须倒装, 主语是代词时, 句子不用倒装。 例如: 1)Here is a ticket for you. 2)Now comes your turn. 3)Here he comes. (7)以关联词 so (?that)开头的句子中,句子须倒装。例如: 1)So small was the mark that I could hardly see it. 2)So quickly did the workmen finish their work that they were given a bonus. 3)So much does he worry about his financial position that he can’t sleep at night. 注:在该结构中,“so +形容词”是表语的前置;“so +副词”是状语的前置。 .在直接引语之后 在叙事性书面语中,直接引语后常跟 asked Mary,answered John,said the old lady,grunted Peter 之类的词语。在这些 词语中,动词常的主语之前,主语是代词时,不用倒装。例如: 1)“What do you mean?” asked Henry. 2)“What do you mean?” he asked. . often,many a time 等表示频度的状语置于句首时 例如:Often did they think of going there,but they never had a chance. 12.在 as,though 引导的让步状语从句中 在 as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,一般将形容词、副词或名词等置于句首。例如: 1)Small as the atom is,we can smash it. 2)Big as the workpiece is,it is turned out with Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. 轰炸机肚底下窜出一枚导弹。 Out he rushed. 注意: 1) 在 here,there 引出的倒装句中, 当主语是普通名词时用完全倒装句,但当主语是代词时, 就要用部分倒装句。 例:Here comes the postman!(邮递员终于来了!注意实意谓语动词位于主语之前。) Here we are.(我们到了。注意系动词位于主语代词之后。) 2) 当主语是代词,谓语是系动词,表语是说明性的词、词组和定语从句时,可以使用完全 倒装句,起强调作用。 例:Lucky is he who has been enrolled into a famous university.(他真幸运,被一所名牌 大学录取了。) Typical for China is the crosstalk show where a pair of comedians entertains the audience with word play.(中国典型的是相声表演,两个喜剧演员通过文字游戏逗乐观众) 部分倒装 部分倒装 1) 部分倒装即只把谓语的一部分(如助动词、情态动词等)放到主语前,或把句子的强调 成分提前。

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Nor did he let the disease stop him from living the kind of life he has always dreamt about (疾病没有使他放弃过上梦想中的生活) 2) 以否定词开头的句子要求部分倒装。注意下列句子中助动词或情态动词提前、甚至补充 助动词的用法: 例:Not until yesterday did little John change his mind.(小约翰直到昨 天才改变了主意。 ) In no country other than Britain,it had been said,can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.(据说除了英国世界上没有哪个国家能让人在一 天中感受到四季变化) 3) 以 否 定 副 词 开 头 并 加 状 语 放 在 句 首 的 句 子 要 求 部 分 倒 装 。 这 些 否 定 副 词 有 barely,hardly,little,seldom,scarcely ? ? when,never,no sooner ? ? than,rarely,no more,not nearly,not only 等以及 only。 Only in the country can you learn the “true English”. 4)一些如 scarcely??when,no sooner ??than,hardly??when 引导的主从复合句主句 要求使用过去完成式。 注意:在部分倒装句中,只有助动词、情态动词或连系动词 to be 可以置于主语之前,其它部分都要置于主语之后。 5)此外,一些介词+no+名词的结构中需要用部分倒装,这些结构包括 at no time; by no means; by no manner of means; for no reason; in no case; in/under no circumstances; in no sense; in no way; on no account; on no consideration; at no point 例如 Under no circumstances should you lend Paul any money. 注意: a) 如果含有从句时,只要求主句倒装: 例:Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake.(只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错 误。) b) 如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分,不用倒装: 例:It was not until he went abroad that he knew the truth of the fact.(直到他出国以后才 了解到事实真相。) c) 如果 hardly,scarcely 后面接的是 any,ever,at all 时,意义类似 almost no/ not/ never(几 乎不、从不),则无须倒装。 例:Hardly any people invited went there.(几乎没有什么受到邀请的人去那里了。) 6) 由 no matter how,however 和 how 引导的状语从句要求部分倒装,因为形容词或副词通 常紧跟在这三个引导词后面,然后才是主语和谓语,形成形式上的部分倒装句: 例:I know nothing about this river,neither how long,how wide nor how deep it is.(我一点 也不了解这条河,不知道它有多长,多宽或多深。) 7) 由 as 引导的部分倒装句: a) 当 as 作为比较意义时,即用于 as + adj./ adv. + as 结构中时,如果把第一个 as 省略掉, 就形成部分倒装句。 例:Cautious as the rest of her family (was),she didn't seem willing to give an immediate reply to my question.(正如她家里人一样谨慎小心,她似乎不愿意立即回答我的问题。) She charged the stairs,quick as a rabbit (ran).(她跑上楼去,跑得象兔子那么快!)
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b) 当 as 引导让步状语时,和 although,though 一样,当用作“尽管”之义时,可以用于部 分倒装句。 Hard as he worked,he did not pass the exam.(虽然他很用功,但他还是没及格) c) 表示原因时,为了强调起见,也可以倒装。 例:Tired as he was,we decided not to disturb him.(因为他太累了,我们决定不打扰他。) d) 等于 so 时,意义是“也,也是” 例:She worked hard,so/ as did her husband. (她工作很努力,她的丈夫工作也很努力。) so,neither,nor 倒装 除了构成上述倒装句以外,还可以取代上文出现的名词、形容词甚至整句话,构成完全倒装 句或部分倒装句。但这两种倒装的意义不同。 a) 当 so 表示“也,相同,那样”时,通常表示对前一句肯定句的赞同、一致内容,要求使 用完全倒装句: He promised to finish my homework,so did I. b) so /such ??that 句型可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部分: 例:So selfish was she that everyone avoid talking with her. c)也存在 such+be+主语的情况用以强调,例如 Such was Albert Einstein,a simple man of great achievements.(阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦是一个有伟大成就的普通人) d) neither 和 nor 共有 4 种倒装形式,其含义分别为: 1) 完全倒装时:表示"也不",和上文 a)用法正好相反,表示对前一句否定句的赞同或一致 内容。 例:You don't know what to do now,neither/ nor do I .(你不知道现在该做什么,我也不知 道。) 2) 和其它否定副词连用,表示"也(不)",也要求用完全倒装句: 例:The besieged enemy could not advance,nor / neither retreat could they .(被包围的敌 人既不能进,也不能退。) 注意:若把这句话改成:"The besieged enemy could neither advance nor retreat.(被包围 的敌人既不能进,也不能退。)"就不必倒装。 She never laughed,nor did she ever lose her temper. 3) 用在肯定句里,构成一般否定倒装: 例:All that is true,nor must we forget it.(那全都是真的,我们可不能忘记。) 部分倒装作用 有承上启下作用,表示同意和赞同: 例:A: I couldn't do anything for her.(我帮不了她。) B: Nor you could,but you might have got somebody to help her.(你是不能帮她,但你本可 以找人帮她的。) 2) 在进行比较的句子里,如果主语不是代词时,可以倒装: 例:America consumes more energy than did our country.(美国消耗的能源比我们国家 多。) 3)在某些表示祝愿的句型中要求倒装。如 May you happy. 4)在文学作品中常出现倒装,有些是由于语法习惯,有些是为了简单的修辞,如 Not even
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one cloud will I bring away(不带走一片云彩). 不用倒装的地方 注:如果 only 后面的词组不是状语,则不用倒装. Only Wang Ling knows this . 如果直接引语后注明引语是什么人说的,而且主语是名词时,用倒装结构;主语是代词时, 一般不用倒装。 " Let's go," said the man .

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