1. The man who / that lives next door is a writer. 2.The woman who / whom / that/- I visited last week is a famous writer. 3. Beijing is the city which / that has got the chance to host the
2008 Olympic Games. 4. A dictionary is a book which / that/- you can use to learn more words. 5. The little boy whose eyes are blue is holding a dog. 6. The house whose roof was blown away by the storm will be rebuilt soon. 7. I began to work in Beijing in the year ______New China was when founded. why 8. Do you know the reason ____ he didn’t come? where 9. I can’t remember the place _________I put my book.
用来修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从 句。被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词叫先行 词（antecedent）。定语从句一般是由关系 代词或关系副词来引导的。相当于名词和形 容词的作用。 eg: 1. Do you know the man who came to see Xiao Yang this morning? 2.The day is not far off when we will make a trip to Britain.
1、引导作用 2、替代作用 3、在定语从句中担当某个成分的作用
eg: 1.Those who want to go please sign your names here.
2.This is the house where he was born. 3. Bill, who was here yesterday, asked me a lot of questions.
指人 指物 that which who whom subject (主语)
做宾语时可以省略 object (宾语) attribute （定语）
√ √ √
√ √ √ √
√ √ √ √
指代 time place reason
所做成分 是否可省略 adverbial （状语） adverbial adverbial no no no
? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以 互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用 which。 1) 当先行词是all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词或被all, every, no, some, any, little, much, few, only等修饰时.
I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. I’ve read all the books that are not mine. 2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read.
3)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时 This is the very book that belongs to him.
We were deeply impressed by the teachers and the schools that we had visited there.
? (5) 先行词是who或who引导的主句。 Who is the girl that drove the car? Who that broke the window will be punished. ? (6) 主句以There be 引导时 There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing. ? (7) 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语時，关系 代词用that. She isn’t the girl that she was 10 years ago. ? (8)当先行词是which时，关系代词用that. ? Which is the book that you bought last week?
关系代词指物时只用which不用that的情况 （1）在介词之后 This is the question about which we’ve had so much discussion.
（2）当主句中的主语被that修饰时。 eg. That dog which I found in the street belongs to Mary. (3) 在非限定性定语从句中必须用which不能 用that。 They have invited me to visit their country, which is very kind of them.
? that和who在指 人的情况下一般都可以互 换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用who而不用that。 1.先行词为those, one, ones, peoples时 Those who are from Qingdao come this way. 2.当先行词是用-body或-one构成的不定代 词时 Is there anybody else who should be invited
关系副词when, where, why的用法
关系副词都等于一个适当的介词＋which， 在从句中作状语 When=in/at/on/during…+which; Where=in/at/on/…+which; Why=for +which 1.Do you still remember the day when(on which) we went to visit the museum together? 2.This is the factory where(in which)my father once worked. 3.This is the reason why(for which) he was late.
A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery.
I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together.
I will never forget the days that / which we spent together.
This is the reason why he was dismissed. This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting.
a.This is the boy with whom he worked.
b.This is the boy whomhe worked with.
c. This is the boy who he worked with.
d. This is the boy he worked with.
e. The house where we live is not large.
f. The house in which we live is not large.
g. The house which we live in is not large.
h. The house we live in is not large.
as 从句的先行词是the same, such, 或被他们 所修饰；在从句中做主语或宾语；多用于表示 肯定意义的从句中，不用于表否定意义的从句 中。 e.g. Many of the sports are the same as they were when they started. The result was not such as he expected. It was raining hard, which / as was unexpected. 常用于as is known to all, as you know, as is expected，the same…as, such…as, as…as, so…as 句型中，as不可省略…
1.Such people as you describe are rare nowadays. 2.Let’s discuss only such questions as concern every one of us.
3.Would you please buy me the same novel as you bought for brother yesterday, Mum?
4. As we all know, John is an honest man. 比较： She wore the same dress that she wore at Marry’s wedding.
? Which 和as 在引导非限定性定语从 句时可以指代一件事， 如： ? The gentleman admired Mrs. Brown, which surprised me. ? As we had expected, his performance was excellent. ? 在这时as可以在句首， which 不可以； as 有正如的意思， 而which 没有。
1．限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的 定语，如果去掉，主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。 这种从句和主句的关系十分密切，写时不用逗号分 开。限制性定语从句中作宾语的关系代词常可省略。 如： a) What is the name of the tall woman who is standing there? 站在那边的那个女人叫什么名字?
b) Toronto is a city (that) I' ve always wanted to visit.
2．非限制性定语从句和主句关系不十分密切，只 是对先行词作些附加的说明, 如果去掉, 主句的意 思仍然清楚。这种从句和主句之间往往用逗号分 开，一般不用that引导。非限制性定语从句中，关 系词不可省略。如：
a) Rome, which is the capital of Italy, has a very long history.
意大利的首都罗马历史非常悠久。 b) Yesterday I met Professor King, who came from the University of London.
c) He lent me a dictionary, which was just what I needed. 他借给我一本词典，这正是我所需要的。
3.大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词往往 为某一个词或短语，而特殊场合非限制性定语从句 的先行词也可为整个主句，此时非限制性定语从句 常由which引导。
eg. A middle-aged woman killed her husband,
which frightened me very much.
析：从语境可知，令我恐惧的内容应为中年女 子杀害了其丈夫这整个一件事，因此先行词为整个 主句，此时应由which引导定语从句。
eg. A five-year-old boy can speak two foreign languages, which surprises all
the people present.
一个五岁的男孩会讲两门外语，令所有在场的 人感到非常惊讶。 析：从语境可知，令所有在场的人感到惊 讶的内容是一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语这整个 一件事，因此先行词为整个主句，此时应由 which引导非限制性定语从句。
1. Some of the roads were flooded, which made our journey more difficult.
2. He has smoothly entered a key middle school, which makes his parents very happy.
3. Mr King, whose
legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital.
5. We shall make a decision about Ms King, whose story I have just told you. 6. He made the same mistakes again, _____ made his parents very angry. which which 7. Yesterday I bought a dictionary, ______ cost me more than 100 yuan . who 8. Mr Smith, ____ gave a talk several months ago,will come again. whom 9. My uncle has come back from abroad, ______ I haven’t met for along time.
1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college.
她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上 大学.（意含：她还有其他哥 哥。）
Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college. 她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励 她上大学。（意含： 她只有一 个哥哥。）
2. All the books that have pictures in them are well written. 所有里面带插图的书都写得很 好。（意含： 不带插图的书 则不一定写得好。）
All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written.
所有的书都带插图，这些书都 写得很好。（意含： 没有不带 插图的书。）
比较： a) She has two brothers who are working in the city.
She has more than two brothers.
b) She has two brothers, who are working in the city.
She has only two brothers.
下面两个句子只有一个逗号之差，意义大相径 庭。 a) He will wear no clothes which will make him different from others. 他不会穿一些使他显得与众不同的衣服。
b) He will wear no clothes, which will make him different from others. 他不穿衣服，这会使他显得与众不同。
1. She was always speaking highly of her role in the play, of course, _____ made the others unhappy. A. which B. who C. this D. what
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child. A. which B. when C. that D. where
3. The gentleman _______ you told me yesterday proved to be a thief. A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom
4. Please take any seat ____ is free. A. which B. where C. in which D. that
5. The old man has two sons, _______ is a soldier. A. one of whom B. both of them C. all of whom D. none of them
6. New York is famous for its sky-scrapers(摩天大楼)_____ has more than 100 storeys. A. the higher of them B. the highest of which C. the highest of them D. some of which
7. My home village is no longer the same _____ it used to be. A. which B. as C. where D. when
8. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., ______ many people have gone home. A. whose time B. that C. at which D. by which time
9. The boy ______ composition won the first prize is the youngest in the group. A. who B. whose C. that D. which
10. The weather turned out to be very good, ______ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it
11. Mr. Wang is a boss, ______ factory Li Ping worked. A. in whose B. whose C. in whom D. of which
12. I don't like the way_____ you speak to her. A. / B. that C. in which D. All A, B, and C
13. I shall never forget the years _______ I lived in the country with the farmers, —————— has a good effect on my life. A. that, which B. when, which C. which, that D. when, who
14. _____ is known to all, China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 year’s time. A. What B. That C. As D. It
15. Is this book _____ you want to borrow from the library? A. that B. which C. the one D. /
16. Such a book ______ you showed me is difficult to understand. A. that B. which C. as D. like
17. The speaker spoke of some writers and some books _____ were popular then. A. / B. that C. which D. who
18. This is the store ______ we visited the famous shop assistants. A. where B. there C. that D. which
19. I’m going to spend my holiday in Beijing, _____ my old parents live. A. which B. that C. where D. there
20. If a shop has chairs ______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. A. that B. which C. when D. where
He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything , is indeed a good-for-nothing.
He that makes himself a sheep shall be eaten by the wolf.
It’s the first step that costs.
He who would climb that ladder must begin at the bottom.
He who is full of himself is very empty.
Not all that glitters is gold.