【KS5U 原创】 《阅读理解特训：3 真 2 模含解析》2014 届高三英语二轮突破 18
C8 [2013· 湖北卷] E A German study suggests that people who were too optimistic about their future actually faced greater risk of disability o
r death within 10 years than those pessimists who expected their future to be worse. The paper, published this March in Psychology and Aging, examined health and welfare surveys from roughly 40， 000 Germans between ages 18 and 96.The surveys were conducted every year from 1993 to 2003. Survey respondents (受访者) were asked to estimate their present and future life satisfaction on a scale of 0 to 10, among other questions. The researchers found that young adults (age 18 to 39) routinely overestimated their future life satisfaction, while middle－aged adults (age 40 to 64) more accurately predicted how they would feel in the future.Adults of 65 and older, however, were far more likely to underestimate their future life satisfaction.Not only did they feel more satisfied than they thought they would, the older pessimists seemed to suffer a lower ratio (比率) of disability and death for the study period. “We observed that being too optimistic in predicting a better future than actually observed was associated with a greater risk of disability and a greater risk of death within the following decade，” wrote Frieder R．Lang, a professor at the University of Erlangen－Nuremberg. Lang and his colleagues believed that people who were pessimistic about their future may be more careful about their actions than people who expected a rosy future. “Seeing a dark future may encourage positive evaluations of the actual self and may contribute to taking improved precautions (预防措施)，” the authors wrote. Surprisingly, compared with those in poor health or who had low incomes, respondents who enjoyed good health or income were associated with expecting a greater decline.Also, the researchers said that higher income was related to a greater risk of disability. The authors of the study noted that there were limitations to their conclusions.Illness, medical treatment and personal loss could also have driven health outcomes. However, the researchers said a pattern was clear.“We found that from early to late adulthood, individuals adapt their expectations of future life satisfaction from optimistic, to accurate, to pessimistic，” the authors concluded. 67．According to the study, who made the most accurate prediction of their future life satisfaction?
A．Optimistic adults. B．Middle－aged adults. C．Adults in poor health. D．Adults of lower income. 68．Pessimism may be positive in some way because it causes people ________． A．to fully enjoy their present life B．to estimate their contribution accurately C．to take measures against potential risks D．to value health more highly than wealth 69．How do people of higher income see their future? A．They will earn less money. B．They will become pessimistic. C．They will suffer mental illness. D．They will have less time to enjoy life. 70．What is the clear conclusion of the study? A．Pessimism guarantees chances of survival. B．Good financial condition leads to good health. C．Medical treatment determines health outcomes. D．Expectations of future life satisfaction decline with age. 【要点综述】 本文是一篇议论文， 主要讲述对未来过于乐观的人将面对残疾或死亡的巨大危险。 在研究中， 研究人员发现，年轻人对未来过于乐观，中年人对未来的预测很准确，而老年人相对低估。随着年龄的增长， 人们对未来的预测越来越现实。 67． B 细节理解题。 根据第四段中的“…while middle－aged adults (age 40 to 64) more accurately predicted
how they would feel in the future.”知，中年人对未来预测得更准确。故 B 正确。 68．C 细节理解题。根据第六段中的“…people who were pessimistic about their future may be more
careful about their actions …”知，对未来悲观的人可能在行动时更小心、更谨慎。句中的 be more careful about 与 take measures against potential risks 一致。故 C 正确。
细节理解题。根据第八段中的“…respondents who enjoyed good health or income were associated
with expecting a greater decline.”知，身体好、收入高的人认为，他们的收入在未来将会下降，即挣的钱少了。 故 A 正确。 70．D 推理判断题。根据最后一段中的内容可知，研究人员认为有一点很清楚：从少年到成年，每个人
都在调整自己对未来生活的满意度，从乐观，到适度到悲观。故 D 正确。 C8 [2013· 江苏卷] C
If a diver surfaces too quickly，he may suffer the bends.Nitrogen(氮)dissolved(溶解)in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure.The consequence，if the bubbles(气泡)accumulate in a joint，is sharp pain and a bent body—thus the name.If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain，the consequence can be death. Other air－breathing animals also suffer this decompression (减压) sickness if they surface too fast：whales, for example.And so, long ago, did ichthyosaurs.That these ancient sea animals got the bends can be seen from their bones.If bubbles of nitrogen form inside the bone they can cut off its blood supply.This kills the cells in the bone，and consequently weakens it，sometimes to the point of collapse.Fossil(化石) bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a sign that the animal once had the bends. Bruce Rothschild of the University of Kansas knew all this when he began a study of ichthyosaur bones to find out how widespread the problem was in the past.What he particularly wanted to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression over the 150 million years.To this end, he and his colleagues traveled the world's natural－history museums, looking at hundreds of ichthyosaurs from the Triassic period and from the later Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. When he started, he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression.Instead，he was astonished to discover the opposite.More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs had suffered the bends before they died，but not a single Triassic specimen(标
本)showed evidence of that sort of injury. If ichthyosaurs did evolve an anti－decompression means, they clearly did so quickly—and, most strangely, they lost it afterwards.But that is not what Dr Rothschild thinks happened.He suspects it was evolution in other animals that caused the change. Whales that suffer the bends often do so because they have surfaced to escape a predator (捕食动物)such as a large shark.One of the features of Jurassic oceans was an abundance of large sharks and crocodiles， both of which were fond of ichthyosaur lunches.Triassic oceans，by contrast，were mercifully shark－ and crocodile－free.In the Triassic, then, ichthyosaurs were top of the food chain.In the Jurassic and Cretaceous ，they were prey(猎物)as well as predator—and often had to make a speedy exit as a result. 61．Which of the following is a typical symptom of the bends? A．A twisted body. B．A gradual decrease in blood supply. C．A sudden release of nitrogen in blood. D．A drop in blood pressure. 62．The purpose of Rothschild's study is to see ________． A．how often ichthyosaurs caught the bends B．how ichthyosaurs adapted to decompression C．why ichthyosaurs bent their bodies D．when ichthyosaurs broke their bones 63．Rothschild's finding stated in Paragraph 4 ________． A．confirmed his assumption B．speeded up his research process C．disagreed with his assumption D．changed his research objectives 64．Rothschild might have concluded that ichthyosaurs A．failed to evolve an anti－decompression means B．gradually developed measures against the bends C．died out because of large sharks and crocodiles D．evolved an anti－decompression means but soon lost it ________.
【要点综述】 本篇为科普说明文，讲述鱼龙患减压病的原因和后果。Dr Rothschild 通过实验推翻了关于鱼 龙进化的一些猜测。 61． A 细节理解题。 根据 the bends 可定位到首段。 由“The consequence…is sharp pain and a bent body—thus the name.”可知答案，a bent body 和 a twisted body 是同义转换。由第二句的“Nitrogen dissolved in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure.”可知，这是说 the bends 的形成原因，故 C、D 项错，而 B 项文章 没有提及。 62． B 推理判断题。 题干中的关键词是 Rothschild's study， 由此可定位到第三段的前两句。 根据“…to find out how widespread the problem was in the past…to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression…”可知答案为 B。 63．C 推理判断题。根据第四段“…he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression.Instead, he was astonished to discover the opposite.”可知，Rothschild 的假设结论与在研究过程中得出的结果是相反的，故选 C 项。 64．A 推理判断题。根据倒数第二段可知，Rothschild 认为鱼龙在进化过程中反减压方式进化失败，故选 A 项。 C8 [2013· 江西卷] C Many people think that listening is a passive business. It is just the opposite. Listening well is an active exercise of our attention and hard work. It is because they do not realize this, or because they are not willing to do the work, that most people do not listen well. Listening well also requires total concentration upon someone else. An essential part of listening well is the rule known as ‘bracketing’ . Bracketing includes the temporary giving up or setting aside of your own prejudices and desires, to experience as far as possible someone else's world from the inside, stepping_into_his_or_her_shoes. Moreover, since listening well involves bracketing, it also involves a temporary acceptance of the other person. Sensing this acceptance, the speaker will seem quite willing to open up the inner part of his or her mind to the listener. True communication is under way. The energy required for listening well is so great that it can be accomplished only by the will to extend oneself for mutual growth.
Most of the time we lack this energy. Even though we may feel in our business dealings or social relationships that we are listening well, what we are usually doing is listening selectively. Often we have a prepared list in mind and wonder, as we listen, how we can achieve certain desired results to get the conversation over as quickly as possible or redirected in ways more satisfactory to us. Many of us are far more interested in talking than in listening, or we simply refuse to listen to what we don't want to hear. It wasn't until toward the end of my doctor career that I have found the knowledge that one is being truly listened to is frequently therapeutic(有疗效的). In about a quarter of the patients I saw, surprising improvement was shown during the first few months of the psychotherapy(心理疗法), before any of the roots of problems had been uncovered or explained. There are several reasons for this phenomenon, but chief among them, I believe, was the patient's sense that he or she was being truly listened to, often for the firs t time in years, and for some, perhaps for the first time ever. 66. The phrase “stepping into his or her shoes” in Paragraph 2 probably means ________． A. preparing a topic list first B. focusing on one's own mind C. directing the talk to the desired results D. experiencing the speaker's inside world 67．What is mainly discussed in Paragraph 2? A. How to listen well. B. What to listen to. C. Benefits of listening. D. Problems in listening. 68．According to the author, in communication people tend to ________． A. listen actively B. listen purposefully C. set aside their prejudices D. open up their inner mind 69．According to the author, the patients improved mainly because ________． A. they were taken good care of B. they knew they were truly listened to C. they had partners to talk to D. they knew the roots of problems
70．What type of writing is the article likely to be? A. Science fiction. B. A news report.
C. A medical report. D. Popular science. 【要点综述】 本文主要介绍了倾听的好处， 并通过自己作为医生的亲身体验说明倾听对于病人来说是最好 的疗法。 66. D 考查词意猜测。由画线短语所在句前部分“…to experience as far as possible someone else's world from the inside…”可推出画线短语应该是“走进说话者的内心世界”的意思。 67. A 考查段落大意。 由第二段的内容以及第二段第一、 二句“Listening well also requires total concentration upon someone else. An essential part of listening well is…”可知此段主要讲述了如何才能听得好。 68. B 考查细节理解。由第三段第二句“…what we are usually doing is listening selectively.”可知在交流中 我们倾向于有选择地也就是有目的地听。 69. B 考查细节理解。根据最后一段第一句“…one is being truly listened to is frequently therapeutic(有疗效 的)．”可知真正被倾听是最有疗效的医治方法。 70. D 考查推理判断。综观全文，本文主要说明了倾听的好处，故此篇文章应该属于通俗(大众)科普类文 章。
C8 [2013· 辽宁卷] C Here is an astonishing and significant fact: Mental work alone can't make us tired.It sounds absurd.But a few years ago, scientists tried to find out how long the human brain could labor without reaching a stage of fatigue(疲劳)．To the amazement of these scientists, they discovered that blood passing through the brain, when it is active, shows no fatigue at all! If we took a drop of blood from a day laborer, we would find it full of fatigue toxins(毒素) and fatigue products.But if we took blood from the brain of an Albert Einstein, it would show no fatigue toxins at the end of the day. So far as the brain is concerned, it can work as well and swiftly at the end of eight or even twelve hours of effort as at the beginning.The brain is totally tireless.So what makes us tired?
Some scientists declare that most of our fatigue comes from our mental and emotional(情感的) attitudes.One of England's most outstanding scientists, J．A. Hadfield, says, “The greater part of the fatigue from which we suffer is of mental origin.In fact, fatigue of purely physical origin is rare.” Dr.Brill, a famous American scientist, goes even further.He declares, “One hundred percent of the fatigue of a sitting worker in good health is due to emotional problems.” What kinds of emotions make sitting workers tired? Joy? Satisfaction? No! A feeling of being bored, anger, anxiety, tenseness, worry, a feeling of not being appreciated—those are the emotions that tire sitting workers.Hard work by itself seldom causes fatigue.We get tired because our emotions produce nervousness in the body. 64．What surprised the scientists a few years ago? A．Fatigue toxins could hardly be found in a laborer's blood. B．Albert Einstein didn't feel worn out after a day's work. C．The brain could work for many hours without fatigue. D．A mental worker's blood was filled with fatigue toxins. 65．According to the author, which of the following can make sitting workers tired? A．Challenging mental work. B．Unpleasant emotions. C．Endless tasks. D．Physical labor. 66．What's the author's attitude towards the scientists' ideas? A．He agrees with them. B．He doubts them. C．He argues against them. D．He hesitates to accept them. 67．We can infer from the passage that in order to stay energetic, sitting workers need to A．have some good food B．enjoy their work C．exercise regularly D．discover fatigue toxins 【要点综述】 本文是议论文，主要讲科学家们发现大脑本身能不知疲倦地工作许多小时，导致我们疲劳的 ________．
不是脑力工作本身，而是一种令人不愉快的情感，所以我们在工作中应该保持愉快的心情。 64．C 细节理解题。根据第一段中“But a few years ago, scientists tried to find out how long the human brain could labor without reaching a stage of fatigue.”可知大脑能不知疲倦地持续工作许多小时。 65．B 细节推断题。根据最后一段中“No! A feeling of being bored, anger, anxiety…”说明是一种令人不愉 快的情绪导致疲劳。 66． A 推理判断题。 根据第一段中“Here is an astonishing and significant fact…”和最后一段最后两句的描 述可知，作者完全赞同科学家的看法。 67．B 推理判断题。既然“一种令人不愉快的情绪会导致疲劳”，那么为了保持活力，sitting workers 要 享受他们的工作。