? 什么是定语 用来修饰名词或代词的词、短语、从句。 This is a big room. The windows of the room are open. This is the bike that I bought yesterday.
his is a flower basket.
This is a basket full of flowers. This is a basket that I want to put flowers in.
adj. n. num. pron. –ing –ed to do, 短语、名词所 有格、定语从句
My brother bought me a beautiful dress. He works very hard at his lessons. We belong to the third world. Do you know the man coming to us? We must find ways to work out this problem. He is a boy of not more than seventeen. The man who is speaking to my father is our headteacher.
? 当你用一个词不能尽情表达你想说的意思时， 就用短语；如果短语还不能满足，就用从句。 这是我的杯子
This is my cup.
This is the cup full of tea.
This is the cup which I drink tea with.
我认识那个高个子的人。 I know the tall man. 我认识那个戴眼镜的人。 I know the man with a pair of glasses. 我认识你正在找的那个人。 I know the man whom you are looking for.
名词/代词 + 定语从句
? 1. 被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 ? 2. 引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系代词：who, whom, whose, that,which 关系副词：when, where,why ? 3. 关系词引导定语从句，同时在意义上指代先 行词在定语从句中充当某个成分，先行词在定 语从句中不再出现，也不用其他词代替。
定语从句 用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修饰的 名（代）词叫作先行词。定语从句一般紧跟在先 行词的后面。 1. The students (who don’t study hard) will not pass 先行词 定语从句 the exam. 主句: The students will not pass the exam. 2. The woman (whom you saw in the park) is our 先行词 定语从句 English teacher. 主句: The woman is our English teacher. 从句的主语： you 从句的宾语： whom
3. A shoe shop is a shop (which sells shoes). 主句：A shoe shop is a shop. 从句的主语: which 4. The book (that you want) is on the desk. 主句 The book is on the desk. that 从句的主语: you 从句的宾语： 引导定语从句的关系代词常见的有that, which,who whom等。关系代词放在先行词和定语从句之间， 起连接作用，同时又作定语从句的一个成份。 The man (that/who told us a funny story) is in the next room. 主语 I lost the book(( that/which ) you gave me). 宾语
归纳：that,即指人又指物，作主语或宾语。 which,指物，作主语或宾语。 who, whom指人,who作主语,whom作宾语。 that,which,whom在定语从句中作宾语时，可省去。 1) A plane is a machine ________________ which/that can fly. which/that/ / / 2) The car _______________________ my uncle bought last week was stolen. who/that 3) The students ________________ don’t study hard will not pass the exam. 4) The woman ___________________ whom/that/ / / you saw in the park is our English teacher. 5) He talked happily about the men and books____ that __________ interested him greatly in the school.
1. That book that you want it is on the desk. 2. Is this factory that we visited last week? the one This factory is the one that we visited last week? 3. He is the person for whom you are looking. 4. The person to whom you talked is Lily. for
The person whom you talked to is Lily. 归纳：1定语从句要避免成分重复 2定语从句要避免漏用先行词 3含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开
Join two sentences into one: The boy is my brother. He helped me. 1. The boy who helped me is my brother. The film is interesting. They saw it last night. 2. The film they saw last night is interesting. The students will not pass the exam. They don’t work hard. 3.The students who don’t work hard will not pass the exam.
Fill in the blanks. that/which we spent in 1. I still remember the day _________ the forest. when/on which I first 2. I still remember the day ____________ came to Beijing. 3. The factory _________ that/which we will visit is large. where 4. The factory ___________ his father works is large. which we work 5. I’ll never forget the timewhen/at _____________ on the farm. where/in which 6. This is the house ____________ we lived last year. 归纳:关系副词when指时间,关系副词where指地点, 在定语从句中作状语。即使先行词是时间地点,若 作从句中的宾语，只能用关系代词that, which.
Fill in the gaps: 1.The terrible typhoon killed the people and cattle _______ were in the fields. that that 2.The wind blew down the tallest tree _______ is in front of our school gate. 3.This is the very thing ______ that// I was looking for. that// I have ever read. 4.This is the second novel ______ 5.There is nothing in the world _______ can frighten that me. that 6.Who is the man _______ is reading under the tree? 7.My hometown is not the same one _______ that it used to be twenty years ago.
以下情况只能用that 1 先行词既有指人又有指物 2 当先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级时，有the only,the very 等修饰时 3 先行词是all, much, anything, something, nothing 等不定代词 4 主句是以who/which开头的特殊疑问句时 5当先行词在定语从句中作表语时
Corrections: 1. The man just said hello to me is my chemistry teacher. who 2. Who is the comrade you just shook hands with him. ( where which) 4. This is the best dictionary which I have ever used. ( which that) 5. The house where we live in is not very large. ( where which/that) 6. The house that it was built in 1970 stayed up in the earthquake.
3. Egypt is a country where is famous for its pyramids.
I thank the teacher. He helped me a lot. This is my classmate. You saw him yesterday. The book is very interesting. I’m reading it. The train is for Xi’an. It has just left.
? 1. The fan is on the desk. You want it.
? 2. The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday.
? 3. The magazine is mine. He has taken it away.
? 4. The students will not pass the exam . They don’t study hard. ? 5. The woman is our geography teacher. You saw her in the park. ? 6. The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday.
? “介词＋关系代词”即“介词＋ whom/which”引导定语从句应注意： ? 1介词的选用至少要考虑以下的两个因素 ? A.与先行词的搭配关系
on which 1）I will never forget the day _____________ I joined the army. during which 2) I will never forget the days ____________ I worked in the school. in which 3) I will never forget the year ____________ my son went to college. by which 4) I got home at 7:00 p.m. yesterday, __________ most people had had supper.
for which I paid 1）Have you found the book ____________ 10 US dollars?
on which 2) Have you found the book _____________ I spent 10 US dollars?
from which we 3) Have you found the book _____________ learnt a lot? about which she 4) Have you found the book ____________ often talks?
2. “介词＋whom/which”与 “whom/which/that/… ＋介词”的转换。 1）The chair on which she is sitting is made of wood The chair (which/that) she is sitting on is mad of wood. 2) Is this the book which you are looking for? 介词for不能与 look分开。 3. way作先行词 1) The way (in which/that) he looks at the problems is wrong.
4. 表所有关系及整体中的一部分或全部时，用介 词of, 有时可用whose转换。 of whom 1) There are 100 teachers in our school, __________ 60 are women teachers. of whom 2) He has three children, two ___________ work as teachers. of which 3) That table has four legs, all _____________ are very short. which 4) I’m painting a house, the roof of _____________ is round. I’m painting a house whose roof 5) They live inis... a house ,_________ whose windows face They live in a house, the windows_____ south. of which face south. _________
用介词＋关系代词填空 through whose 1 The boy was staying in the room ___________ window he could climb down. 2. He’s the manfrom ____________ I learnt the news. whom whom 3. Who’s the comrade with ____________ you just shook hands. of whom 4. There are 52 students in our class, ___________ nearly 40 are League members. 5. I know a lady the husband ____________ is a of whom Nobel Prize winner. 6. Do you know the driver who caused the traffic in which accident ____________ a man was killed. in which she studies English. 7. This is the way __________
for which 8. The 5 yuan_____________ he bought the book was given by his friend. of which this is 9. The story about Shakespeare, _________ one example , is well written. 10. The old man always wears his glasses _________ without which _________ he can’t see anything. with whichshe was opening the door broke. 11.The key_________ 12. The library ___________ we often go on Sundays to which is not far from our school. for which 13. No one know the reason _____________ she is leaving so early. over which 14. At last they came to a river _____________ a new bridge is being built.
关系代词引导的定语从句： Complete the following sentences: (that/which) 1. Is this the school _____________ you visited last year? the one you visited last year? Is this school ______ _____ are good at maths. 2. He is one of the students who _____ is He is the only one of the students who _____ good at maths. who I think was honest lied to me. 3. The girl _____ whom I think to be honest lied to me. The girl ______ what she was 10 years ago. 4. China is no longer _______ that China is no longer the country ______ she was 10 years ago.
5. The radio I bought yesterday is quite different from the one you bought last month. ______ ______ The radio I bought yesterday is quite different from what you bought last month. ______ in ______ which we 6. Do you still remember the hotel ____ lived last summer holiday? (that/which) Do you still remember the park ___________we visited last summer holiday? (which/that) my grandmother 7. This is the room ____________ used to lived in. which my grandmother This is the room in ______ ______ used to lived .
them work as actors. 8. He has two sons, and both of _____ whom work as actors. He has two sons, both of _____ of which 9.China has hundreds of islands, ____ _____ Taiwan is the largest. of China has hundreds of islands, the largest_____ _______ which is Taiwan. of which 10.This is the house _____ _____ the window was broken yesterday. whose window was broken This is the house _______ yesterday. 11.He is the teacher _____ with ______ whose help we have made great progress.