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http://suoxie.911cha.com/ http://www.51240.com/distrxh62__suoxieshow/ Non-Degree Certificate 没有学位证书 Religious Preference:none 宗教信仰:无 Marital Status:neve married 婚姻状况:未婚 1) Distance Reception Center of China Central Radio & Television University 中央广播电视大学 2) Reforming Education Model and Developing Open Education Experiment of the Center RTV University 中央广播电视大学人才培养模式改革和开放教育试点 3) central 中央 1. The relations between the central and local government in the Song Dynasty; 宋代地方与中央之关系问题研究 2. In the later period of the civil war, the Communist Party of China got final victory and the building-up of countrywide regime of became the agenda, and the construction of Central People s Government has proposed Chinese Communist Party’s agenda. 内战后期,中国共产党取得最后胜利并建立全国性政权已基本成为定局,筹建中央人民政府已 提上中共的议事日程。 3. The centripetal force is crucially vital of the relationship between the frontier and the central,in that various nations have worked together to construct one country ——the People s Republic China. 向心力是边疆与中央政治关系的关键所在,其原因在于各民族共同建构了中国。 4) The Central government 中央 1. The article focus on the issue how was Hebei under the central government in the Sui Dynasty. 在中央一统观念的支配下,对河北的治理成为隋朝中央政府的重要任务之一。 5) central government 中央 1. Probing into local and central government s relation under "new SOE management system"; “新国资管理体制”下中央与地方关系探析 2. The Allocation of Executive Powers between Central Government and Local Government; 中央与地方行政权力配置研究 3. The decline of the central government brought about the rise of local powers such as Xiang Clique,Huai Clique,and Beiyang Clique during the later Qing Dynasty.

晚清中央政权自身的衰落导致了湘系、淮系、北洋系地方势力的崛起;财权、兵权、外交权 下移,使中央政府丧失了政治权威和统治能力。 6) center 中央 1. The economic relationship between center and national autonomous regions mainly includes resources sharing, wealth po. 应规范、完善处理中央与民族自治地方经济关系的法律,并以此为依据,严格执行。 2. It is different and emphasized particularly for different states in various periods to choose the mode of relationship between center and region. 不同国家在不同时期对于中央与地方关系的模式选择都会有所不同和有所侧重。

大专文凭 associate degree (conferred to junior college students) 代培 training-on-contract program 代培生 trainee on contract 带薪分流 assign redundant civil servants to other jobs while allowing them to retain their original rank and benefits 待业人员 job seekers 待遇优厚的工作 a well-paid job 定向培训 training for specific posts 对保障方案进行精算评估 Security programs should undergo actuarial review. 对口扶贫 provide poverty alleviation aid to the designated sister regions 恶性犯罪 major crimes 反对迷信 be against superstition 福利分房 buy a benefit-oriented apartment from the organization one works with 复式住宅 compound apartment 干部年轻化 rejuvenation of cadres 岗位培训 on-job training 高度重视精神文明建设 pay close attention to cultural and ethical progress 搞好优生优育 promote good prenatal and postnatal care 个人自愿计划 voluntary private plans 工伤保险制度 the on-job injury insurance system 工资收入分配制度 the wage and income distribution system 关系国计民生的大事 matters vital to national well-being and the people’s livelihood 关心和支持残疾人事业 Programs to help the physically and mentally challenged deserve our care and support. 关心老龄人 care for senior citizens. 贵族学校 exclusive school(美); select school(英) 国企下岗职工基本生活保障 guarantee of basic cost of living allowances for workers laid off from state-owned enterprises 过紧日子 tighten one’s belt 过温饱生活 live a life at a subsistent level

合理调整就业结构 to rationally readjust the employment structure 后勤服务社会化 make logistic services independent in their operation 积极发展民办教育 Efforts should be made to develop schools not operated by government education departments. 基本养老金 basic pensions 计划生育责任制 responsibility system of family planning 继续开展“扫黄打非”斗争 The fight against pornography, illegal publications and piracy shall be continued. 加快住房分配货币化进程 capitalization process of housing distribution/allocation 加强计划生育工作 further improve family planning 加强舆论监督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 家庭美德 family virtues 坚持“两手抓、两手都要硬”的方针 adhere to the principle of “doing two jobs at once and attaching equal importance to each” 坚持正确的舆论导向 maintain the correct orientation for public opinion 建立集体合同制度 to establish a group contract system 建立市场导向的就业机制 to establish a market-oriented employment mechanism 建立新型的劳动关系 to establish a new type of labor relations 建设廉洁、勤政、务实、高效政府 build a clean and diligent, pragmatic and efficient government 建设一个富强、 民主、 文明的国家 build a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced country 教育程度 educational status; education received 教育程度比率 educational attainment ratio 戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center 精算界 actuarial profession 精算师 actuaries 扩大就业和再就业 to expand employment and reemployment 劳动保障监察制度 the labor security supervision system 劳动标准体系 labor standard system 劳动争议处理体制 the system of handling labor disputes 面临困境 face adverse conditions 努力稳定低生育水平 work to stabilize the low birth rate 培养创新精神和实践能力 help them develop practical abilities and a spirit of innovation 破案率 rate of solved criminal cases 强制性普及方案 universally compulsory program 切实减轻中小学生过重的课业负担 effectively reduce too heavy homework assignments for primary and secondary school students 确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和离退休人员基本养老金按时足额发放 to ensure that subsistence allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for retirees are paid on time and in full 人口出生率 birth rate 人口老龄化 aging of population 人口增长的高峰期 baby boom 人口增长与社会经济发展相协调 try to keep population growth in line with social and economic development 人民生活水平 quality of life; the living standards

认真贯彻实施中国妇女、儿童发展纲要 The programs for the development of work concerning women and children should be earnestly implemented. 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups 扫除青壮年文盲 eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people 伤残保险 disability insurance 社会保障 social security 社会保障“三条保障线”制度 social security system of “three guarantees” 社会福利制度 the social welfare system 社会公德 social morality 社会互助制度 the social mutual help system 社会治安状况好转 see an improved law-and-order situation 深入扎实地开展群众性精神文明创建活动 Extensive public participation activities are launched to promote cultural and ethical progress. 生活待遇 material amenities 生活费收入 income available for cost of living 生活费用 cost of living; income maintenance; subsistence cost 生育保险制度 the childbirth insurance system 失学儿童 dropouts 失业保险 guarantee of unemployment insurance benefits 失业保险 unemployment insurance 失业保险制度 the unemployment insurance system 失业率 rate of unemployment 实施积极促进就业的政策 to implement the policy of vigorously increasing employment 实现基本普及九年义务教育 The goal in the effort to make nine-year compulsory education basically universal has been attained. 实现小康目标 attain the goal of ensuring our people a relatively comfortable life 实行弹性大、灵活性强、多样化的就业形式 to adopt elastic, flexible, diversified forms of employment 实行计划生育、 控制人口数量、 提高人口素质 promote family planning and control the population size and improve the health of the people 实行劳动合同制度 to institute a labor contract system 树立正确的价值观、世界观、人生观 help foster in the young the morally sound values and outlook on the world and life 思想道德建设(思想政治工作) moral education among people 提高部分优抚对象抚恤标准 Allowances for certain disabled service men and women and family members of revolutionary martyrs and service men and women have been increased. 提高劳动者素质 to enhance workers’ quality 统筹兼顾城乡就业 to make overall plans for urban and rural system 推动就业服务向社区延伸,形成多层次的就业服务网络 to encourage the formation of community-run agencies as a part of the multi-level employment service network 推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development 推行职业资格证书制度 to introduce a vocational qualification credentials system 退休基金 pension fund 脱贫 lift off poverty; cast off poverty 完善和落实再就业优惠政策 to improve and implement preferential reemployment

完善失业保险制度 to improve the unemployment insurance system 文明城市 model city; culturally advanced city; city cited for high moral and cultural standards 物业管理 estate management, property management 消费价格总水平 the general price level 小家庭 nuclear family 小康生活 enjoy a fairly comfortable life; be moderately better off 新生儿死亡率 infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate 行行出状元 Every profession produces its own leading authority. 研究生毕业证/学位证 graduate diploma/graduate degree's diploma 养老保险 retirement insurance 养老保险制度 the old-age insurance system 医疗保险 medical insurance 医疗保险制度 the medical insurance system 应试教育 examination-oriented education system 优抚安置制度 the special care and placement system 优化就业结构 to optimize employment structure 有公德心 be civic-minded 舆论导向 direction of public opinion 舆论监督 supervision by public opinion 预期寿命 life expectancy 灾害救助制度 the natural disaster relief system 在职博士生 on-job doctorate 招生就业指导 enrolment and vocation guidance 争取实现高等教育大众化 work to make regular higher education accessible to the majority of young people 政府主导计划 government-sponsored programs 职业道德 ethics of profession 中华人民共和国劳动法 the Labor Law of the People’s Republic of China 中专生 secondary specialized or technical school student 重视发展具有比较优势和市场潜力的劳动密集型企业 to stress the development of labor-intensive enterprises with comparative advantages and market potential 抓好农村和流动人口计划生育管理与服务 devote efforts to the management of family planning and related services in rural areas and among the floating population 自然增长率 natural growth rate 自学成才 self-taught and self-made person; become a qualified professional through self-taught way 最低生活保障制度 the minimum living standard security system 汉英口译分类词汇(02)--外经贸类词汇 澳新紧密经济关系协定 ANZCERTA: Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement 摆脱亚洲金融危机的影响 shake off the impact of the financial crisis 帮助人才脱颖而出 help excellent talents find way to distinction 备件 spare parts 部长级会议 ministerial meeting

采取积极财政政策 proactive fiscal policy 出口创汇型/外向型产业 export-oriented industry 垂直兼并 vertical merger 倒爷 profiteer 抵免 offset 东盟自由贸易区 AFTA:ASEAN Free Trade Area 东南亚国家联盟 ASEAN:Association of South-East Asian Nations 对外项目承包 foreign project contracting 反倾销措施 anti-dumping measures against …… 防伪标志 anti-fake label 放松银根 ease monetary policy 非配额产品 quota-free products 非生产性投资 investment in non-productive projects 风险管理/评估 risk management/ assessment 风险基金 venture capital 风险准备金 loan loss provision/ provisions of risk 岗位培训 on-the-job training 港元的联系汇率制 the linkage system between the US dollar and the HK dollar 搞活国有大中型企业 revitalize large and medium-sized state owned enterprises 工程项目 engineering project 工业增加值 industrial added value 公正合理 equitable and rational 固定资产投资 investment in the fixed assets 广开就业门路 increase employment opportunities; create jobs in every possible way; open up more channels of employment 规模经济 scale economy/ economies of scale 国合企业(即国有合作社)state-owned cooperatives 国际清算 international settlement 国际收支平衡 balance of international payments/ balance of payment 国际收支不平衡 disequilibrium of balance of payment 国家补贴 public subsidies 国家鼓励项目 projects listed as encouraged by the state 国家科技创新体系 State Scientific and Technological Innovation System 国家现汇结存 state foreign exchange reserves 合理引导消费 guide rational consumption 横向兼并 horizontal merger 坏帐、呆帐、死帐 bad account/ dead account/ uncollectible account/bad debt/ bad loan 货币市场 money market 机构臃肿 overstaffing in (government) organizations 机构重叠 organizational overlapping 技 工 贸 结 合 的 科 技 型 企 业 scientific and technological enterprises that integrate scientific and technological developmentwith industrial and trade development 季节性调价 seasonal price adjustments 既成事实 established/accomplished facts

减免债务 reduce and cancel debts 建材 building materials 进口环节税 import linkage tax 经常项目 current account 经常性的财政收入 regular revenues 竟价投标 competitive bidding 就业前培训 pre-job training 控股公司 holding company 垃圾融资 junk financing 劳动密集性企业 labor-intensive enterprises 劳务合作 labor service cooperation 累计实现顺差 143.4 美元 accumulatively realizing trade surplus 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery 流动人口 floating population 龙头产品 lagship product 乱集资、乱摊派、乱收费 unwarranted pooling of funds, arbitrary requisition of donations and exaction of fees from enterprises/ unauthorized pooling of funds, compulsory donations and random levies on enterprises 慢性萧条 chronic depression 农业技术合作 ATC:Agricultural Technical Cooperation 盘活存量资产 revitalize stock assets 配件 accessories 皮包公司 flying-by-night company; bogus company 平等互利、讲求实效、形式多样、共同发展的方针 pursuing practical results, adopting various waysand seeking common development/ the principle of equality, mutual benefit, efficiency, diversity andmutual development 瓶颈制约 “bottleneck”restrictions 企业的自我约束机制 self-regulating mechanism of enterprises 企业技术改造 technological updating of enterprises 企业亏损补贴 subsidies to cover enterprise losses 企业所得税 corporate income tax 千年问题、千年虫 millennium bug 抢得先机 take the preemptive opportunities 清理、修订 screen and modify 求同存异 overcome differences and seek common ground 商住和公益设施建设 commercial, residential and public utility construction 申报制度 reporting system; income declaration system 实行股份制 enforce stockholding system 实行国民待遇 grant the national treatment to, treat foreign investors as quals to the Chinese counterparts 市场准人的行政管理措施 AAMA Administrative Aspects of Market Access 适销对路的产品 readily marketable products 双重轨制 two-tier system / double-track system 水利 water conservation 所有制形式 forms of ownership

贪图安逸 crave comfort and pleasure 通货紧缩 deflation 通货膨胀 inflation 同步增长 increase in the same pace 外援方式 modality of foreign aid 无氟冰箱 freon-free refrigerator 无纸交易 paperless transaction 现代企业制度 modern corporate system 消费膨胀 inflated consumption 协议投标 negotiated bidding 信息化 informationize 形成统一、开放和竞争有序的市场 establish an unified, open market with orderly competition 亚欧会议 ASEM:Asia-Europe Meeting 亚太法定计量论坛 APLMF:Asia Pacific Legal Metrology Forum 亚太工商咨询理事会 ABAC:APEC Business Advisory Council 亚太计量程序 APMP:Asia Pacific Metrology Program 亚太经合组织部长级会议 AMM:APEC MinisteriaI Meeting 亚太经合组织经济领导人会议 AELM: APEC Economic Leaders Meeting 亚太经济合作组织 APEC:Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 亚太能源研究中心 APERC:Asia Pacific Energy Research Center 亚太商业论坛 ABF:APEC Business Forum 亚太商业网络 APB-Net:Asia-Pacific Business Network 亚太实验室认可合作 APLAC:Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation 亚太通讯与数据系统 ACDS:APEC Communications and Database System 亚太信息基础设施 APII:Asia-Pacific Information Infrastructure 亚太中小企业技术交流与培训中心 ACTETSME:APEC Center for Technology Exchange and Training for Small and Medium Enterprises 亚洲开发银行 ADB: Asian Development Bank 以试点的形式实行外贸权自动登记制度 implement an automatic registration system of foreign trading rights on a trial basis 营业税 turnover tax 在巩固公有制主体地位的同时,促进多种所有制经济共同发展 alongside fortifying the status of the public ownership as the mainstay, it is also encouraged to witness common development of different systems of ownership 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 中华人民共和国保护台湾同胞投资实施条例 Implementation Rules of the P.R.C. on the Protection of Investments by Compatriots from Taiwan 中介服务组织 intermediary service organization 注入新的生机与活力 bring new vigor and vitality into 转化经营机制 change the method of operation 资本项目 capital account 自 1999 年 1 月 1 日起实行 come into official enforcement as of January 1, 1999 自由浮动汇率 free floating exchange rate; variable exchange rate 自主经营,自负盈亏 responsible for their own management decisions, profits and losses

走上良性发展的轨道 going on the track of sound progress shipping service company 船务公司 generic products 非商标(非专利)产品 prudent monetary policy 稳健的货币政策 deficit spending 超前消费 run on banks(到银行)挤兑 domestic support to agriculture 对农业的国内支持 special bonds 特种债券 economy of abundance 富裕经济 Animal-based protein 动物源性蛋白 dual purpose exports 军民两用品出口 dual-use goods and technology 军民两用产品和技术 NAFTA North American Free Trade Area 北美自由贸易区 global quota 全球配额 grandfather clause 祖父条款 Animal-derived food 动物源食品 EVSL (Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization)部门提前自愿自由化 TILF (Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation)贸易和投资自由化和便利化

常见缩略 C&F(cost&freight)成本加运费价 T/T(telegraphic transfer)电汇 D/P(document against payment)付款交单 D/A (document against acceptance)承兑交单 C.O (certificate of origin)一般原产地证 G.S.P.(generalized system of preferences)普惠制 CTN/CTNS(carton/cartons)纸箱 PCE/PCS(piece/pieces)只、个、支等 DL/DLS(dollar/dollars)美元 DOZ/DZ(dozen)一打 PKG(package)一包,一捆,一扎,一件等 WT(weight)重量 G.W.(gross weight)毛重 N.W.(net weight)净重 (customs declaration)报关单 EA(each)每个,各 W (with)具有 w/o(without)没有 FAC(facsimile)传真 IMP(import)进口

EXP(export)出口 MAX (maximum)最大的、最大限度的 MIN (minimum)最小的,最低限度 M 或 MED (medium)中等,中级的 M/V(merchant vessel)商船 S.S(steamship)船运 MT 或 M/T(metric ton)公吨 DOC (document)文件、单据 INT(international)国际的 P/L (packing list)装箱单、明细表 INV (invoice)发票 PCT (percent)百分比 REF (reference)参考、查价 EMS (express mail special)特快传递 STL.(style)式样、款式、类型 T 或 LTX 或 TX(telex)电传 RMB(renminbi)人民币 S/M (shipping marks)装船标记 PR 或 PRC(price) 价格 PUR (purchase)购买、购货 S/C(sales contract)销售确认书 L/C (letter of credit)信用证 B/L (bill of lading)提单 FOB (free on board)离岸价 CIF (cost,insurance&freight)成本、保险加运费价 GMO (genetically modified organism)转基因组织 CAGA (compound annual growth average)年复合增长率 汉英口译分类词汇(03)--改革开放词汇 保险业 The insurance industry 保证重点支出 Ensure funding for priority areas 被兼并或挤掉 annexed or forced out of business 补发拖欠的养老金 Clear up pension payments in arrears 不良贷款 Non—performing loan 层层转包和违法分保 Multi-level contracting and illegal subcontracting 产值 output value 城乡信用社 Credit Cooperative in both urban and rural areas 城镇居民最低生活保障 A minimum standard of living for city residents 城镇职工医疗保险制度 The system of medical insurance for urban workers 抽样调查 data from the sample survey 出口信贷 Export credit 初步建立社会主义计划商品经济新体制。 to establish at a preliminary level a new system of socialist planned commodity economy.

贷款质量 Loan quality 贷款质量五级分类办法 The five-category assets classification for bank loans 第二产业 secondary industry 第三产业 tertiary industry 第一产业 primary industry 独资企业 wholly foreign owned/funded enterprise 发电量 electric energy production 发挥市场的调节作用 to give play to the regulatory role of the market 发展过快 excessive growth 防范和化解金融风险 Take precautions against and reduce financial risks 防洪工程 Flood-prevention project 非法外汇交易 Illegal foreign exchange transaction 非公有成分 non-public sectors 非贸易收汇 Foreign exchange earnings through non trade channels 非银行金融机构 Non-bank financial institutions 费改税 Transform administrative fees into taxes 分配形式 forms of distribution 风险资金 risk funds 副业 sideline production 改革是"社会主义制度的自我完善和自我发展"。 Reform is "the self-perfection and self-development of the socialist system." 改革重点转移到城市 the focus of reform is shifted to the cities 改善经济环境 improve economic environment 搞活企业 invigorate/ revitalize/ rejuvenate enterprises 各尽所能,按劳/需分配。 from each according to his ability, to each according to his work/needs. 跟踪审计 Follow-up auditing 工程监理制度 The monitoring system for projects 公有制 public ownership 鼓励 give incentive to 管理不善 poor management 国际收支 international balance of payments 国家保障国有经济的巩固和发展。 The state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state economy. 国家的根本任务是,集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设 The basic task of the nation is to concentrate its efforts on socialist modernization. 国民生产总值 GNP (Gross National Product) 国内生产总值 GDP (Gross Domestic Product) 国有经济,即社会主义全民所有制经济,是国民经济中的主导力量。 The state economy is the sector of socialist economy under ownership by the whole people; it is the leading force in the national economy. 国有资产安全 The safety of state-owned assets 过度开垦 Excess reclamation 合同管理制度 The contract system for governing projects 合资企业 joint venture 合作企业 cooperative enterprise 和平演变 peaceful evolution

宏观控制 exercise macro-control 机电产品 Electromechanical products 积极的财政政策 Pro-active fiscal policy 基本生活费 Basic allowances 基石 cornerstone 计划经济和市场调节相结合的机制 a mechanism that combines planned economy and market regulation 家庭联产责任承包制 family-contract responsibility system 结售汇制度 The system of exchange settlement and sales 解除劳动关系 Sever labor relations 解放生产力 liberate/unshackle/release the productive forces 金融监管责任制 The responsibility system for financial supervision 经济安全 Economic security 经济和法律的杠杆 economic and legal leverages 经济计划和市场调节相结合 to combine economic planning with market regulation 经济结构改革。 reform in economic structure 经营机制 operative mechanism 精华、精粹、实质 quintessence 举措 move 靠扩大财政赤字搞建设 To increase the deficit to spend more on development 扣除物价上涨部分 price increase are deducted (excluded) 扩大国内需求 The expansion of domestic demand 拉动经济增长 Fuel economic growth 厉行节约,反对浪费 to practice strict economy and combat waste 粮食仓库 Grain depot 粮食收储企业 Grain Collection and storage enterprise 粮食收购资金实行封闭运行 Closed operation of grain purchase funds 粮食销售市场 Grain sales market 劣质工程 Shoddy engineering 林业 forestry 零售 retail 流通制度 circulation system 乱收费、乱摊派、乱罚款 Arbitrary charges, fund-raising, quotas and fines 农业 farming 骗汇、逃汇、套汇 Obtain foreign currency under false pretenses, not turn over foreign currency owed to the government and illegal arbitrage 取消国家对农产品的统购统销 to cancel the state's monopoly on the purchase and marketing of agricultural products 全民所有制 ownership by the entire/whole people 全体会议 plenary session 人均国民生产总值 per capita GNP 人均收入 per capita income 融资渠道 Financing channels 善于接受的 receptive 商品经济 commodity economy

商业信贷原则 The principles for commercial credit 社会保险机构 Social security institution 社会主义的最终目标是解放生产力,消灭剥削,消除贫富两极分化,最终达到共同富裕。 The main goals of socialism are the liberation and development of productive forces, the elimination of exploitation and polarization between the rich and the poor and the final achievement of common prosperity. 社会主义集体所有制 socialist collective ownership 社会主义经济制度的基础是生产资料的社会主义公有制, 即全民所有制和劳动群众集体所有制。 The basis of the socialist economic system is socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely, ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people. 生产关系 relations of production 生产力 productive forces 生产资料 means of production 生活资料 means of livelihood/subsistence 剩余劳动力。 surplus labor 失业保险金 Unemployment insurance benefits 实际增长率 actual growth rate 实事求是 seek truth from facts 实在的 tangible 使负担 be saddled with 试一下 have a go (at sth.) 输入活力 bring vigor into 私有制 private ownership 随着改革的深化,国家指令性计划的范围将会缩小,而市场调节的范围将会扩大。 As the reform further develops, the scope for mandatory state plans will be narrowed, while the scope for market forces will be enlarged. 偷税、骗税、逃税、抗税 Tax evasion, tax fraud and refusal pay taxes 投入 input 外汇收支 Foreign exchange revenue and spending 外资企业 foreign-funded enterprise 我们辨别的标准是看这样做是否有利于发展社会主义的生产力, 是否有利于增强社会主义国家的综合国力, 是否有利于提高人民的生活水平。 The criterion for our judgment is whether the move facilitates the development of socialist productive forces, whether it helps increase the overall national strength of a socialist country, and whether it brings about better living standards. 畜牧业 animal husbandry 要人们警惕右和"左"的影响,特别是"左"的根深蒂固的影响。 to warn people of the influence of both the Right and the "Left" deviations, particularly of the deep-rooted "Left" influence. 一个中心、两个基本点 one central task and two basic points 以经济建设为中心,坚持四项基本原则(1) 社会主义道路(2)党的领导(3)人民民主专政(4)马列主义毛泽东思想、坚持改革开放 the central task refers to economic construction and two basic points are the four cardinal principles - adherence to the socialist road, to Communist Party leadership, to the people's democratic dictatorship and to Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought - and persisting in reform and opening. 引进、输入 importation 引入歧途 lead one to a blind alley 营业发达的公司 going concerns

优化经济结构 optimize the economic structure 有色金属 nonferrous metals 有效地控制通货膨胀 effectively control inflation 渔业 fishing 增额、增值、增长 increment 整顿经济秩序 rectify economic order 中国要警惕右,但更要防"左"。 China needs to be vigilant against the Right deviation, but primarily, it should guard against the "Left" deviation. 逐步实现工业、农业、国防和科学技术的现代化,把我国建设成为富强、民主、文明的社会主义国家。 to modernize the country's industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology step by step to turn China into a strong and prosperous socialist country with a high level of culture and democracy. 主要成分 dominant sector 资本主义和社会主义并不是以计划经济和市场的多少来划分的。 Socialism and capitalism are not distinguished by the proportion of planned and market economy. 总工资 total wages 汉英口译分类词汇(04)-政治政府词汇 按保护价敞开收购粮食的政策 a policy of purchasing grain without limitations at protective prices 把处理事与处理人结合起来 integrate the handling of cases with the handling of violators 把有限的资金用在“刀刃上” use our limited funds where they can be put to best use 保持经济适度快速增长 maintain an appropriate rapid economic growth 保监会 the China Insurance Regulatory Commission 保证国家的长治久安 guarantee China’s long-term stability 保证社会公共需要 guarantee social needs 保证这些项目如期建成并发挥效益 ensure that these projects are completed according to schedule and yield economic returns 避免形成倒逼机制、欲罢不能 The uncompleted projects cannot drag on and on and require excessive investment. 不合法、不合理基金和收费项目 illegal and unjustifiable funds and charges 不会导致货币过量发行 without causing overissue of currency 不进则退 no progress simply means regression 不良贷款 non- performing loans 不能搞赤字预算 cannot leave a deficit in their budgets 不再经商 no longer engage in trade 财政偿还能力 our ability to service debt 财政的承受能力 financial capacity 财政监督条例 the Regulations on Financial Supervision 财政日子将更加难过 We will be in financial straits. 财政收入占国内生产总值的比重 the ratio of revenue to GDP 财政收支基本平衡的原则 a principle of maintaining a basic balance between revenue and expenditures 财政资金申请、立项、拨付、使用效果等各个环节的监督 supervision over the whole process of fund allocation from application, project determination and actual allocation to returns on investment 拆迁补偿费 compensation for demolition

产权划转和产权变动 the transfer of and changes in property rights of enterprises 产销衔接状况 the ratio of sales to production 产业升级 upgrade industries 长江流域的生态掩体 an ecological shelter along the Yangtze River Valley 长江三峡和黄河小浪底水利枢纽工程 the key water projects at the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River and at Xiaolangdi on the Yellow River 长期国债 long-term government bonds 常务委员 Standing Committee member 车辆购置税暂行条例 the Interim Regulations on the Tax on Vehicle Purchases 成长型企业市场 (指二板市场)growing enterprise market (GEM) 城乡电网改造 projects for upgrading urban and rural power grids 城镇登记失业率 registered unemployment rate in cities and towns 城镇社会保障体系 urban social security system 城镇职工医疗保险制度改革 medical insurance for urban workers 城镇住房制度改革 reform of the urban housing system 出口经营权由审批制向登记备案制过渡 the transition from an examination and approval system to a registration and recording system for the right to engage in export 出口配额 export quotas 传统产业 conventional industries 创新体系 an innovation system 垂直管理 vertical management 从源头上、制度上堵塞漏洞 plug up loopholes in terms of their sources and systems 促进公平分配 promote fair distribution of social wealth 村村通广播电视工程 project “extend radio and TV coverage to every village” 存款准备金 reserves against deposit 大部分科技力量游离于企业和市场之外 a majority of scientific personnel being divorced from enterprises and the market 大力推进粮食流通体制改革 step up our efforts to promote the reform of the grain distribution system 大面积多光区光纤光谱天文望远镜 a large sky area multi-object fiber-spectroscopy telescope 贷款质量 5 级分类办法 five-category assets classification for bank loans 邓小平理论 Deng Xiaoping Theory 低水平重复建设 low-level redundant development 滴灌、喷灌 drip irrigation and spray irrigation 抵抗全球经济衰退 to combat the global economic slump 地方性中小金融机构存款保险制度 a deposit insurance system for local small and medium-sized financial institutions 电视会议 televised meeting 调控宏观经济运行 regulate operation of the macroeconomy 调整出口退税 adjustments in the level of export tax rebates 调整投资结构和经济结构 the restructuring of investment and the economy 堵塞漏洞 plug up loopholes 对卷烟全面推行核定计税价格征收消费税办法 fully levy a sales tax on cigarettes on the basis of an authorized tax valuation 对人民高度负责的态度 maintain a high sense of responsibility

对中西部地区适当倾斜 appropriately directed to the central and western areas of the country 夺取了抗洪抢险的伟大胜利 achieve great victory in the fight against floods 发挥出最大的效益 produce the best possible results 发挥最大的使用效益 yield the greatest returns on investment 反对铺张浪费 combat extravagance and waste 防范和化解金融风险 guard against and defuse financial risks 防范金融风险能力 ability to guard against financial risks 防止“重点支出重点浪费” prevent “more waste in more expenditures” 非办不可的大事 important tasks which must be accomplished 非国有工业企业 non-state industrial enterprises 非银行金融机构 non-bank financial institutions 费改税改革 tax-for-fees reform 分配货币化 distribution of money 分税制度财政体制 the revenue-sharing system 风险防范机制 a risk prevention mechanism 服从全局、服务全局 be subordinated to and serve the overall interests of the country 复杂多变的国内经济环境 complicated and volatile economic environment both at home and abroad 改革价格形成机制 reform the price formation mechanism 干堤的修复加固任务 the task of repairing and reinforcing the main dikes 干法旋窑水泥 dry-process rotary kilns 敢抓敢管、不讲情面 have the courage to bear their responsibilities and exercise management no matter what others might think 高等教育“211 工程” the “211” Project for higher education 高技术产业发展规划 plans for the development of high-tech industries 高技术产业化 apply high technology to production 高技术产业化示范工程 high-tech model projects to demonstrate their commercial viability 高举邓小平理论伟大旗帜,全面贯彻'三个代表'重要思想 hold high the banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory and carry out the important thoughts of 'Three Represents' 高清晰度电视功能样机 functional prototype of high definition TV 个人所得税法 the Law on Personal Income Tax 个体经济、私营经济 self-employed and private businesses 各地区经济发展的客观需要 the needs of the economic development of different regions 各级各类教育 all forms of education at all levels 各种“小金库”屡禁不止 failures to prohibit unauthorized departmental coffers repeatedly 各种偷税、骗税和逃税行为 all acts of tax evasion and tax fraud 工程监理制 project supervision system 工程质量事故 accidents resulting from poor quality of projects 工业增加值 industrial added value 公开市场操作 open-market operations 共建、调整、合作、合并 a program of joint development, adjustment, cooperation and mergers 购买力 purchasing power 鼓励兼并 encourage mergers 关心群众疾苦 help alleviate their hardships 规范管理 standardized administration

规范化的财政管理 standardized financial management 规范破产 standardize bankruptcy procedures 规范税制 standardize the tax system 国际公认 internationally recognized 国际通行的吸引外资方式 internationally accepted methods of absorbing foreign investment 国家财政包揽过多 The state finance takes on too much financial burden. 国家发展计划委员会 the State Development Planning Commission 国家确定的重点领域投资 investment in the key areas designated by the state 国家税源的大量流失 great loss of state revenue 国家重点科研项目 national key scientific research projects 国库券 treasury bonds 国民经济各方面 all sectors of the national economy 国民生产总值 gross national product (GNP) 国内短缺原材料和资源性产品 raw and semi-finished materials and resource products which are in short supply in China 国有独资商业银行 wholly state-funded commercial bank 国有企业改革 reform of state-owned enterprises 国有企业和集体企业资本金统计报告制度 a system for reporting statistics on the capital funds of state-owned and collectively-owned enterprises 国有企业重组 regroup SOEs 国有商业银行一级法人管理 management of the state-owned commercial banks with only their head offices as their legal persons 国有资产管理、监督和营运机制 management, supervision and operation of state-owned assets 国有资源有偿使用 paid use of state-owned resources 国债资金 the capital obtained from issuance of government bonds 过剩的生产能力 excessive production capacity 海峡两岸关系 cross-Strait relations 合同管理制 contract management system 黑市交易 black market transaction in foreign exchanges 很多上海企业涌向西部, 掀起了去西部的淘金热。 Many enterprises of Shanghai go on a 'gold-rush' spree in the western parts of China. 宏观调控目标 macro-control targets 宏观经济预期目标 macroeconomic targets 会计法 the Accounting Law 会计信息质量抽查公告制度 the system for publicizing the results of random inspections for the quality of accounting information 积极的财政政策 a proactive fiscal policy 基本养老保险省级统筹 unified basic old-age insurance at the provincial level 基层监督 grass-roots supervision 基础设施建设 construction of infrastructural facilities 缉私 suppress smuggling 稽察特派员 special inspectors 及时、足额发放 timely and full funding of pension

急需安排的重点支出 urgently needed expenditures for key construction projects 挤占、挪用财政投资 misappropriation or diversion of financial investment 技术密集型产业 technology-intensive industries 加大处罚力度 severely punish those who violate the law and discipline 加大宏观调控力度 tighten macro-control 加大转移支付力度 increase transfer payments 加工贸易 trade involving the processing of supplied raw materials 加快经济结构调整 accelerate economic restructuring 加强军队和政权建设 strengthen army building and the organs of political power 加强征管、堵塞漏洞、惩治腐败、清缴欠税”的方针 the principle of “tightening collection and management, plugging up loopholes, punishing corruption and clearing up overdue taxes” 价格法 the Price Law 价格歧视 price discrimination 坚持解放思想、实事求是的思想路线,弘扬与时俱进的精神 adhere to the ideological guideline of emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts, and upholds the spirit of advancing with time. 坚定信心 proceed with confidence 坚决不搞重复建设 prohibit redundant projects 坚决杜绝劣质工程 prohibit inferior projects 艰苦奋斗、勤俭建国 hard work, plain living and building up the country through thrift 减轻企业负担 lighten the burden on enterprises 减人增效 increase efficiency by downsizing payrolls 减少福利型、供给型、实物型分配 reduce distribution in the form of welfare, supply and kind 减员增效 downsize staffs and improve efficiency 剪彩仪式 ribbon-cutting ceremonies 建立公共财政的基本框架 establish the basic framework for a system of public finance 建设文明幸福家庭 the development of civilized and happy families 健全项目法人责任制 the system of holding the legal person responsible for projects 讲排场、摆阔气、比享受 ostentatious behavior and pleasure-seeking 降低银行存贷款利率 lower bank interest rates for savings deposits and loans, 节能、节水、节地和低污染新型材料 new building materials that help to save energy, water and land resources and cause less environmental pollution 金融体制改革 reform of the financial system 金融资产管理公司 financial asset management companies 进出口商品结构 pattern of imports and exports 经济不发达地区 economically underdeveloped areas 经济发展后劲 future economic growth 经济房 low-cost housing 经营收费 operating charges 精打细算 meticulous plan all expenditures 精心设计 meticulous design 九届全国人大四次会议 the Fourth Session of the Ninth National People's Congress 九届全国政协常委递补委员 by-elect members to the Standing Committee of the Ninth CPPCC National Committee 就业问题 the problem of employment

具有税收性质的政府性基金或专项性收费 government funds and special charges of a tax nature 绝不能花钱大手大脚 absolutely cannot spend money lavishly 军队、 武警部队、 政法机关与企业脱钩 the army, armed police and procuratorial, judicial and public security organs have severed their ties with enterprises 开拓城乡市场 develop urban and rural markets 开拓农村消费市场 develop consumer markets in rural areas 抗洪救灾 fight floods and provide disaster relief 科技成果转化 the commercialization of research findings 科技发展基金 a science and technology development fund 科教兴国战略 the strategy of invigorating China through the development of science and education 科学技术进步 scientific and technological progress 科学论证 scientific verification 科学有效的收入组织机制 a scientific and effective mechanism for collecting revenue 可持续发展战略 the strategy of sustainable development 可支配收入 disposable income 肯定成绩 affirm our achievements 控制在国民经济可以承受的范围之内 keep within the limits of the national economic strength 跨省区分行 trans-provincial or trans-regional branches 亏损企业 loss-generating enterprises 扩大内需,刺激消费 expand/ increase domestic demand and stimulate consumption 扩大住房贷款,助学贷款和大件消费品贷款 expand housing loans, student loans and major commodity loans 拉动经济增长 stimulate economic growth 来之不易 hard-won achievements 浪费资源 resource-wasting 劳动力市场 the labor market 劳动者素质的提高 improve the quality of laborers 老工业基地 old industrial bases 离退休人员基本养老金 basic pensions for retirees 离退休人员养老金 pensions to retired employees 理顺税、费、价三者关系 straighten out the relationships among taxes, charges and prices 厉行节约 practice economy 粮食流通体制改革 reform of the grain distribution system 粮食市场的宏观调控能力 the state’s capacity for macro-control of the grain market 粮食政策性补贴 policy-related grain subsidies 两大历史性课题(提高党的执政能力和领导水平、提高拒腐防变和抵御风险能力)the two major historic subjects of enhancing the abilities of administration and art of leadership and resisting corruption, guarding against degeneration and warding off risks. 林区 forested areas 零基预算制度 a zero-base budgeting system 漏征漏管户 tax dodgers 面对严峻挑战 meet the serious challenge 民族地区 regions inhabited by ethnic groups 名优产品 famous brand high-quality products

牟取暴利 price hikes for exorbitant profits 年度国家预算 annual State budge 农村电网改造 projects to upgrade rural power grids 农村剩余劳动力 surplus rural workers 起草社会治安法 drafting a social security law 全国人大常务委员会 the NPC Standing Committee 全国人大代表 deputy to the National People's Congress 全国人民代表大会 (简称 全国人大) National People's Congress (NPC) 全国人民代表大会常务委员会 the NPC Standing Committee 全国人民代表大会常务委员会办公厅 the general offices of the NPC Standing Committee 全国人民代表大会主席团 the NPC Presidium 全国政协委员 member of the national committee of CPPCC 全面推进党的建设的新的伟大工程 forge ahead with the new great project of Party building 全体会议 plenary meeting 权贵资本主义'(又译裙带资本主义或亲朋好友资本主义) crony capitalism 人均国内生产总值 per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups (对弱势群体给予特殊的就业援助。--Special employment assistance should be given to members of disadvantaged groups.) 三个代表 three represents theory (the Party must always represent the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China.) 三讲教育:讲学习,讲政治,讲正气 three emphases education (to stress theoretical study, political awareness and good conduct) 三峡工程 Three-Gorges Project 三峡移民 Migrants from Three Gorges area 生计问题 bread-and butter issue 生态建筑 ecological construction 使大多数亏损企业扭亏为盈 bring the majority of money-losing firms into the black 试点项目 pilot project 特困行业和企业 industries and enterprises in dire straits 退耕还林、还草工程 Grain for Green Project 网络公司 a web-based economy 西部大开发 the strategy of developing the western region 西电东送 transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region 下岗工人基本生活津贴 the basic living allowance for laid-off workers 下岗职工基本生活费 subsistence allowances for laid-off workers 现代远程教育 modern distance education 宪法修正案 amendments to the Constitution 乡镇企业 township enterprises 小组讨论 panel discussions/group discussions 新闻发布会 press conference 医保制度改革 Reform of medical insurance system 医疗改革 health care reform 隐形就业 hidden employment

有中国特色的社会主义民主政治 socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics 与时俱进 advance with the times 再就业下岗人员 re-employment of laid-off workers 增收节支 increase revenue and cut government expenditure 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 政府工作报告 government's work report 政府机构改革 Reform of government institutions 制定反贪法规 anti-corruption legislation 中共中央委员会 CPC Central Committee 中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会 16th National Congress of Communist Party of China (16th NCCPC) 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会 (简称 全国政协) National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会常务委员会 Standing committee of the National Committee of the CPPCC 中国政协委员 member of the National Committee of CPPCC 中央纪律检查委员会 Central Commission for Discipline Inspection 重庆(直辖)市 China's Chongqing Municipality 诸国议会同盟 Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) 资源丰富的内陆地区(指中国西部)the resource-rich hinterland 综合国力 overall national strength

汉英口译分类词汇(05)--环境保护词汇 21 世纪议程 Agenda 21 (the international plan of action adopted by governments in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro Brazil(巴西里约), — provides the global consensus on the road map towards sustainable development) 世界环境日 World Environment Day (June 5th each year) 世界环境日主题 World Environment Day Themes 环境千年—行动起来吧! (2000) The Environment Millennium - Time to Act! 拯救地球就是拯救未来! (1999) Our Earth - Our Future - Just Save It! 为了地球上的生命—拯救我们的海洋!(1998)For Life on Earth - Save Our Seas! 为了地球上的生命(1997) For Life on Earth 我们的地球、居住地、家园(1996) Our Earth, Our Habitat, Our Home 国际生物多样性日 International Biodiversity Day (29 December) 世界水日 World Water Day (22 March) 世界气象日 World Meteorological Day(23 March) 世界海洋日 World Oceans Day (8 June ) 联合国环境与发展大会(环发大会) United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 环发大会首脑会议 Summit Session of UNCED

联合国环境规划署 United Nations Environment Programs (UNEP) 2000 年全球环境展望报告 GEO-2000; Global Environmental Outlook 2000 入选“全球 500 佳奖” be elected to the rank of Global 500 Roll of Honor 联合国人类居住中心 UN Center for Human Settlements (UNCHS) 改善人类居住环境最佳范例奖 Best Practices in Human Settlements Improvement 人与生物圈方案 Man and Biosphere (MA Programme (UNESCO) 中国 21 世纪议程 China’s Agenda 21 中国生物多样性保护行动计划 China Biological Diversity Protection Action Plan 中国跨世纪绿色工程规划 China Trans-Century Green Project Plan 国家环境保护总局 State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) 中国环保基本方针 China’s guiding principles for environmental protection 坚持环境保护基本国策 adhere to the basic state policy of environmental protection 推行可持续发展战略 pursue the strategy of sustainable development 贯彻经济建设、城乡建设、环境建设同步规划、同步实施、同步发展(三同步)的方针 carry out a strategy of synchronized planning, implementation and development in terms of economic and urban and rural development and environmental protection (the “three synchronizes” principle) 促进经济体制和经济增长方式的转变 promote fundamental shifts in the economic system and mode of economic growth 实现经济效益、社会效益和环境效益的统一 bring about harmony of economic returns and contribution to society and environmental protection 中国环保基本政策 the basic policies of China’s environmental protection 预防为主、防治结合的政策 policy of prevention in the first place and integrating prevention with control 污染者负担的政策 “the-polluters-pay” policy 强化环境管理的政策 policy of tightening up environmental management 一控双达标政策 policy of “One Order, Two Goals”: “一控”: 种工业污染物的排放量控制在国家规定的排 12 放总量 The total discharge of 12 industrial pollutants in China by the end of 2000 shall not exceed the total amount mandated by the central government.; “双达标”: 1. 到 2000 年底,全国所有的工业污染源 要达到国家或地方规定的污染物排放标准 The discharge of industrial pollutants should meet both national and local standards by the end of 2000. 2. 到 2000 年底,47 个重点城市的空气和地面水达到国 家规定的环境质量标准 2. Air and surface water quality in all urban districts in 47 major cities should meet related national standards by the end of 2000. 对新项目实行环境影响评估 conduct environmental impact assessments (EIA) on start-up projects 提高全民环保意识 raise environmental awareness amongst the general public 查处违反环保法规案件 investigate and punish acts of violating laws and regulations on environmental protection 环保执法检查 environmental protection law enforcement inspection 限期治理 undertake treatment within a prescribed limit of time 中国已加入的国际公约 international conventions into which China has accessed 控制危险废物越境转移及其处置的巴塞尔公约 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal 关于消耗臭氧层物质的蒙特利尔议定书 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 生物多样性公约 Convention on Biological Diversity 防治荒漠化国际公约 Convention to Combat Desertification 气候变化框架公约 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

生态示范区 eco-demonstration region; environment-friendly region 国家级生态示范区(珠海) Nationally Designated Eco-Demonstration Region 国家级园林城市 Nationally Designated Garden City 对水质和空气质量的影响 impact on the quality of the water and the air 治理环境污染 curb environmental pollution; bring the pollution under control 海藻 mostly in polluted waters) 工业固体废物 industrial solid wastes 白色污染 white pollution (by using and littering of non-degradable white plastics) 可降解一次性塑料袋 throwaway bio-degradable plastic bags 放射性废料积存 accumulation of radioactive waste 有机污染物 organic pollutants 氰化物、 砷、汞排放 cyanide, arsenic, mercury discharged 铅、镉、六价铬 lead, cadmium, sexivalent chromium 城市垃圾无害化处理率 decontamination rate of urban refuse 垃圾填埋场 refuse landfill 垃圾焚化厂 refuse incinerator 防止过度利用森林 protect forests from overexploitation 森林砍伐率 rate of deforestation 水土流失 water and soil erosion 土壤盐碱化 soil alkalization 农药残留 pesticide residue 水土保持 conservation of water and soil 生态农业 environment-friendly agriculture; eco-agriculture 水资源保护区 water resource conservation zone 海水淡化 sea water desalinization 保护珊瑚礁、红树林和渔业资源 protect coral reefs, mangrove and fishing resource 绿化祖国 turn the country green 全民义务植树日 National Tree-Planting Day 造林工程 afforestation project 绿化面积 afforested areas; greening space 森林覆盖率 forest coverage 防风林 wind breaks (防沙林 sand breaks) 速生林 fast-growing trees 降低资源消耗率 slow down the rate of resource degradation 开发可再生资源 develop renewable resources 环保产品 environment-friendly products 自然保护区 nature reserve 野生动植物 wild fauna and flora 保护生存环境 conserve natural habitats 濒危野生动物 endangered wildlife 珍稀濒危物种繁育基地 rare and endangered species breeding center 自然生态系统 natural ecosystems 防止沙漠化(治沙、抗沙) desertification 环境负荷 carrying capacity of environment

三废综合利用 multipurpose use of three types of wastes 先天与后天,遗传与环境 nature-nurture 美化环境 landscaping design for environmental purposes 防止沿海地带不可逆转恶化 protect coastal zones from irreversible degradation 环境恶化 environmental degradation 城市化失控 uncontrolled urbanization 温饱型农业 subsistence agriculture 贫困的恶性循环 vicious cycle of poverty 大气监测系统 atmospheric monitoring system 空气污染浓度 air pollution concentration 酸雨、越境空气污染 acid rain and transboundary air pollution 二氧化硫排放 sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 悬浮颗粒物 suspended particles 工业粉尘排放 industrial dust discharged 烟尘排放 soot emissions 二氧化氮 nitrate dioxide (NO2) 矿物燃料(煤、石油、天然气) fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas 清洁能源 clean energy 汽车尾气排放 motor vehicle exhaust 尾气净化器 exhaust purifier 无铅汽油 lead-free gasoline 天然气汽车 gas-fueled vehicles 电动汽车 cell-driven vehicles; battery cars 氯氟烃 CFCs 温室效应 greenhouse effect 厄尔尼诺南徊 ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) 噪音 noise (分贝 db; decibel) 化学需氧量(衡量水污染程度的一个指标) COD;chemical oxygen demand 生物需氧量 BOD; biological oxygen demand 工业废水处理率 treatment rate of industrial effluents 城市污水处理率 treatment rate of domestic sewage 集中处理厂 centralized treatment plant 红潮 red tide (rapid propagation of sea algae 英语“气象”用语表达法

1、气候种类 山地气候 mountain climate 恒风 constant wind 微风 breeze 冬季季风气候 winter monsoon climate 逆风 headwind 台风 typhoon 季风气候 monsoon climate 高气压 high-pressure 锋面 frontal edge 亚热带气候 sub-tropical climate 气团 air mass 热浪 heat wave 高原气候 plateau climate 闪电 lightning 雾 fog 海滨气候 littoral climate 凉 cool 霜 frost 极地气候 polar climate 雪堆 snowdrift 露 dew 热带气候 tropical climate 寒冷 chilly 3、风的名称

温带沙漠气候 temperate desert climate 间歇雨 intermittent rain 无风 calm 温带干燥气候 temperate arid climate 大雨 heavy rain 轻风 light breeze 热带季风气候 tropical monsson climate 信风 trade wind 微风 gentle breeze 大陆气候 continental climate 天气预报 weather forecast 和风 moderate breeze 沙漠气候 desert climate 甘霖 welcome rain 清风 fresh breeze 沿海气候 coastal climate 冰柱 icicle 强风 strong breeze 高地气候 highland climate 西北风 northwester 疾风 near gale 海洋气候 marine climate 地形雨 local rains 大风 gale 森林气候 forest climate 狂风 squall 烈风 strong gale 温带气候 temperate climate 雨季 rainy season 狂风 storm 湿润气候 humid climate 雨点 raindrops 暴风 violent storm 温带草原气候 temperate grassy climate 东北信风 northeast trades 飓风 hurricane 热带雨林气候 tropical rainy climate 东南风 southeaster 台风 typhoon 热带海洋气候 tropical marine climate 风级 wind scale 龙卷风 tornado 2、气象用语 虹 rainbow 4、浪的名称 小雨 light rain 阵雨 shower 平静 calm 毛毛雨 drizzle,fine rain 疾风 gusty wind 微波 rippled 反常天气 freakish weather 气旋 cyclone 微浪 smooth wavelets 北风 north wind 气压 barometric pressure 细浪 light seas 冰 ice 阴天 cloudy day 小浪 moderate seas 冰点 freezing point 雪花 snow flake 中浪 rough seas 西南风 southwester 晴 clear 大浪 very rough seas 冷峰 cold front 顺风 favorable wind 强浪 high seas 低气压 low-pressure 闷热天气 muggy weather 巨浪 very high seas 雨量 rainfall 雹 hail 狂浪 monster waves 东北风 northeaster 雷 thunder 5、自然灾害 东风 east wind 滂沱大雨 downpour 火山地震 volcanic earthquake 炎热 scorching heat 暖锋 warm front 海啸 tidal wave 风眼 eye of a storm 零度 zero 山崩 landslide 零度以下 subzero 汉英口译分类词汇(06)--机关机构词汇 一、 部属机构属译名(以化学工业为例) 化学工业部 Ministry of Chemical Industry 办公厅 General Office 计划司 Planning Department 外事司 Foreign Affairs Department 人事司 Personnel Department 化工新材料局 New Chemical Material Department 化工司 Chemical Department 橡胶司 Rubber Department 炼化司 Department of Refining and Chemicals 矿山司 Chemical Mines Bureau

化工规划院 Chemical Planning Institute 设备总公司 Equipment General Corporation 基建局 Capital Construction Department 教育司 Education Department 化肥司 Chemical Fertilizer Department 供销局 Department of Supply and Sales 二、 市属机械译名(以北京市为例) 北京市人大常委会 Standing Committee of Beijing Municipal People's Congress 中国共产党北京市委员会 Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC 中国人民政治协商会议北京市委员会 Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPPCC 北京市人民政府 Beijing Municipal People's Government 高级人民法院 High People's Court 人民检察院 People's Procuratorate 外事办公室 Foreign Affairs Office 侨务办公室 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office 财贸办公室 Office of Finance and Trade 文教办公室 Office of Culture and Education 计划委员会 Planning Committee 经济委员会 Economic Committee 城乡建设委员会 Committee of Municipal and Rural Construction 科学技术委员会 Committee of Science and Technology 城市规划委员会 Committee of Municipal Design 对外经贸委员会 Committee of Economic Trade for Foreign Countries 市政管理委员会 Municipal Administration Committee 民族委员会 Nationalities Committee 体育委员会 Physical Culture and Sports Committee 计划生育委员会 Family Planning Committee 人事局 Personnel Bureau 科技干部管理局 Bureau of Scientific and Technical Personnel 老干部局 Bureau of Retired Veteran Cadres 统计局 Statistical Bureau 物价局 Bureau of Commodity Price 工商行政管理局 Administration Bureau for Industry and Commerce 商品检验局 Bureau for Inspection of Commodities 审计局 Auditing Bureau 财政局 Finance Bureau 税务局 Tax Bureau 劳动局 Labor Bureau 档案局 Archives Bureau 物资管理局 Bureau of Materials 标准计量局 Bureau of Standard Measurement 公用局 Bureau if Public Utilities 广播电视局 Bureau of Radio and Television

教育委员会 Education Committee 文化局 Bureau of Culture 文物事业管理局 Bureau of Cultural Relics 卫生局 Health Bureau 乡镇企业管理局 Bureau if Township Enterprise Management 地质矿产局 Bureau of Geology and mineral Resources 农业局 Agricultural Bureau 林业局 Forestry Bureau 水产局 Bureau of Aquatic Products 气象局 Meteorological Bureau 水资源管理局 Control Bureau of Water Resources 园林局 Bureau of Parks and Woods 环境保护局 Bureau for Environmental Protection 环境卫生管理局 Bureau for Environmental Health 商业委员会 Commerce Committee 粮食局 Food Bureau 房地产管理局 Real Estate Bureau 城市规划管理局 Bureau for Municipal Design 机械设备成套局 Bureau for Complete Plants of Machinery and Equipment 公安局 Public Security Bureau 安全局 Security Bureau 司法局 Justice Bureau 民政局 Bureau of Civil Affairs 劳改工作管理局 Bureau of Reform-through-Labor Work 旅游局 Travel Bureau/Tourism Administration 铁路局 Railways Bureau 邮政局 Post Bureau 电信局 Telecommunications Bureau 北京民航管理局 Beijing Bureau of Civil Aviation 北京海关 Beijing Customs 外交人员服务局 Service Bureau for Foreign Officials 首都钢铁公司 Capital Iron and Steel Company 燕山石化总公司 Yanshan Petro-Chemical Industry Corporation 三、 企业 半导体器械厂 Semi-Conductor Apparatus Plant 包装材料厂 Packaging Materials Plant 保温瓶厂 Thermos Flask Factory 炼钢厂 Steel Works 被单厂 Bed sheet Factory 变压器厂 Transformer factory 玻璃制品厂 Glassware Factory 茶厂 Tea Processing Factory 柴油机厂 Diesel Engine Plant

车辆制造厂 Railway Car Plant 船舶修造厂 Ship Repair Yard 灯具厂 Lighting Equipment Factory 低压开关厂 Low-Voltage Switch Factory 汽车制造厂 Automobile Works 发电厂 Power Plant 电动工具厂 Electric Tool Works 电机厂 Electrical Machinery Plant 电讯器材厂 Telecommunication Apparatus Factory 电子管厂 Electronic Tube Factory 电子设备厂 Electronic Equipment Factory 铸造厂 Foundry Works 纺织机械厂 Textile Machinery Plant 服装厂 Garment Factory 皮革制品厂 Leather Goods Factory 罐头食品厂 Canned Food Plant 光学仪器厂 Optical Instrument Factory 广播器材厂 Broadcasting Equipment Factory 锅炉厂 Boiler Factory 化肥厂 Chemical Fertilizer Plant 化工厂 Chemical Works 化学纤维厂 Chemical Fiber Plant 化妆品厂 Cosmetics Plant 机床厂 Machine Tools Plant 机械修理厂 Machine Repair Plant 建筑机械厂 Construction Machinery Plant 金属工艺制品厂 Metal Handicraft Plant 晶体管厂 Transistor Factory 绝缘材料厂 Insulating Materials Plant 民族乐器厂 Folk Music Instrument Factory 炼油厂 Oil Refinery 粮油加工厂 Grain and Cooking Oil Processing Factory 毛纺织厂 Woolen Mill 木材厂 Timber Mill 家具厂 Furniture Factory 农药厂 Insecticide Factory 啤酒厂 Beer Brewery 汽车修配厂 Motor-Car Repair and Assembly Plant 人造纤维厂 Artificial Fiber Plant 乳品加工厂 Milk Processing Plant 石油化工机械厂 Petro-Chemical Machinery Plant 水泥厂 Cement Plant 塑料厂 Plastics Plant 搪瓷厂 Enamel Plant

陶瓷厂 Pottery and porcelain Factory 通用机械厂 General Machinery Plant 玩具厂 Toy Factory 无线电器材厂 Radio Appliances Factory 五金厂 Hardware Factory 橡胶厂 Rubber Plant 制药厂 Pharmaceutical Factory 羊毛衫厂 Woolen Sweater Mill 针织厂 Knitwear Mill 冶炼厂 Metallurgical Plant 医疗器械厂 Medical Apparatus Factory 仪表厂 Instrument and Meters Factory 饮料厂 Soft Drinks Plant 印染厂 Printing and Dyeing Mill 油漆厂 Paint Factory 有机化工厂 Organic Chemical Plant 造纸机械厂 Paper Making Machinery Plant 造船厂 Shipbuilding Plant 自行车厂 Bicycle Plant 四、 公司、企业集团 家用电器有限公司 Household Electrical Appliance Co., Ltd. 技贸公司 Technology and Trade Co., Ltd. 钢铁公司 Iron and Steel Company 保安服务公司 Security Service Company 针织有限公司 Knitting Company Ltd. 实业集团公司 Industrial Group Corporation 国际租赁公司 International Leasing Company 电子技术开发公司 Electronic Technology Development Co. 毛纺织有限公司 Woolen Textile Co., Ltd. 系统工程有限公司 System Engineering Corporation 计算机集团公司 Computer Group Co. 时装有限公司 Fashion Company Ltd. 广告公司 Advertising Company 科学技术开发公司 Science and Technical Development Company 水产品有限公司 Aquatic Product Company Ltd. 旅游公司 Travel Corporation 服装公司 Garment Company Ltd. 国际广告展览有限公司 International Advertising and Exposition Co., Ltd. 电冰箱厂有限公司 Refrigerator Factory Co., Ltd. 电风扇工业公司 Electric Fan Industry Company 电话技术开发服务公司 Telephonic Technology Development Service Co. 电力机械制造公司 Electrical Machinery Manufacturing Company 电信发展公司 Telecommunications Development Co.

电子器材公司 Electronic Equipment & Materials Corporation 建筑工程 Construction Project Consulting 咨询公司 Corporation 科学仪器 Scientific Instrument Import and 进出口公司 Export Co. 仪器设备公司 Instrument and Equipment Company 汽车企业集团 Automobile Enterprise Group 技术开发咨询公司 Technical Development and Consultancy Co. 对外服务公司 Foreign Service Company 对外经济发展公司 Foreign Economic Development Company 纺织企业集团 Textile Enterprise Group 对外贸易公司 Foreign Trade Company 贸易有限公司 Trading Company Ltd. 国际投资有限公司 International Investment Company 塑料制品有限公司 Plastic Products Co., Ltd. 工艺美术品公司 Arts and Crafts Corporation 国际经济技术合作公司 International Economic & Technological Consulting Corporation 国际经济开发公司 International Economic Development Corporation 国际科技咨询公司 International Scientific and Technological Consulting Corporation 国际贸易展览公司 International Trade Exhibition Company 国际商业服务公司 International Commercial Service Company 国际信息处理有限公司 International Information Processing Co., Ltd. 国际经济合作公司 International Economic Cooperation Corporation 国际工程集团 International Engineering Group Corporation 制衣实业公司 Garments Industrial Company 化工工程咨询公司 Chemical Engineering Consulting Corporation 计算机技术 Computer Technology Service 服务公司 Corporation 工程承包有限公司 Project Contracting Co., Ltd. 建筑设计合资公司 Building Design Joint Venture Corporation 交通进出口 Communications Import & Export 服务公司 Service Company 饭店集团服务公司 Hotel Group, Ltd. 饮料有限公司 Beverage Company Limited 建筑工程公司 Construction Engineering Co. 陶瓷企业集团 Porcelain Industry Complex 饲料技术开发集团 Feed Technological Development Group 能源开发公司 Energy Development Corporation 民办交通信息中心 Non-Governmental Transport Information Center 国货有限公司 China Products Company Ltd. 气象服务公司 Meteorological Service Company 农资公司 Agricultural Materials Company 化纤工业集团公司 Chemical Fiber Industry Group 房产投资有限公司 Realty & Investment Company

房地产开发公司 Real Estate Development Company 国际集装箱有限公司 International Container Co., Ltd. 证券公司 Securities Company 塑料皮革工业公司 Plastics and Leather Industrial Company 讨债公司 Debt Collecting Company 新型建筑材料供应公司 New Building Materials Supply Company 五、 金融、保险机构 中国人民银行 People's Bank of China 中国人民建设银行 People's Construction Bank of China 中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China 中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China 中国银行 Bank of China 交通银行 Bank of Communications 中国投资银行 China Investment Bank 中信实业银行 CITIC Industrial Bank 中国光大银行 Everbright Bank of China 厦门国际银行 Xiamen International Bank 广东发展银行 Guangdong Development Bank 浦东发展银行 Pudong Development Bank 中国国际信托投资公司 China International Trust & Investment Corporation 中国人民保险公司 People's Insurance Company of China 平安保险公司 Ping An Insurance Company 中国人寿保险公司 China Life Insurance Company Ltd. 六、 商店 书店 books store 粮店 grain store 食品点 food store 煤店 coal store 食品杂货(副食品)店 grocery 酱园 sauce and pickles shop 肉店 meat (butcher's) shop 酒店 wine shop 水产店 aquatic products shop 家禽店 fowl shop 豆腐店 bean curd shop 烤肉店 roast meat shop 卤味店 sauced meat shop 饮食店 food and drink shop 小吃店 eating house (snack bar) 饭店 restaurant 冷饮店 cold drinks shop 蔬菜店水果店 green grocery (green grocer's)

蔬菜店 vegetables shop 鞋帽店 shoes and hats store 百货公司 department store 百货商场 general merchandise market 服装店 clothing store 成衣店 ready-made clothes shop 呢绒绸布店 wool, silk and cotton fabrics store 药店(美:杂货店) drug store (pharmacy) 儿童用品商店 children's goods shop 妇女用品商店 women's goods shop 钟表店 watch and clock ship 文具店 stationer's (stationery shop) 日用杂货店 daily-use sundry goods shop 炊事用具商店 cooking utensils shop 家用器具商店 household utensils shop 五金商店 metal products shop 家具店 furniture shop 眼镜店 eyeglasses store 玻璃礼品店 glass gifts store 爆竹鞭炮店 fireworks shop 电器商店 electrical appliance shop 油漆店 paint shop 化工油漆染料店 chemicals, paint and dyestuffs shop 地产建材商店 native building materials store 照相馆(摄影室) photographic studio (photographer's) 旧货店 second-hand goods store (used goods store) 寄卖商店 commission shop 综合修理店 general repair shop (service) 工艺美术服务社 arts and crafts shop 花店 flower shop 古玩珠宝店 antiques and jewelry shop 香烟店(摊) cigarette shop (stall) 售报亭 newspaper and magazine stand 茶馆 tea house 理发店 barber's shop (hairdresser's) 洗澡堂 bath house 旅店/旅馆 inn/ hotel 邮局 post office 七、中国人民团体 People’s Organizations of China 测绘学会 Society of Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography 地震学会 Seismological Society 国际金融学会 International Finance Society 国际战略问题学会 Institute for International Strategic Studies

海洋学会 Society of Oceanography 科普学会 Popular Science Society 全国少年儿童文化艺术委员会 National Council on Cultural and Art Work for Children 全国少年儿童工作协调委员会 National Children’s Work Coordination Committee 全国史学会 China Society of History 宋庆龄基金会(上海) Song Ching Ling Foundation (Shanghai) 中国奥林匹克委员会 Chinese Olympic Committee 中国笔会中心 Chinese Pen Center 中国标准化协会 China Association for Standardization 中国残疾人福利基金会 China Welfare Fund for the Handicapped 中国出版协会 Chinese Publishers Association 中国道教协会 Chinese Taoist Association 中国电视艺术家协会 Chinese Television Artists Association 中国电影家协会 China Film Association 中国法律质询中心 Chinese Legal Consultancy Center 中国法律会 China Law Society 中国翻译工作者协会 Translators Association of China 中国佛教协会 Chinese Buddhists Association 中国福利会 China Welfare Institute 中国歌剧研究会 Chinese Opera Research Institute 中国共产主义青年团 Communist Youth League of China 中国国际法学会 Chinese Society of International Law 中国国际交流协会 Association for International Understanding of China 中国红十字会总会 Red Cross Society of China 中国会计学会 China Accounting Society 中国基督教“三自”爱国运动委员会 Three-Self Patriotic Movement Committee of the Protestant Churches of China 中国基督教协会 China Christian Council 中国计量测试学会 Chinese Society for Measurement 中国金融学会 Chinese Monetary Society 中国考古协会 Archaeological Society of China 中国科学技术史学会 Chinese Society of Science and Technology History 中国科学技术协会 China Society and Technology Association 中国联合国教科文组织全国委员会 National Commission of The People’s Republic of China for UNESCO 中国联合国协会 United Nations Association of the People’s Republic of China 中国美术家协会 Chinese Artists Association 中国民间文艺家协会 China Society for the Study of Folk Literature and Art 中国企业管理协会 China Enterprise Management Association 中国曲艺家协会 Chinese Ballad Singers Association 中国人民保卫儿童基金会 Chinese People’s National Committee for Defense of Children 中国人民对外友好协会 Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries 中国少年儿童基金会 Children’s Foundation of China 中国少年先锋队 China Young Pioneers 中国摄影家协会 Chinese Photographers Society

中国书法家协会 Chinese Calligraphers Association 中国天主教爱国会 Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association 中国天主教教务委员会 National Administrative Commission of the Chinese Catholic Church 中国天主教主教团 Chinese Catholic Bishops College 中国文学艺术界联合会 China Federation of Literary and Art Circles 中国舞蹈家协会 Chinese Dancers Association 中国戏剧家协会 Chinese Dramatists Association 中国伊斯兰教协会 Chinese Islamic Association 中国音乐家协会 Chinese Musicians Association 中国杂技艺术家协会 Chinese Acrobats Association 中国政法学会 China Society of Political Science and Law 中国作家协会 Chinese Writers Association 中化全国妇女联合会 All-China Women’s Federation 中华全国工商联合会 All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce 中华全国归国华侨联合会 All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese 中华全国青年联合会 All-China Youth Federation 中华全国世界语联合会 All-China Esperanto League 中华全国台湾同胞联谊会 All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots 中华全国体育总会 All-China Sports Federation 中华全国新闻工作者协会 All-China Journalists’ Association 中华全国总工会 All-China Federation of Trade Unions 中华医学会 Chinese Medical Association 八、国家机关 China's State Organs 1. 全国人民代表大会 National People's Congress (NPC) 主席团 Presidium 常务委员会 Standing Committee 办公厅 General Office 秘书处 Secretariat 代表资格审查委员会 Credentials Committee 提案审查委员会 Motions Examination Committee 民族委员会 Ethnic Affairs Committee 法律委员会 Law Committee 财政经济委员会 Finance and Economy Committee 外事委员会 Foreign Affairs Committee 教育、科学、文化和卫生委员会 Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee 内务司法委员会 Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs 华侨委员会 Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee 法制工作委员会 Commission of Legislative Affairs 特定问题调查委员会 Commission of Inquiry into Specific Questions 宪法修改委员会 Committee for Revision of the Constitution 2.中华人民共和国主席 [President of the People's Republic of China] 3. 中央军事委员会 [Central Military Commission] 4. 最高人民法院 [Supreme People's Court]

5. 最高人民检察院 [Supreme People's Procuratorate] 6. 国务院 [State Council] (1)国务院部委 Ministries and Commissions Directly under the State Council 外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 国防部 Ministry of National Defence 国家发展计划委员会 State Development Planning Commission 国家经济贸易委员会 State Economic and Trade Commission 教育部 Ministry of Education 科学技术部 Ministry of Science and Technology 国防科学技术工业委员会 Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National De-fence 国家民族事物委员会 State Ethnic Affairs Commission 公安部 Ministry of Public Security 国家安全部 Ministry of State Security 监察部 Ministry of Supervision 民政部 Ministry of Civil Affairs 司法部 Ministry of Justice 财政部 Ministry of Finance 人事部 Ministry of Personnel 劳动和社会保障部 Ministry of Labour and Social Security 国土资源部 Ministry of Land and Resources 建设部 Ministry of Construction 铁道部 Ministry of Railways 交通部 Ministry of Communications 信息产业部 Ministry of Information Industry 水利部 Ministry of Water Resources 农业部 Ministry of Agriculture 对外贸易经济合作部 Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation 文化部 Ministry of Culture 卫生部 Ministry of Public Health 国家计划生育委员会 State Family Planning Commission 中国人民银行 People's Bank of China 国家审计署 State Auditing Administration (2)国务院办事机构 Offices under the State Council 国务院办公厅 General Office of the State Council 侨务办公室 Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs 港澳台办公室 Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office 台湾事务办公室 Taiwan Affairs Office 法制办公室 Office of Legislative Affairs 经济体制改革办公室 Office for Economic Restructuring 国务院研究室 Research Office of the State Council 新闻办公室 Information Office 公司部门的英文标识名称 总公司 Head Office

分公司 Branch Office 营业部 Business Office 人事部 Personnel Department 人力资源部 Human Resources Department 总务部 General Affairs Department 财务部 General Accounting Department 销售部 Sales Department 促销部 Sales Promotion Department 国际部 International Department 出口部 Export Department 进口部 Import Department 公共关系 Public Relations Department 广告部 Advertising Department 企划部 Planning Department 产品开发部 Product Development Department 研发部 Research and Development Department (R&D) 秘书室 Secretarial Pool

汉英口译分类词汇(07)--世贸组织词汇 (补贴协议)可诉补贴 Actionable subsidy (纺织品与服装、农产品)一体化进程 Integration process (服务贸易)境外消费 Consumption abroad (服务贸易)跨境交付 Cross border supply (服务贸易)商业存在 Commercial presence (服务贸易)自然人 natural person (服务贸易)自然人流动 Presence of natural person (解决争端)被诉方 Defendant (解决争端)调查结果 Findings (解决争端)上诉 Appeal (解决争端)申诉方 Complaint (利益的)丧失和减损 Nullification and impairment (农产品)国内支持 Domestic support (农产品)综合支持量 AMS (Aggregate Measurement of Support) (农产品国内支持)黄箱措施 Amber Box measures (农产品国内支持)蓝箱措施 BOP(Balance-of-payments) Provisions (农产品国内支持)绿箱措施 Green Box measures (农业)多功能性 Multifunctionality (欧盟)共同农业政策 Common Agriculture Policy

(争端解决)专家组 Panel (知识产权)地理标识 Geographical indications 《巴黎公约》(关于保护工业知识产权的公约)Paris Convention 《巴塞尔公约》 (有关危险废弃物的多边环境协定)Basel Convention 《北美自由贸易协定》NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 《濒危物种国际贸易公约》Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 《伯尔尼公约》 (有关保护文学和艺术作品版权的公约)Berne Convention 《多种纤维协定》MFA (Multifibre Agreement) 《纺织品与服装协议》ATC (Agreement on Textiles and Clothing) 《服务贸易总协定》GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services) 《关于争端解决规则与程序的谅解》DSU(Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes) 《京都议定书》 Kyoto Protocol 《里斯本条约》 (有关地理标识及其国际注册)Lisbon Agreement 《蒙特利尔议定书》(有关保护大气臭氧层的多边环境协定)Montreal Protocol 《农产品协议》特殊保障 SSG (Special Safeguard) 《农业协议》中关于反补贴的和平条款 Peace clause 《生物多样性公约》CBD(Convention on Biological Diversity) 《信息技术协议》ITA (Information Technology Agreement) WTO 最不发达国家高级别会议 HLM (WTO High-level Meeting for LDCs) 北美自由贸易区 NAFTA (North American Free Trade Area) 采取措施后 Ex post 采取措施前 Ex ante 产品生命周期分析 LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) 出口补贴 Export subsidy 出口实绩 Export performance 垂直兼并 vertical merger 当地含量 Local content 电子商务 Electronic Commerce 东部和南部非洲共同市场 COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) 东盟自由贸易区 ASEAN Free Trade Area 动植物卫生检疫措施 SPS (Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard ) 反补贴税 Countervailing duty 反倾销措施 anti-dumping measures against… 反向通知 Counter-notification 非配额产品 quota-free products 非生产性投资 investment in non-productive projects 非洲、加勒比和太平洋国家集团(洛美协定)ACP(African, Caribbean and Pacific Group) 风险管理/评估 risk management/ assessment 关贸总协定,世界贸易组织的前身 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 规避 Circumvention 国际标准化组织 ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 国际纺织品服装局 ITCB (International Textile and Clothing Bureau) 国际货币基金组织 IMF (International Monetary Fund)

国际劳工组织 ILO (International Labor Organization) 国际贸易中心 ITC (International Trade Center) 国际贸易组织 ITO (International Trade Organization) 国际贸易组织临时委员会 ICITO (Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization) 国际清算 international settlement 国际收支 balance of international payments/ balance of payment 国际收支条款 BOP(Balance-of-payments) Provisions 国际兽疫组织 International Office of Epizootics 国民待遇 National treatment 国内补贴 Domestic subsidy 国内生产 Domestic production 海关估价 Customs valuation 海关完税价值 Customs value 横向兼并 horizontal merger 环保型技术 EST(Environmentally-sound technology) 灰色区域措施 Grey area measures 货币留成制度 Currency retention scheme 货币贸易理事会 CTG(Council for Trade in Goods) 基础税率 Base tariff level 既定日程 Built-in agenda 交叉报复 Cross retaliation 进口差价税 Import variable duties 进口附加税 Import surcharge 进口环节税 import linkage tax 进口渗透 Import penetration 进口替代 Import substitution 进口许可 Import licensing 进口押金 Import deposits 经济合作与发展组织 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 垃圾融资 junk financing 联合国环境署 UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) 联合国开发计划署 UNDP (United Nations Development Program) 联合国粮农组织 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States) 联合国贸易与发展会议 UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) 粮食安全 Food security 慢性萧条 chronic depression 贸易和投资自由化和便利化 TILF (Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation) 贸易与发展委员会 Committee on Trade and Development 贸易与环境委员会 Committee on Trade and Environment 模式 Modalities 南方共同市场(或称南锥体共同市场)MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market) 南亚区域合作联盟 SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional cooperation) 欧洲自由贸易联盟 EFTA (European Free Trade Association) 配额调整条款 modulation of quota clause

瓶颈制约 'bottleneck' restrictions 全球配额 global quota 上诉机构 Appeal body 申报制度 reporting system; income declaration system 生产补贴 Production subsidy 实行国民待遇 grant the national treatment to 实质损害 Material injury 食品法典委员会 CAC(Codex Alimentaries Commission) 世界海关组织 WCO (World Customs Organization) 世界贸易组织 WTO (World Trade Organization) 世界知识产权组织 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) 市场准人的行政管理措施 AAMA (Administrative Aspects of Market Access) 市场准入 Market access 通知义务 Notification obligation 同类产品 Like product 乌拉圭回合 Uruguay Round 消费膨胀 inflated consumption 协调制度(商品名称及编码协调制度)HS (Harmonized Commodity and Coding System) 新议题 New issues 许可费 License fee 有秩序的市场安排 Orderly market arrangements 约束水平 Bound level 争端解决机构 Dispute Settlement Body 政府采购 Government procurement 知识产权 IPRs (Intellectual property rights) 直接支付 Direct payment 诸边协议 Plurilateral agreement 专门的营销机构 Market boards 转基因生物 GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) 祖父条款 grandfather clause 最不发达国家 LDCs (Least-developed countries) 最初谈判权(初谈权) INRs (Initial Negotiating Rights) 最惠国待遇(现通常称'正常贸易关系')MFN(most-favored-nation) treatment 最惠国贸易地位(待遇)MFN (Most-favored-nation)(Treatment) WTO 术语英文解释 General GATT — General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which has been superseded as an international organization by the WTO. An updated General Agreement is now one of the WTO’s agreements. GATT 1947 — The old (pre-1994) version of the GATT. GATT 1994 — The new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, which governs trade in goods. Members — WTO governments (first letter capitalized, in WTO style). MFN — Most-favoured-nation treatment (GATT Article I, GATS Article II and TRIPS Article 4), the

principle of not discriminating between one’s trading partners.national treatment — The principle of giving others the same treatment as one’s own nationals. GATT Article III requires that imports be treated no less favourably than the same or similar domestically-produced goods once they have passed customs. GATS Article XVII and TRIPS Article 3 also deal with national treatment for services and intellectual property protection. TPRB, TPRM — The Trade Policy Review Body is General Council operating under special procedures for meetings to review trade policies and practices of individual WTO members under the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. transparency — Degree to which trade policies and practices, and the process by which they are established, are open and predictable. Uruguay Round — Multilateral trade negotiations launched at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Geneva in December 1993. Signed by Ministers in Marrakesh, Morocco, in April 1994.

Tariffs binding, bound — see “tariff binding” electronic commerce — The production, advertising, sale and distribution of products via telecommunications networks. free-rider — A casual term used to infer that a country which does not make any trade concessions, profits, nonetheless, from tariff cuts and concessions made by other countries in negotiations under the most-favoured-nation principle. Harmonized System — An international nomenclature developed by the World Customs Organization, which is arranged in six digit codes allowing all participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis. Beyond the six digit level, countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariffs and many other purposes. ITA — Information Technology Agreement, or formally the Ministerial-Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products, under which participants will remove tariffs on IT products by the year 2000. ITA II — Negotiations aimed at expanding ITA’s product coverage. nuisance tariff — Tariff so low that it costs the government more to collect it than the revenue it generates. schedule of concessions — List of bound tariff rates. tariff binding — Commitment not to increase a rate of duty beyond an agreed level. Once a rate of duty is bound, it may not be raised without compensating the affected parties. tariff escalation — Higher import duties on semi-processed products than on raw materials, and higher still on finished products. This practice protects domestic processing industries and discourages the development of processing activity in the countries where raw materials originate. tariff peaks — Relatively high tariffs, usually on “sensitive” products, amidst generally low tariff levels. For industrialized countries, tariffs of 15% and above are generally recognized as “tariff peaks”. tariffs — Customs duties on merchandise imports. Levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kgs.). Tariffs give price advantage to similar locally-produced goods and raise revenues for the government. WCO — World Customs Organization, a multilateral body located in Brussels through which participating countries seek to simplify and rationalize customs procedures.

Non-tariff measures

anti-dumping duties — Article VI of the GATT 1994 permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties against dumped goods, equal to the difference between their export price and their normal value, if dumping causes injury to producers of competing products in the importing country. circumvention — Measures taken by exporters to evade anti-dumping or countervailing duties. countervailing measures — Action taken by the importing country, usually in the form of increased duties to offset subsidies given to producers or exporters in the exporting country. dumping — Occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third-country markets, or at less than production cost. NTMs — Non-tariff measures such as quotas, import licensing systems, sanitary regulations, prohibitions, etc. price undertaking — Undertaking by an exporter to raise the export price of the product to avoid the possibility of an anti-dumping duty. PSI — Preshipment inspection — the practice of employing specialized private companies to check shipment details of goods ordered overseas — i.e. price, quantity, quality, etc. QRs — Quantitative restrictions — specific limits on the quantity or value of goods that can be imported (or exported) during a specific time period. rules of origin — Laws, regulations and administrative procedures which determine a product’s country of origin. A decision by a customs authority on origin can determine whether a shipment falls within a quota limitation, qualifies for a tariff preference or is affected by an anti-dumping duty. These rules can vary from country to country. safeguard measures — Action taken to protect a specific industry from an unexpected build-up of imports — governed by Article XIX of the GATT 1994. subsidy — There are two general types of subsidies: export and domestic. An export subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent on exports. A domestic subsidy is a benefit not directly linked to exports. tariffication — Procedures relating to the agricultural market-access provision in which all non-tariff measures are converted into tariffs. trade facilitation — Removing obstacles to the movement of goods across borders (e.g. simplification of customs procedures). VRA, VER, OMA — Voluntary restraint arrangement, voluntary export restraint, orderly marketing arrangement. Bilateral arrangements whereby an exporting country (government or industry) agrees to reduce or restrict exports without the importing country having to make use of quotas, tariffs or other import controls.

Textiles and clothing ATC — The WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing which integrates trade in this sector back to GATT rules within a ten-year period. carry forward — When an exporting country uses part of the following year’s quota during the current year. carry over — When an exporting country utilizes the previous year’s unutilized quota. circumvention — Avoiding quotas and other restrictions by altering the country of origin of a product. CTG — Council for Trade in Goods — oversees WTO agreements on goods, including the ATC. integration programme — The phasing out of MFA restrictions in four stages starting on 1 January 1995 and ending on 1 January 2005.

ITCB — International Textiles and Clothing Bureau — Geneva-based group of some 20 developing country exporters of textiles and clothing. MFA — Multifibre Arrangement (1974-94) under which countries whose markets are disrupted by increased imports of textiles and clothing from another country were able to negotiate quota restrictions. swing — When an exporting country transfers part of a quota from one product to another restrained product. TMB — The Textiles Monitoring Body, consisting of a chairman plus ten members acting in a personal capacity, oversees the implementation of ATC commitments. transitional safeguard mechanism — Allows members to impose restrictions against individual exporting countries if the importing country can show that both overall imports of a product and imports from the individual countries are entering the country in such increased quantities as to cause — or threaten — serious damage to the relevant domestic industry. Agriculture/SPS Agenda 2000 — EC’s financial reform plans for 2000–06 aimed at strengthening the union with a view to receiving new members. Includes reform of the CAP (see below). border protection — Any measure which acts to restrain imports at point of entry. BSE — Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or “mad cow disease”. box — Category of domestic support. — Green box: supports considered not to distort trade and therefore permitted with no limits. — Blue box: permitted supports linked to production, but subject to production limits and therefore minimally trade-distorting. — Amber box: supports considered to distort trade and therefore subject to reduction commitments. Cairns Group — Group of agricultural exporting nations lobbying for agricultural trade liberalization. It was formed in 1986 in Cairns, Australia just before the beginning of the Uruguay Round. Current membership: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Paraguay, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay. CAP — Common Agricultural Policy — The EU’s comprehensive system of production targets and marketing mechanisms designed to manage agricultural trade within the EU and with the rest of the world. Codex Alimentarius — FAO/WHO commission that deals with international standards on food safety. distortion — When prices and production are higher or lower than levels that would usually exist in a competitive market. deficiency payment — Paid by governments to producers of certain commodities and based on the difference between a target price and the domestic market price or loan rate, whichever is the less. EEP — Export enhancement programme — programme of US export subsidies given generally to compete with subsidized agricultural exports from the EU on certain export markets. food security — Concept which discourages opening the domestic market to foreign agricultural products on the principle that a country must be as self-sufficient as possible for its basic dietary needs. internal support — Encompasses any measure which acts to maintain producer prices at levels above those prevailing in international trade; direct payments to producers, including deficiency payments, and input and marketing cost reduction measures available only for agricultural production. International Office of Epizootics — Deals with international standards concerning animal health. multifunctionality — Idea that agriculture has many functions in addition to producing food and fibre, e.g. environmental protection, landscape preservation, rural employment, etc. See non-trade concerns. non-trade concerns — Similar to multifunctionality. The preamble of the Agriculture Agreement specifies food security and environmental protection as examples. Also cited by members are rural development

and employment, and poverty alleviation. peace clause — Provision in Article 13 of the Agriculture Agreement says agricultural subsidies committed under the agreement cannot be challenged under other WTO agreements, in particular the Subsidies Agreement and GATT. Expires at the end of 2003. reform process/program — The Uruguay Round Agriculture Agreement starts a reform process. It sets out a first step, in the process, i.e. a program for reducing subsidies and protection and other reforms. Current negotiations launched under Article 20 are for continuing the reform process. SPS regulations — Sanitary and Phytosanitary regulations — government standards to protect human, animal and plant life and health, to help ensure that food is safe for consumption. variable levy — Customs duty rate which varies in response to domestic price criterion.

Intellectual property Berne Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of the rights of authors in their literary and artistic works. CBD — Convention on Biological Diversity. compulsory licensing — For patents: when the authorities license companies or individuals other than the patent owner to use the rights of the patent — to make, use, sell or import a product under patent (i.e. a patented product or a product made by a patented process) — without the permission of the patent owner. Allowed under the TRIPS Agreement provided certain procedures and conditions are fulfilled. See also government use. counterfeit — Unauthorized representation of a registered trademark carried on goods identical or similar to goods for which the trademark is registered, with a view to deceiving the purchaser into believing that he/she is buying the original goods. exhaustion — The principle that once a product has been sold on a market, the intellectual property owner no longer has any rights over it. (A debate among WTO member governments is whether this applies to products put on the market under compulsory licences.) Countries’ laws vary as to whether the right continues to be exhausted if the product is imported from one market into another, which affects the owner’s rights over trade in the protected product. See also parallel imports. geographical indications — Place names (or words associated with a place) used to identify products (for example, “Champagne”, “Tequila” or “Roquefort”) which have a particular quality, reputation or other characteristic because they come from that place government use — For patents: when the government itself uses or authorizes other persons to use the rights over a patented product or process, for government purposes, without the permission of the patent owner. See also compulsory licensing. intellectual property rights — Ownership of ideas, including literary and artistic works (protected by copyright), inventions (protected by patents), signs for distinguishing goods of an enterprise (protected by trademarks) and other elements of industrial property. IPRs — Intellectual property rights. Lisbon Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of geographical indications and their international registration. Madrid Agreement — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the repression of false or deceptive indications of source on goods. mailbox — Refers to the requirement of the TRIPS Agreement applying to WTO members which do not yet provide product patent protection for pharmaceuticals and for agricultural chemicals. Since 1 January

1995, when the WTO agreements entered into force, these countries have to establish a means by which applications of patents for these products can be filed. (An additional requirement says they must also put in place a system for granting “exclusive marketing rights” for the products whose patent applications have been filed.) parallel imports — When a product made legally (i.e. not pirated) abroad is imported without the permission of the intellectual property right-holder (e.g. the trademark or patent owner). Some countries allow this, others do not. Paris Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of industrial intellectual property, i.e. patents, utility models, industrial designs, etc. piracy — Unauthorized copying of materials protected by intellectual property rights (such as copyright, trademarks, patents, geographical indications, etc) for commercial purposes and unauthorized commercial dealing in copied materials. Rome Convention — Treaty, administered by WIPO, UNESCO and ILO, for the protection of the works of performers, broadcasting organizations and producers of phonograms. TRIPS — Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. UPOV — International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants Washington Treaty — Treaty for the protection of intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs of integrated circuits. WIPO — World Intellectual Property Organization.

Investment export-performance measure — Requirement that a certain quantity of production must be exported. FDI — Foreign direct investment. local-content measure — Requirement that the investor purchase a certain amount of local materials for incorporation in the investor’s product. product-mandating — Requirement that the investor export to certain countries or region. trade-balancing measure — Requirement that the investor use earnings from exports to pay for imports. TRIMS — Trade-related investment measures.

Dispute settlement Appellate Body — An independent seven-person body that, upon request by one or more parties to the dispute, reviews findings in panel reports. automaticity — The “automatic” chronological progression for settling trade disputes in regard to panel establishment, terms of reference, composition and adoption procedures. DSB — Dispute Settlement Body — when the WTO General Council meets to settle trade disputes. DSU — The Uruguay Round Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes. nullification and impairment — Damage to a country’s benefits and expectations from its WTO membership through another country’s change in its trade regime or failure to carry out its WTO obligations. panel — Consisting of three experts, this independent body is established by the DSB to examine and issue recommendations on a particular dispute in the light of WTO provisions.


accounting rate — In telecoms, the charge made by one country’s telephone network operator for calls originating in another country. commercial presence — Having an office, branch, or subsidiary in a foreign country. GATS — The WTO’s General Agreement on Trade in Services. general obligations — Obligations which should be applied to all services sector at the entry into force of the agreement. Initial commitments — Trade liberalizing commitments in services which members are prepared to make early on. modes of delivery — How international trade in services is supplied and consumed. Mode 1: cross border supply; mode 2: consumption abroad; mode 3: foreign commercial presence; and mode 4: movement of natural persons. multi-modal — Transportation using more than one mode. In the GATS negotiations, essentially door-to-door services that include international shipping. national schedules — The equivalent of tariff schedules in GATT, laying down the commitments accepted — voluntarily or through negotiation — by WTO members. natural persons — People, as distinct from juridical persons such as companies and organizations. offer — A country’s proposal for further liberalization. protocols — Additional agreements attached to the GATS. The Second Protocol deals with the 1995 commitments on financial services. The Third Protocol deals with movement of natural persons. prudence, prudential — In financial services, terms used to describe an objective of market regulation by authorities to protect investors and depositors, to avoid instability or crises. schedule — “Schedule of Specific Commitments” — A WTO member’s list of commitments regarding market access and bindings regarding national treatment. specific commitments — See “schedule”.

Regionalism/trade and development ACP — African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. Group of 71 countries with preferential trading relation with the EU under the former Lom? Treaty now called the Cotonou Agreement. Andean Community — Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. APEC — Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. ASEAN — Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The seven ASEAN members of the WTO — Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand — often speak in the WTO as one group on general issues. The other ASEAN members are Laos and Vietnam. Caricom — The Caribbean Community and Common Market comprises 15 countries. CTD — The WTO Committee on Trade and Development Customs union — Members apply a common external tariff (e.g. the EC). EC — European Communities (official name of the European Union in the WTO). EFTA — European Free Trade Association. free trade area — Trade within the group is duty free but members set own tariffs on imports from non-members (e.g. NAFTA). G15 — Group of 15 developing countries acting as the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement. G77 — Group of developing countries set up in 1964 at the end of the first UNCTAD (originally 77, but now more than 130 countries).

G7 — Group of seven leading industrial countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States. GRULAC — Informal group of Latin-American members of the WTO. GSP — Generalized System of Preferences — programmes by developed countries granting preferential tariffs to imports from developing countries. HLM — WTO High-Level Meeting for LDCs, held in October 1997 in Geneva. ITC — The International Trade Centre, originally established by the old GATT and is now operated jointly by the WTO and the UN, the latter acting through UNCTAD. Focal point for technical cooperation on trade promotion of developing countries. LDCs — Least-developed countries. MERCOSUR — Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. NAFTA — North American Free Trade Agreement of Canada, Mexico and the US. Quad — Canada, EC, Japan and the United States. SACU — Southern African Customs Union comprising Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. S&D — “Special and differential treatment” provisions for developing countries. Contained in several WTO agreements. UNCITRAL — United Nations Centre for International Trade Law, drafts model laws such as the one on government procurement. UNCTAD — The UN Conference on Trade and Development.

Trade and environment Agenda 21 — The Agenda for the 21st Century — a declaration from the 1992 Earth Summit (UN Conference on the Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro. Article XX — GATT Article listing allowed “exceptions” to the trade rules. Basel Convention — An MEA dealing with hazardous waste. BTA — Border tax adjustment CITES — Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. An MEA. CTE — The WTO Committee on Trade and Environment. EST — Environmentally-sound technology. EST&P — EST and products. ex ante, ex post — Before and after a measure is applied. LCA — Life cycle analysis — a method of assessing whether a good or service is environmentally friendly. MEA — Multilateral environmental agreement. Montreal Protocol — An MEA dealing with the depletion of the earth’s ozone layer. PPM — Process and production method. TBT — The WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. waiver — Permission granted by WTO members allowing a WTO member not to comply with normal commitments. Waivers have time limits and extensions have to be justified.

汉英口译分类词汇(08)--经济金融词汇 不景气 slump (衰退 recession) 二板市场 the second board market 中国创业板 China Growth Enterprise Market 首次上市 IPOs (initial public offering) 市场资本总额 market capitalization 法人股 institutional shares 内部股(非上市招股) private company shares 牛市 bull market 法律风险 legal risk 风险管理 risk management 坚持严格的贷款标准 maintain strong underwriting standards 六大风险 risks in 6 key areas (U.S. Federal Reserve criterion) 信用风险 credit risk 供给学派 supply-side economist 第一产业(农业) agriculture (primary industry) 第二产业(工业) manufacturing industry (secondary industry) 第三产业(服务业) service industry (tertiary industry) 主要经济指标 major economic indicators 国内生产总值 GDP gross domestic product (商品和劳务币值总和,不包括海外收入支出) 国民生产总值 GNP gross national product(商品和劳务币值总和,包括海外收入支出) 人均国内生产总值 GDP per capita 宏观经济 macro economy 互助基金 mutual fund 扩大内需 expand domestic demand 改善居民心理预期 inspire the general public's confidence in the future needs 鼓励增加即期消费 encourage more immediate consumption 长期国债 long-term treasury bonds 支付国债利息 to service treasury bonds 财政赤字和债务 deficits and the national debt 按原口径计算 calculate on the base line 按不变价格计算 calculate at constant price 按可比价格计算 calculate at comparable price 列入财政预算支出 listed in the fiscal budget 结售汇制度 the system of exchange, settlement and sales 经常项目顺差 favorable balance of current account, surplus of current account 开办人民币业务 engage in Renminbi (RM business 出口退税制度 the system of refunding taxes on exported goods 保证金台帐制度 Deposit account system for processing trade 分期付款 pay by installment 保值储蓄 inflation-proof bank savings 抵押贷款 collateralised loans 住房抵押贷款 residential mortgage loan

货币主义者 monetarist 计划经济 planned economy 指令性计划 mandatory plan 技术密集型 technology intensive 大规模生产 mass production 经济林 cash tree 跟踪审计 follow-up auditing 流动性风险 liquidity risk 操作风险 operational risk 内部审计 internal audit 抛售 bear sales 配套政策 supporting policies 中国人民银行(中央银行)The People’s Bank of China(central bank) 四大国有商业银行 4 major state-owned commercial banks 中国银行 Bank of china 中国工商银行 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China()and 中国建设银行 Construction Bank of China 中国农业银行 Agricultural Bank of China 招商银行 China Merchants Bank 疲软股票 soft stock 配股 allotment of shares 实际增长率 growth rate in real terms 年均增长率 average growth rate per annum 投资回报率 rate of return on investment 外贸进出口总额 total foreign trade value 实际利用外资 incoming overseas capital (investment) in place 消费价格指数 consumer price index (CPI) 零售价格指数 retail price index (RPI) 生活费用价格总指数 total price index of living cost 生活费用 income available for living expenses 扣除物价因素 in real terms / on inflation-adjusted basis 居民储蓄存款 residents’ bank savings deposit 恩格尔系数(食品开支占总支出的比例) Engel coefficient 基尼系数(衡量地区差别) Gini coefficient 购买力平价法 purchasing power parity (PPP) (衡量使用不同货币的两个国家或地区的经济水平、收入水 平的一种计算法,用相等的汇率比较两种货币各自的国内购买力) 片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth 泡沫经济 bubble economy 经济过热 overheating of economy 通货膨胀 inflation 实体经济 the real economy 经济规律 laws of economics 市场调节 market regulation 优化资源配置 optimize allocation of resources 规模经营优势 advantage of economies of scale

劳动密集型 labor intensive 市场风险 market risk 收紧银根 tighten up monetary policy 适度从紧的财政政策 moderately tight fiscal policy 信用紧缩 credit crunch 加强国有商业银行内部资金 调度 In state commercial banks, internal capital allocation should be improved. 合理划分贷款审批权限 Limits of authority for examining and approving loans should be rationally defined. 保证有市场、有效益、守信用企业的流动资金贷款 ensure floating capital loans for well-performing and trustworthy enterprises which turn out the right products for the right markets 启动民间投资 attract investment from the private sector 适销对路的产品 the right products / readily marketable products 国有企业 state-owned enterprises (SOEs) 集体企业 collectively-owned (partnership) enterprises 私营企业 private businesses 民营企业 privately-run businesses 中小企业 small-and-medium-sized enterprises 三资企业(中外合资、中外合作、外商独资) overseas-invested enterprises; foreign-invested enterprises (Chinese-overseas equity joint ventures, Chinese-overseas contractual joint ventures, wholly foreignowned enterprises) 存款保证金 guaranty money for deposits 货币回笼 withdrawal of currency from circulation 吸收游资 absorb idle fund 经常性贷款 commercial lending 经常性支出 operating expenses 再贷款 re-lending; subloan 支持国有大型企业和 高新技 术企业上市融资 support large state-owned enterprises and high and innovative technology companies in their efforts to seek financing by listing on the stock market 改制上市 An enterprise is re-organized according to modern corporate system so that it will get listed on the stock market. 进一步规范和发展证券市场 further standardize and develop the securities market 增加直接融资比重 increase the proportion of direct financing 完善股票发行上市制度 improve the system for IPO and listing on stock markets 中国证监会 China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) 深圳证券交易所市 Shenzhen Stock Exchange 上海证券交易所 Shanghai Stock Exchange 综合指数 composite index 纳斯达克(高技术企业板) NASDAQ (National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation 主板市场 the main board 通货紧缩 deflation 中国现代化建设分三步走的战略 the three-step development strategy of China’s modernization drive 第一 步,到 1990 年国民生产总值比 1980 年翻一番 Step One: GDP of 1990 doubles that of 1980.第二步,到 2000 年人均国民生产总值比 1980 年翻两番,人民生活达到小康水平 Step Two: GDP of 2000 quadruples that of 1980; people live a fairly comfortable life.第三步,到 21 世纪中期建国 100 周年时,达到中等发达

国 家 水 平 Step Three: By the year 2049, the 100th anniversary of the P.R.C., China’s level of development is expected to be on par with the mid-ranking developed countries 与世界经济的联系将更加紧密 be more closely linked to the world economy 中国巨大的市场潜力将逐步转化为现实的购买力 The huge market potential that China enjoys will be turned into tangible purchasing power. 适应市场经济需要的法律法规体系还不够健全 The regulatory and legal system is not well established as to adapt to the demand of market economy. 经济管理体制可能会出现一些不适应 The economic management system may not be readily adapted to the changes. 一些行业和企业可能会受到冲击 Some sectors of economy and some businesses may be adversely affected. 立足中国国情,发挥自身优势 proceed from national conditions in China and bring our advantages into play 扬长避短, 趋利避害, 迎接经济全球化的挑战 foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses and rise to the challenge of economic globalization 瓶颈制约 bottleneck constraints 放权让利 decentralization and interest concessions (in late 1980s and early 1990s) 深化改革 intensify reform; deepen one’s commitment to reform 配套改革 supporting (concomitant) reforms 配套资金 counterpart funds; local funding of 提高经济效益 improve economic performance; increase economic returns 讲求社会效益 value contribution to society; pay attention to social effect 加速国民经济信息化 develop information-based economy accelerate IT application in economy 拉动经济增长 fuel economic growth 利改税 substitution of tax payment for profit delivery 费改税 transform administrative fees into taxes 债转股 debt-to-equity swap 头寸宽裕(头寸紧缺) in an easy position (tight position) 朝阳产业 sunrise industry 招标投标制 the system of public bidding for project 充分发挥货币政策的作用 give full play to the role of monetary policy 实施积极的财政政策 follow a pro-active fiscal policy 向银行增发国债,扩大投资 The government issued additional treasury bonds to banks to increase investment. 再注资 recapitalization 放松银根 to ease monetary policy 信息经济 IT economy 外向型经济 export-oriented economy 信息时代 information age 全球化 globalization (全球性 globality) 信誉风险 reputational risk 风险评级 risk rating 到期不还贷 default on a loan 资不抵债 insolvency; be insolvent

亚洲金融危机 Asian financial crisis (1997-98) 投资(贷款)组合 investment (loan) portfolio 外汇储备充足 sufficient foreign exchange reserves 中国金融业问题 problems with financial sector in China 储蓄比例过高 the excessively large proportion of savings in the money supply 国有企业产负债率过高 high leverage ratio of the state-owned enterprises, 国有独资商业银行不良资产比例过高 high ratio of non-performing loans of the state commercial banks 少数中小存款金融机构不能支付到期债务 insolvency of a handful of small and medium-sized financial institutions 不良贷款 non-performing loans 防范和化解金融风险 address financial risks 提高企业借贷和行使民事责任的能力 improve enterprises’ creditworthiness and ability to fulfil their civil liabilities 监事会 supervisory board 实行谨慎会计制度 adopt prudential accounting standards 五级分类法划分贷款质量 the five-category asset classification approach 金融资产管理公司 financial asset management companies 分离和收回不良资产 substantially reduce the ratio of non-performing assets 分业管理、规模经营 business segregation, economy of scale 规范金融机构市场退出制度 improve the market exit mechanism for financial institutions 政策性银行 state policy-related bank 国家发展银行 State Development Bank 知识经济 knowledge-based economy 网络经济 Internet-based networked economy 指导性计划 guidance plan 社会主义市场经济(中国) socialist market economy 社会市场经济(德国) social market economy 新经济(美国) new economy 中国光大银行 Everbright Bank of China 中国民声银行 China Minsheng Banking Corporation Ltd. 中信实业银行 CITIC Industrial Bank 中国进出口银行 China EXIM Bank 汇丰银行 Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HKSBC) 金融监管 financial supervision 中国人民银行法 Law of the People’s Bank of China 商业银行法 Law of Commercial Banks 保险法 Law of Insurance 证券法 Law of Securities 巴塞尔原则 Basel Core Principles 监管对象的行为有问题、管理机制不健全 problems of supervised entities’ behavior and the unsound internal governance mechanism 风险意识 consciousness of risk prevention 事前监管 proactive regulation and supervision account number 帐目编号

depositor 存户 pay-in slip 存款单 a deposit form 存款单 a banding machine 自动存取机 to deposit 存款 deposit receipt 存款收据 private deposits 私人存款 certificate of deposit 存单 deposit book, passbook 存折 credit card 信用卡 principal 本金 overdraft, overdraw 透支 to counter sign 双签 to endorse 背书 endorser 背书人 to cash 兑现 to honor a check 兑付 to dishonor a check 拒付 to suspend payment 止付 check 支票 check book 支票本 order check 记名支票 bearer check 不记名支票 crossed check 横线支票 blank check 空白支票 rubber check 空头支票 check stub, counterfoil 票根 cash check 现金支票 traveler's check 旅行支票 check for transfer 转帐支票 outstanding check 未付支票 canceled check 已付支票 forged check 伪支票 Bandar's note 庄票,银票 banker 银行家 president 行长 savings bank 储蓄银行 Chase Bank 大通银行 National City Bank of New York 花旗银行 Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation 汇丰银行 Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China 麦加利银行 Banque de I'Indo Chine 东方汇理银行 central bank, national bank, banker's bank 中央银行 bank of issue, bank of circulation 发行币银行

commercial bank 商业银行,储蓄信贷银行 member bank, credit bank 储蓄信贷银行 discount bank 贴现银行 exchange bank 汇兑银行 requesting bank 委托开证银行 issuing bank, opening bank 开证银行 advising bank, notifying bank 通知银行 negotiation bank 议付银行 confirming bank 保兑银行 paying bank 付款银行 associate banker of collection 代收银行 consigned banker of collection 委托银行 clearing bank 清算银行 local bank 本地银行 domestic bank 国内银行 overseas bank 国外银行 unincorporated bank 钱庄 branch bank 银行分行 trustee savings bank 信托储蓄银行 trust company 信托公司 financial trust 金融信托公司 unit trust 信托投资公司 trust institution 银行的信托部 credit department 银行的信用部 commercial credit company(discount company) 商业信贷公司(贴现公司) neighborhood savings bank, bank of deposit 街道储蓄所 credit union 合作银行 credit bureau 商业兴信所 self-service bank 无人银行 land bank 土地银行 construction bank 建设银行 industrial and commercial bank 工商银行 bank of communications 交通银行 mutual savings bank 互助储蓄银行 post office savings bank 邮局储蓄银行 mortgage bank, building society 抵押银行 industrial bank 实业银行 home loan bank 家宅贷款银行 reserve bank 准备银行 chartered bank 特许银行 corresponding bank 往来银行 merchant bank, accepting bank 承兑银行 investment bank 投资银行 import and export bank (EXIMBANK) 进出口银行

joint venture bank 合资银行 money shop, native bank 钱庄 credit cooperatives 信用社 clearing house 票据交换所 public accounting 公共会计 business accounting 商业会计 cost accounting 成本会计 depreciation accounting 折旧会计 computerized accounting 电脑化会计 general ledger 总帐 subsidiary ledger 分户帐 cash book 现金出纳帐 cash account 现金帐 journal, day-book 日记帐,流水帐 bad debts 坏帐 investment 投资 surplus 结余 idle capital 游资 economic cycle 经济周期 economic boom 经济繁荣 economic recession 经济衰退 economic depression 经济萧条 economic crisis 经济危机 economic recovery 经济复苏 inflation 通货膨胀 deflation 通货收缩 devaluation 货币贬值 revaluation 货币增值 international balance of payment 国际收支 favorable balance 顺差 adverse balance 逆差 hard currency 硬通货 soft currency 软通货 international monetary system 国际货币制度 the purchasing power of money 货币购买力 money in circulation 货币流通量 note issue 纸币发行量 national budget 国家预算 national gross product 国民生产总值 public bond 公债 stock, share 股票 debenture 债券 treasury bill 国库券 debt chain 债务链

direct exchange 直接(对角)套汇 indirect exchange 间接(三角)套汇 cross rate, arbitrage rate 套汇汇率 foreign currency (exchange) reserve 外汇储备 foreign exchange fluctuation 外汇波动 foreign exchange crisis 外汇危机 discount 贴现 discount rate, bank rate 贴现率 gold reserve 黄金储备 money (financial) market 金融市场 stock exchange 股票交易所 broker 经纪人 commission 佣金 bookkeeping 簿记 bookkeeper 簿记员 an application form 申请单 bank statement 对帐单 letter of credit 信用证 strong room, vault 保险库 equitable tax system 等价税则 specimen signature 签字式样 banking hours, business hours 营业时间 share, equity, stock 股票、股权 negotiable share 可流通股份 treasury /government bond 国库券/政府债券 closed-end securities investment fund 封闭式证券投资基金 open-end securities investment fund 开放式证券投资基金 market capitalization 市值 mark-to-market 逐日盯市 clearing and settlement 清算/结算 put / call option 看跌/看涨期权 rights issue/offering 配股 ADR(American Depository Receipt)美国存托凭证/存股证 GDR(Global Depository Receipt) 全球存托凭证/存股证 institutional investor 机构投资者 proprietary trading 自营 market manipulation 市场操纵 IPO(Initial Public Offering)新股初始公开发行 securities 证券 premium 溢价 share capital 股本 composite index 综合指数 capital market 资本市场 liquidity 流通性

highly-leveraged institutions(HLI) 高杠杆交易机构 subscribe 申购 underwriter 承销商 road show 路演 primary market 一级市场 information disclosure 信息披露 blue chips 蓝筹股 gilt-edged bond 金边债券 rating agency 评级机构 credit trading 信用交易 open/close a position 建/平仓 bond, debenture, debts 债券 convertible bond 可转换债券 corporate bond 企业债券 fund manager 基金经理/管理公司 fund custodian bank 基金托管银行 p/e (price/earning) ratio 市盈率 payment versus delivery 银券交付 commodity/financial derivatives 商品/金融衍生产品 margins, collateral 保证金 bonus share 红股 dividend 红利/股息 retail / private investor 个人投资者/散户 broker/dealer 券商 insider trading/dealing 内幕交易 prospectus 招股说明书 merger and acquisition 收购兼并 warrant 认股权证 raised capital/proceeds 筹资 component index 成份指数 turnover rate 换手率 monetary market 货币市场 hedge fund 对冲基金 self-regulatory organization(SRO)自律组织 issuer 发行人 intermediary 中介机构 secondary listing 第二上市 secondary market 二级市场 controlling shareholder 控股股东 red chips 红筹股 junk bond 立即债券 securities loan 融券 financing 融资

汉英口译分类词汇(10)--教育文化词汇 (大学)代理校长 Acting President (大学)副校长 Vice President (大学)校长 President/Chancellor (大学)专科 Major Types of Education in China short 2- to 3- year higher education programs (大学的)研究小组;讨论会 seminar (国家)助学金 (state)stipend/subsidy (戏剧学院)表演系 Acting Department (系)主任 chairman; chairperson (小学)校长 Head /Master (职工)子弟学校 school for children of workers & staff members (中学)校长 Principal 爱国人士 patriotic personage 爱国主义教育 education in patriotism 百分制 100-mark system 班主任 Class Discipline Adviser/Head Teacher 办学效益 efficiency in school management 半工半读学校 part-work and part-study school 半文盲 semiliterate; functional illiterate 包分配 guarantee job assignments 被授权 be authorized to do 必修课 required/compulsory course 毕业典礼 graduation ceremony; commencement 毕业鉴定 graduation appraisal 毕业论文 thesis; dissertation 毕业设计 graduation ceremony 毕业生 graduate 毕业实习 graduation field work 毕业证书 diploma; graduation certificate 博士 doctor (Ph.D) 博士后 post doctorate 博士后科研流动站 center for post-doctoral studies 补考 make-up examination 补习学校 continuation school 不及格 fail 材料工程系 Department of Materials Engineering 材料科学系 Department of Materials Science 财贸学校 finance and trade school 财政拨款 financial allocation 测量系 Department of Survey 成绩单 school report; report card; transcript 成人教育 adult education 成人学校 adult school

成人夜校 night school for adults 成为有理想, 有道德, 有文化, 守纪律的劳动者 to become working people with lofty ideals, moral integrity, education and a sense of discipline 初等教育 elementary education 初中 junior middle school 辍/失学青少年 school dropout/leaver 大学肆业生 undergraduate 德才兼备 to combine ability with character; equal stress on integrity and ability 低年级学生 lower grade pupil/student; pupil/student in junior grades 地理系 Department of Geography 地球物理系 Department of Geophysics 地质系 Department of Geology 电机工程系 Department of Electrical Engineering 电机制造学校 electrical machinery school 电力学校 electric power school 电视大学 T.V. university 电子系 Department of Electronics 雕塑系 Department of Sculpture 定向招生 students are admitted to be trained for pre-determined employers 东方语言学系 Department of Oriental Languages & Literature 动物学系 Department of Zoology 动员 mobilize 短训班 short-term training course 多学科的 multi-disciplinary 俄语系 Department of Russian 发挥学生主动性、创造性 to give scope to the students' initiative and creativeness 法律系 Department of Law 法语系 French Language Department 反复灌输 inculcate 纺织工程系 Department of Textile Engineering 纺织航海学校 textile machinery school 分数 mark; grade 分校 branch school 服务性行业 service trade 辅导员 assistant for political and ideological work 附中 attached middle school 附属中学 attached middle school 副教授 associate professor 副修 minor 副主任 vice-chairman 岗位培训 undergo job-specific training 高等教育 higher/tertiary education 高等学校 institution of higher education 高年级学生 upper/higher grade pupil/student; pupil/student in senior grades

高中 senior middle school 工程物理系 Department of Engineering Physics 工业大学 polytechnic university 工业工程系 Department of Industrial Engineering 工业管理系 Department of Industrial Management 工业设计系 Department of Industrial Design 工业学院 engineering institute 公费生 government-supported student 公开课 open class 共产主义道德品质 communist ethics 共产主义教育 education in communism 管理科学系 Department of Management Science 广播电视大学 television and radio broadcasting university 国画系 Department of Tradition Chinese Painting 国际关系系 Department of International Relations 国际经济系 Department of International Economics 国际劳工组织 International Labor Organization 国际贸易系 Department of International Trade 国际文化交流 intercultural communication 国际政治系 Department of International Politics 国际主义教育 education in internationalism 国家发明奖 National Invention Prize 国家教育经费 national expenditure on education 国家科技进步奖 National Prize for Progress in Science and Technology 国家统计局 the State Statistical Bureau 国家自然科学奖 National Prize for Natural Sciences 海洋学系 Department of Oceanography 函授大学 correspondence college 航海系 Department of Navigation 河流港湾工程系 Department of River & Harbor Engineering 护理系 Department of Nursing 护士学校 nurses' school 化工学校 chemical engineering school 化学系 Department of Chemistry 环境工程学系 Department of Environmental Engineering 会计系 Department of Accounting 会计学校 accountant school 伙食补助 food allowance 伙食费 board expenses 机械工程系 Department of Mechanical Engineering 基本框架 basic framework 基础科学 the fundamentals 基础课 basic course 基金会 foundation

及格 pass 集体主义教育 education in collectivism 计算机学系 Department of Computer Science 记者招待会 press conference 技工学校 school of technology 寄宿生 boarder 家业经济系 Department of Agricultural Economics 假期工作 vacation jobs 坚持社会主义方向 to keep to the socialist orientation 兼职教授 Part-time Professor 建筑工程系 Department of Architectural Engineering 建筑工程学校 building engineering school 建筑学 Department of Architecture 讲师 Lecturer/Instructor 奖励 rewards 奖学金 scholarship 奖学金生 prize fellow 教材编写组 Teaching Materials Writing Group 教导主任 Director of Teaching and 教师进修学校 teachers' college for vocational studies 教授 professor 教书育人 to educate the person as well as impart book knowledge 教务长 Dean/Director of Teaching Affairs, dean of studies 教学、科研、生产的"三结合" "3-in-1 combination" involving teaching, research, and production 教学大纲 teaching program; syllabus 教学内容 content of courses 教学人员 the faculty; teaching staff 教学组 teaching group 教研室/组 teaching and research section/group 教研室主任 Head of the Teaching and Research Section 教育必须为社会主义现代化服务,必须同生产劳动相结合,培养德智体全面发展的建设者和接班人。 Education must serve the needs of socialist modernization, be integrated with productive labor, and train builders and successors who are well developed morally, intellectually and physically. 教育部 Ministry of Education 教育程度 educational background 教育方针 guideline(s)/guiding principle(s) for education 教育投入 input in education 教育系 Department of Education 教育要面向现代化, 面向世界, 面向未来 Gear education to the needs of modernization, the world and the future 教员休息室 staff room; common room 教职员 teaching and administrative staff 结合、使加入 incorporate 解剖学 Department of Anatomy

进修班 class for advanced studies 进修课程 refresher course 经济(学)系 Department of Economics 经济管理系 Department of Economic Management 考古学系 Department of Archaeology 考试 examination 客座教授 visiting professor; guest professor 课程 course; curriculum 课程包括 curriculum included 课程表 school timetable 课程重点部分 educational highlights 课堂讨论 class discussion 课外辅导 instruction after class 课外活动 extracurricular activities 课外阅读 outside reading 矿冶系 Department of Mining and Metallurgy 昆虫学系 Department of Entomology 理工科大学 college/university of science and engineering 理科大学 university of science 历史系 Department of History 燎原计划 the Prairie Fire Program 林学系 Department of Forestry 领取助学金的学生 a grant-aided student 留级 to repeat the year's work; to stay down 留学生 international student 聋哑学校 school of deaf-mutes 旅游管理系 Department of Tourist Management 论文导师 supervisor 盲人学校 school for the blind/ blind men’s school 美术学院 academy of fine arts 民办学校 private school 名誉教授 Honorary Professor 母校 Alma Mater 年龄段(层)age bracket 农学系 Department of Agriculture 农学院 agricultural college 农业大学 agricultural university 农业中学 agricultural middle school 旁听生(美)auditor 旁听生(英)guest student 培养独立分析问题和解决问题的能力 to cultivate the ability to analyze and solve concrete problems independently 培养学生自学能力 to foster the students' ability to study on their own 普遍教育 general education

普及教育 universal education 企业管理系 Department of Business Administration 启发式 elicitation method (of teaching); heuristic method 启发学生独立思考的能力 to help develop the ability of the students to think things out for themselves 气象学系 Department of Meteorology 汽车工程系 Department of Automobile Engineering 人才枯竭 exhaustion of human resources 三结合联合体 tripartite complex 三学期制 the trimester system 扫盲班 literacy class 商业学校 commercial school 社会参与 communal participation 社会活动 social activities 社会实践 social practice 社会学系 Department of Sociology 身体好,学习好,工作好。Keep fit, study hard and work well. 升级 to be promoted to a higher grade 升学 t o go to a school of a higher grade; to enter a higher school 升学率 proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade 生理学系 Department of Physiology 生物(学)系 Department of Biology 师范大学 normal university; teachers' university 师范学校 school for kindergarten teachers 师范学院 teachers' college 石油地质学校 petroleum geological school 石油学系 Department of Petroleum 实习生 intern 实行分区规划 practice regional planning 实验室主任 Laboratory Chief 实验员 Laboratory Technician 实验中学 experimental middle school 食品工程系 Department of Food Engineering 示范试点 demonstration pilot project 适应社会主义现代化建设需要, 面向二十一世纪, 具有中国特色的社会主义教育体系。 a socialist education system with distinct Chinese characteristics that meets the needs of socialist modernization and is oriented to the 21st century 授予(学士)confer 授予某人学位 to confer a degree on sb. 暑期工作 summer jobs 数学系 Department of Mathematics 双学士制 a double BA degree system 水产技术学校 marine products technical school 水利系 Department of Water Conservancy 水利学校 water conservancy school

税收 tax revenue 硕士 master 所学课程 courses taken 特别训练 special training 提高......的思想品德 enhance the moral awareness of ... 体育活动 physical activities 体育系 Department of Physical Education 体育学院 physical culture institute 天文学 Department of Astronomy 填鸭式教学法 cramming/forced-feeding method of teaching 铁路机械学校 railway machinery school 铁路技术学校 railway engineering school 听课 to visit a class; to sit in on a class; to attend a lecture 通讯工程系 Department of Communication Engineering 图书馆学系 Department of Library Science 图书馆员 Librarian 土木工程系 Department of Civil Engineering 土壤系 Department of Soil 托儿所 nursery/ creche 脱产培训 off-job training 外籍教授 Foreign Professor 外交系 Department of Diplomacy 外语系 Foreign Languages Department 外语学校 foreign languages school 卫生学校 health school 文科大学 university of liberal arts 文学系 Department of Literature 无线电工程系 Department of Radio Engineering 五爱(爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱护公物) "Five Love": love the motherland, the people, labor, and science and take good care of public property. 五分制 the 5-grade marking system 舞蹈系 Department of Dance 舞蹈学校 dancing school 物理系 Department of Physics 西班牙语系 Department of Spanish 西方语言系 Department of Western Languages 希望工程 Project Hope 戏剧系 Department of Theatricals 系主任 Department Chairman /Department Head 系主任办公室 Office of the Department Head 小学 primary(elementary)school 校友 alumnus; alumna 协调发展 coordinated and balanced program of development 心理学系 Department of Psychology

新闻系 Department of Journalism 新增劳动力 incoming labor force 畜牧系 Department of Animal Husbandry 选修课 elective/optional course 学费 tuition (fee) 学分 credit 学分制 the credit system 学力 educational level 学历 education, educational history, record of formal schooling 学龄儿童 school-ager 学年 school/academic year 学期 (school)term; semester 学前教育 preschool education 学生会 students' union/association 学士 bachelor 学术报告会,专题讨论会 symposium 学术活动 academic activities 学位 degree 学习成绩 academic record; school record 学习年限 period of schooling 学院院长 Dean of College/Head of College 学制 educational system 研究生 graduate student; post-graduate (student) 研究生指导教师 Graduate Teacher/Research Supervisor; faculty adviser 药学系 Department of Pharmacy 药科大学 pharmaceutical university 冶金机械学校 metallurgical machinery school 冶金系 Department of Metallurgy 业余工作 part-time jobs 业余学校 spare-time school 业余艺术/体育学校 amateur arts/athletic school 业余职工大学 spare-time college for staff and workers 夜校 evening (night) school 医科大学 medical university 医学工程系 Department of Medical Engineering 医学系 Department of Medicine 医学院 medical college/school 遗传工程系 Department of Genetics Engineering 义务教育 compulsory education; free education 艺术系 Arts Department 艺术学校 art school 音乐系 Department of Music 音乐学院 conservatory of music 银行系 Department of Banking

印刷系 Department of Printing 应届毕业生 graduating student/pupil; this year's graduates 英语系 English Language Department 优化教师队伍 optimize the teaching staff 优秀干部 excellent leader 优秀团员 excellent League member 邮电学校 posts &.telecommunications school 幼儿园 kindergarten 娱乐活动 recreational activities 渔业航海学校 fishery and navigation school 园艺系 Department of Horticulture 原子能系 Department of Atomic Energy 运输管理系 Department of Transportation Management 在职进修班 in-service training course 在职培训 on-the-job/in-service training 造船学系 Department of Naval Architecture 占百分比 account for ...% 哲学系 Department of Philosophy 政治思想教育 political and ideological education 政治系 Department of Political Science 职工大学 college for workers &. Staff members 职前教育 pre-service education 职业道德 professional ethics 职业技术教育 vocational and technical education 职业学校 vocational school 职业中学 vocational middle school 植物(学)系 Department of Botany 中、小学校长 headmaster/headmistress; principal 中等技术学校 secondary technical school; technical secondary school 中等教育 secondary education 中等专业学校 secondary specialized school; polytechnic school 中文系 Department of Chinese Language and Literature 中学 middle(secondary)school 中医药大学 university of TCM 中医院 institute of traditional Chinese medicine 终身教授 Lifetime Professor 重点大学 key university 重点学科 key disciplinary areas or priority fields of study 重点学校 key school 主副修制 a system of a major field of specialization plus a minor field 主修 major 住宿生 boarder 助教 Teaching Assistant (T.A.) 注册人数 enrollment

专门课程 specialized courses 专任教师 full-time teacher 专修科 special (training) course 专业 speciality; major 专业课 specialized course 专职教师 full-time teacher 资料中心 data center 自动化系 Department of Automation 自费生 commoner 自学成才 to become educated through independent study 自学考试 self-taught examination 综合性大学 comprehensive university 总务长 Director in Charge of General Affairs 走读生 day student; non-resident student, extern 二十四节气的英文表达 二十四节气 The 24 Solar Terms: 立春 Spring begins. 雨水 The rains. 惊蛰 Insects awaken. 春分 Vernal Equinox 清明 Clear and bright. 谷雨 Grain rain. 立夏 Summer begins. 小满 Grain buds. 芒种 Grain in ear. 夏至 Summer solstice. 小暑 Slight heat. 大暑 Great heat. 立秋 Autumn begins. 处暑 Stopping the heat. 白露 White dews. 秋分 Autumn Equinox. 寒露 Cold dews. 霜降 Hoar-frost falls. 立冬 Winter begins. 小雪 Light snow. 大雪 Heavy snow. 冬至 Winter Solstice. 小寒 Slight cold. 大寒 Great cold

世界主要节日、纪念日、活动日 元旦(1 月 1 日) NEW YEAR'S DAY 成人节(日本,1 月 15 日) ADULTS DAY 情人节(2 月 14 日) ST.VALENTINE'S DAY (VALENTINE'S DAY) 元宵节(阴历 1 月 15 日) LANTERN FESTIVAL 狂欢节(巴西,二月中、下旬) CARNIVAL 桃花节(日本女孩节,3 月 3 日) PEACH FLOWER FESTIVAL (DOLL'S FESTIVAL) 国际妇女节(3 月 8 日) INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY 圣帕特里克节(爱尔兰,3 月 17 日) ST. PATRICK'S DAY 枫糖节(加拿大,3-4 月) MAPLE SUGAR FESTIVAL 愚人节(4 月 1 日) FOOL'S DAY 复活节(春分月圆后第一个星期日) EASTER 宋干节(泰国新年 4 月 13 日) SONGKRAN FESTIVAL DAY 食品节(新加坡,4 月 17 日) FOOD FESTIVAL 国际劳动节(5 月 1 日) INTERNATIONAL LABOUR DAY 男孩节(日本,5 月 5 日) BOY'S DAY 母亲节(5 月的第二个星期日) MOTHER'S DAY 把斋节 BAMADAN 开斋节(4 月或 5 月,回历十月一日) LESSER BAIRAM 银行休假日(英国, 5 月 31 日) BANK HOLIDAY 国际儿童节(6 月 1 日) INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN'S DAY 父亲节(6 月的第三个星期日) FATHER'S DAY 端午节(阴历 5 月 5 日) DRAGON BOAT FESTIVAL 仲夏节(北欧 6 月) MID-SUMMER DAY 古尔邦节(伊斯兰节,7 月下旬) CORBAN 筷子节(日本,8 月 4 日) CHOPSTICS DAY 中秋节(阴历 8 月 15 日) MOON FESTIVAL 教师节(中国,9 月 10 日) TEACHER'S DAY 敬老节(日本,9 月 15 日) OLD PEOPLE'S DAY 啤酒节(德国十月节,10 月 10 日) OKTOBERFEST 南瓜节(北美 10 月 31 日) PUMPKIN DAY 鬼节(万圣节除夕,10 月 31 日夜) HALLOWEEN 万圣节(11 月 1 日) HALLOWMAS 感恩节(美国,11 月最后一个星期 4) THANKSGIVING 护士节(12 月 12 日) NRUSE DAY 圣诞除夕(12 月 24 日) CHRISTMAS EVE 圣诞节(12 月 25 日) CHRISTMAS DAD 节礼日(12 月 26 日) BOXING DAY 新年除夕(12 月 31 日) NEW YEAR'S EVE(a bank holiday in many countries) 春节(阴历一月一日) SPRING FESTIVAL (CHINESE NEW YEAR) 其它活动节日

世界消费者权益日(3 月 15 日) WORLD CONSUMER RIGHT DAY 世界水日(3 月 22 日) WORLD WATER DAY 世界卫生日(4 月 7 日) WORLD HEALTH DAY 世界地球日(4 月 22 日) WORLD EARTH DAY 世界住房日(十月第一个星期一) WORLD HOUSING DAY 国际秘书节(4 月 25 日) INTERNATIONAL SECRETARY DAY 国际红十字日(5 月 8 日) INTERNATIONAL RED-CROSS DAY 国际护士节(5 月 12 日) INTERNATIONAL NURSE DAY 世界电信日(5 月 17 日) WORLD TELECOMMUNICATIONS DAY 世界无烟日(5 月 31 日) WORLD NO-SMOKING DAY 世界环境日(6 月 5 日) WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY 世界人口日(7 月 11 日) WORLD POPULATION DAY 世界旅游日(9 月 27 日) WORLD TOURISM DAY 世界邮政日(10 月 9 日) WORLD POST DAY 世界粮食日(10 月 16 日) WORLD GRAIN DAY 世界爱滋病日(12 月 1 日) WORLD AIDS DAY 世界残疾日(12 月 3 日) WORLD DISABLED DAY 世界各国的国庆与独立日 1 月 1 日 古巴解放日 Liberation Day (CUBA) 苏丹独立日 Independence Day (SUDAN) 4 日 缅甸独立日 Independence Day (MYANMAR) 18 日 突尼斯革命日 Revolution Day (TUNIDIA) 26 日 澳大利亚日 Australia Day 印度共和国日 Republic Day (INDIA) 28 日 卢旺达民主日 Democracy Day (RWANDA) 2 月 4 日 斯里兰卡国庆日 National Day (SRILANKA) 5 日 墨西哥宪法日 Constitution Day (MEXICO) 7 日 格林纳达独立日 Independence Day (GRENADA) 11 日 日本建国日 National Founding Day (JAPAN) 伊朗伊斯兰革命胜利日 Anniversary of the Victory of the Islamic Revolution (IRAN) 16 日 美国华盛顿诞辰 Washington's Birthday (USA) 18 日 冈比亚独立日 Independence Day (GAMBIA) 23 日 文莱国庆日 National Day (BRUNEI DARUSSALAM) 圭亚那共和国日 Republic Day (GUIYANA) 25 日 科威特国庆日 National Day (KUWAIT) 3 月 3 日 摩洛哥登基日 Enthronement Day (MOROCCO) 6 日 加纳独立日 Independence Day (CHANA) 12 日 毛里求斯独立日 Independence Day (MAURITHUS) 17 日 爱尔兰国庆日 National Day (IRELAND) 23 日 巴基斯坦日 Pakistan Day 25 日 希腊国庆日 National Day (GREECE)

26 日 孟加拉独立及国庆日 Independence & National Day (BANGLADESH) 31 日 马耳他国庆日 National Day (MALTA) 4 月 4 日 匈牙利国庆日 Liberation Day (HUNGARY) 塞内加尔独立日 Independence Day (SENEGAL) 11 日 乌干达解放日 Liberation Day (UGANDA) 16 日 丹麦女王日 Birthday of Her majesty Queen Margaret Ⅱ (DENMARK) 17 日 叙利亚国庆日 National Day (SYRIA) 18 日 津巴布韦独立日 Independence Day (ZIMBABWE) 19 日 委内瑞拉独立节 Independence Day (Venezuela) 26 日 塞拉里昂共和国日 Republic Day (SIFRRA LEONE) 坦桑尼亚联合日 Union Day (TANZANIA) 27 日 多哥独立日 Independence Day (TOGO) 29 日 日本天皇诞辰 Birthday of His Majesty the Emperor (JAPAN) 30 日 荷兰女王日 Queen's Day (THE NETHERLANDS) 5 月 9 日 捷克与斯洛伐克国庆日 National Day (CZECH & SLOYAKIA) 17 日 挪威宪法日 Constitution Day (NORWAY) 20 日 喀麦隆国庆日 National Day (CAMEROON) 25 日 阿根廷 5 月革命纪念日 May 25,1810 Revolution Day (ARGENTINA) 约旦独立日 Independence Day (JORDAN) 6 月 1 日 突尼斯胜利日 Victory Day (TUNISIA) 西萨摩亚独立日 Independence Day (WESTERN SAMOA) 2 日 意大利共和国日 Foundation of Republic (ITALY) 5 日 丹麦宪法日 Constitution Day (DEMARK) 塞舌尔解放日 Liberation Day (SEYCHELLES) 6 日 瑞典国庆日 National Day (SWEDEN) 7 日 乍得国庆日 National Day (CHAD) 10 日 葡萄牙国庆日 National/Portugal Day (PORTUGAL) 12 日 菲律宾独立日 Independence Day (THE PHILIPPINES) 14 日 英国女王官方生日 Official Birthday of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ (UK) 17 日 冰岛共和国日 Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic (ICELAND) 23 日 卢森堡国庆日 National Day (LUXEMBOURG) 24 日 西班牙国王陛下日 His Majesty the King's Day (SPAIN) 26 日 马达加斯加独立日 Independence Day (MADAGASCAR) 27 日 吉布提独立日 Independence Day (DJIBOUTI) 7 月 1 日 布隆迪国庆日 National Day (BURUNDI) 加拿大日 Canada Day 卢望达独立日 Independence Day (RWANDA) 4 日 美国独立日 Independence Day (USA) 5 日 佛得角独立日 Independence Day (CAPE VERDE) 委内瑞纳独立日 Independence Day (VENEZUELA)

6 日 科摩罗独立日 Independence Day (COMOROS) 11 日 蒙古人民革命纪念日 Anniversary of the People's Revolution (MONGOLIA) 14 日 法国国庆日 National/Bastille Day (FRANCE) 17 日 伊拉克国庆日 National Day (IRAQ) 20 日 哥伦比亚国庆日 National Day (COLOMBIA) 21 日 比利时国庆日 National Day (BELGIUM) 22 日 法兰国家复兴节 Rebirth of Poland 23 日 埃及国庆日 National Day (EGYPT) 26 日 利比利亚独立日 Independence Day (LIBERIA) 马尔代夫独立日 Independence Day (MALDIVES) 28 日 秘鲁独立日 Independence Day (PERU) 30 日 瓦努阿图独立日 Independence Day (VANUATU) 8 月 1 日 瑞士联邦成立日 Foundation of the Confederation (SWITZERLAND) 4 日 布基纳法索国庆日 National Day (BURKINA-FASO) 5 日 牙买加独立日 Independence Day (JAMAICA) 6 日 玻利维亚独立日 Independence Day (BOLIVIA) 10 日 厄瓜多尔独立日 Independence Day (EQUADOR) 15 日 刚国国庆日 National Day (THE GONGO) 17 日 加蓬独立日 Independence Day (GABON) 19 日 阿富汗独立日 Independence Day (AFCHANISTAN) 23 日 罗马尼亚国庆日 National Day (ROMANIA) 31 日 马来西亚国庆日 National Day (MALAYSIA) 9月 1 日 利比亚九月革命节 The Great 1st of September Revolution (LIBYA) 2 日 越南国庆日 National Day (VIET NAM) 3 日 圣马力诺国庆日 National Day (SAN MARINO) 7 日 巴西独立日 Independence Day (BRAZIL) 9 日 朝鲜共和国日 Day of the Founding of DPPK 12 日 佛得角国庆日 National Day (CAPE VERDE) 埃塞俄比亚人民革命日 The people's Revolution Day (ETHIOPIA) 16 日 墨西哥独立节 Independence Day (Mexico) 18 日 智利独立日 Independence Day (CHILE) 22 日 马里宣布独立日 Proclamation of Independence (MALI) 30 日 博茨瓦纳独立日 Independence Day (BOTSWANA) 10 月 1 日 塞浦路斯国庆日 National Day (CYPRUS) 尼日利亚国庆日 National Day (NIGERIA) 2 日 几内亚宣布独立日 Proclamation of the Republic (GUINEA) 9 日 乌干达独立日 Independence Day (UGANDA) 10 日 斐济国庆日 National Day (FIJI) 12 日 西班牙国庆日 National Day (SPAIN) 赤道几内牙国庆节 National Day (Equatorial Guinea) 21 日 索马里十月革命节 21st October Revolution (SOMALIA)

24 日 联合国日 UN Day 赞比来独立日 Independence Day (ZAMBIA) 26 日 奥地利国庆日 National Day (AUSTRIA) 28 日 希腊国庆节 National Day (Greece) 29 日 土耳其共和国日 Proclamation of the Republic (TURKEY) 11 月 1 日 阿尔及里亚 11 月革命节 The Revolution Day of 1st November, 1954 (ALGERIA) 11 日 安哥拉独立节 Independence Day (Angola) 15 日 比利时国王日 King's Day (BELGIUM) 18 日 阿曼国庆日 National Day (OMAN) 19 日 摩纳哥国庆节 National Day (Monaco) 22 日 黎巴嫩独立日 Independence Day (LEBANON) 24 日 扎伊尔第二共和国日 Anniversary of the Second Republic (ZAIRE) 28 日 毛里塔尼亚独立日 Independence Day (MARITANIA) 29 日 南斯拉夫共和国日 Republic Day (YUGOSLAVIA) 12 月 1 日 中非国庆日 National Day (CENTRAL AFRICA) 2 日 老挝国庆日 National Day (LAOS) 阿拉伯酋长国国庆日 National Day (UAE) 5 日 泰国国王日 Birthday Anniversary of His Majesty King Adolyadej (THAILAND) 6 日 芬兰独立日 Independence Day (FINLAND) 7 日 象牙海岸国庆日 National Day (IVORY COAST) 12 日 肯尼亚独立日 Independence Day (KENYA) 17 日 不丹国庆节 National Day (Bhutan) 18 日 尼日尔国庆日 National Day (NIGER) 28 日 尼泊尔国王生日 Birthday of H.M. King Birendara 中国节日的英译 元旦 New Year' s Day Jan.1 国际劳动妇女节 International Working women' s Day (Women's Day) Mar.8 国际劳动节 International Labor Day (May. Day) May.1 中国青年节 Chinese Youth Day May.4 国际儿童节 International Children's Day(Children's Day) June .1 中国共产党诞生纪念日 (党的生日) Anniversary of the Founding of the Chinese Communist Party (the Party' s Birthday) July .1 建军节 Army Day August .1 教师节 Teachers’ Day Sept.1 国庆节 National Day October.1 中国传统节日 春节 the Spring Festival (New Year’s Day of the Chinese lunar calendar) 农历正月初一 元宵节 (灯节)the Lantern Festival 农历正月十五 清明节 the Qingming Festival 四月五日前后

端午节 the Dragon-Boat Festival 农历五月初五 中秋节 the Mid-Autumn Festival (the Moon Festival)农历八月十五 重阳节 the Double-Ninth Day 农历九月初九 情人节 the Double-Seventh Day 农历七月初七 中菜的烹调方法 煮 boiling 煲/炖 stewing 烧/焖/烩 braising 煎 frying 炒 stir-frying 爆 quick-frying 炸 deep-frying 扒 frying and simmering 煸 sauteing 煨 simmering 熏 smoking 烤 roasting/barbecuing 烘 baking 蒸 steaming 白灼 scalding 三十六计(Thirty-Six Stratagems) 1. 瞒天过海 crossing the sea under camouflage 2. 围魏救赵 relieving the state of Zhao by besieging the state of Wei 3. 借刀杀人 killing someone with a borrowed knife 4. 以逸待劳 waiting at one’s ease for the exhausted enemy 5. 趁火打劫 plundering a burning house 6. 声东击西 making a feint to the east and attacking in the west 7. 无中生有 creating something out of nothing 8. 暗渡陈仓 advancing secretly by an unknown path 9. 隔岸观火 watching a fire from the other side of the river 10. 笑里藏刀 covering the dagger with a smile 11. 李代桃僵 palming off substitute for the real thing 12. 顺手牵羊 picking up something in passing 13. 打草惊蛇 beating the grass to frighten the snake 14. 借尸还魂 resurrecting a dead soul by borrowing a corpse 15. 调虎离山 luring the tiger out of his den 16. 欲擒故纵 letting the enemy off in order to catch him 17. 抛砖引玉 giving the enemy something to induce him to lose more valuable things 18. 擒贼擒王 capturing the ringleader first in order to capture all the followers 19. 釜底抽薪 extracting the firewood from under the cauldron 20. 混水摸鱼 muddling the water to catch the fish; fishing in troubled waters 21. 金蝉脱壳 slipping away by casting off a cloak; getting away like the cicada sloughing its skin

22. 关门捉贼 catching the thief by closing / blocking his escape route 23. 远交近攻 befriending the distant enemy while attacking a nearby enemy 24. 假途伐虢 attacking the enemy by passing through a common neighbor 25. 偷梁换柱 stealing the beams and pillars and replacing them with rotten timbers 26. 指桑骂槐 reviling/ abusing the locust tree while pointing to the mulberry 27. 假痴不癫 feigning madness without becoming insane 28. 上屋抽梯 removing the ladder after the enemy has climbed up the roof 29. 树上开花 putting artificial flowers on trees 30. 反客为主 turning from the guest into the host 31. 美人计 using seductive women to corrupt the enemy 32. 空城计 presenting a bold front to conceal unpreparedness 33. 反间计 sowing discord among the enemy 34. 苦肉计 deceiving the enemy by torturing one’s own man 35. 连环计 coordinating one stratagem with another 36. 走为上 decamping being the best; running away as the best choice 公平、公开 just, fair and open 好莱坞大片 Hollywood blockbuster 黄金时段 prime time 假唱 lip-synch 劲射 power shot 拉拉队 cheering squad 来电显示电话机 caller ID telephone 论文答辩 (thesis) oral defense 泡沫经济 bubble economy 票贩子 scalper, ticket tout 拳头产品 competitive products; knock-out products; blockbuster 三角恋爱 love triangle 三 维 动 画 片 three-dimensional animation

'扫黄打非' eliminate pornography and illegal publications

申办奥运会 bid for the Olympic Games 实现中华民伟大复兴 bring about a great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation 市场疲软 sluggish market 素质教育 education for all-around development 筒子楼: tube-shaped apartment 脱贫致富 cast (shake, throw) off poverty and set out on a road to prosperity 网吧 Internet bar 网恋 online love affair 网上冲浪 surf the Internet 网上交易平台 online trading platform 网友 net friend 无人售票 self-service ticketing 无绳来电显示电话 cordless telephone with caller ID 无线应用协议 WAP ( wireless application protocol ) 下岗 laid-off workers 下海 plunge into the commercial sea 下网 off line 小康之家 well-off family; comfortably-off family 新秀 up-and-coming star, rising star 新新人类 New Human Being ; X Generation 信息港 inforport 形象小姐 / 先生 image representative of a product or a brand

虚拟网 virtual net 学生处 students' affairs division 研究生毕业证 / 学位证 graduate diploma/graudate degree's diploma 摇钱树 cash cow 以人为本 people oriented; people foremost 义务教育 compulsory education 易拉罐 pop can 应试教育 examination-oriented education system 舆论导向 direction of public opinion 运球 dribble 在职博士生 on-job doctorate 早恋 puppy love 招生就业指导办公室 enrolment and vocation guidance office 证券营业部 stock exchange; security exchange 知识产权 intellectual property rights 中专生 secondary specialized or technical school student 中流砥柱 mainstay, chief corner stone 专卖店 exclusive agency; franchised store 自我保护意识 self-protection awareness 综合国力 comprehensive national strength 综合业务数字网 integrated service digital network (ISDN) 总裁助理 assistant president

综合治理 comprehensive treatment 安居工程 housing project for low-income urban residents 信息化 information-based; informationization 智力密集型 concentration of brain power; knowledge-intensive 外资企业 overseas-funded enterprises 下岗职工 laid-off workers 分流 reposition of redundant personnel 三角债 chain debts 素质教育 education for all-round development 豆腐渣工程 jerry-built projects 社会治安情况 law-and-order situation 民族国家 nation state 台独 'independence of Taiwan' 台湾当局 Taiwan authorities 台湾同胞 Taiwan compatriots 台湾是中国领土不可分割的一部分。Taiwan is an inalienable part of the Chinese territory. 西部大开发 Development of the West Regions 可持续性发展 sustainable development 风险投资 risk investment 通货紧缩 deflation 扩大内需 to expand domestic demand 计算机辅助教学 computer-assisted instruction (CAI)

网络空间 cyberspace 虚拟现实 virtual reality 网民 netizen (net citizen) 电脑犯罪 computer crime 电子商务 the e-business 网上购物 shopping online 应试教育 exam-oriented education 学生减负 to reduce study load


“时间”是生命中很受重视的东西;人人都爱惜时间,因此人人要把涉及“时间”的惯 用语记起来,用出去。

(1)In time for……及时到……/做……“If you go now, you will be in time for the meeting.

(2)On time:准时的“Don't go to the examination late. Make sure you are on time.”

(3)Pressed for time:时间不足“I must hurry up, I am pressed for time at the moment.”

(4)Buy time:争取时间“There are ten seconds left, but Jordan carried the ball steadily to buy time instead of passing it out.”

(5)For the time being:暂时地“The company has just been formed. For the time being, it is run by the company partners.”

(6)From time to time:偶尔“They visited us from time to time, but we have never been to their house.”

(7)In the nick of time:及时“All the passengers got on board in the nick of time.”

(8)In no time:很快地“The police caught a thief and sent him to prison in no time.

(9)Kill time:消磨时间“While waiting for my turn to do something, I often read something to kill time.”

(10)Time and again:屡次“Motorists were warned time and again not to throw rubbish from their cars.”

(11)Time alone will tell:时间可以证明一切“No one is certain if it is wise to emigrate to the West; time alone will tell.”

(12)Time's up:时间到了“Time's up. Stop writing and hand in your answer books now.”

(13)At the best of times:当情况最佳时“Samuel's Mandarin is not good at the best of times, not to mention when he has to speak if impromptu.”

(14)At times:有时“life as a spinster or bachelor is care-free, but the problem is that he or she may feel lonely at times.”

(15)Behind the times:过时的“Maggie's dressing style is a bit behind the times. She should try to keep up with the times by wearing fashionable dresses.”

(16)Move / keep up with the times:赶上时代“Some people's mode of thinking is outdated.They should try to move with the times so as to better fit in the present society.”

(17)The time is ripe for……的时机成熟了“The political leaders of the two countries have communicated with each other. Time is therefore ripe for closer cooperation.”

(18)With time to spare:比预期时间早“As there was no traffic congestion, we reached the destination with time to spare.”

(19)With time/Given time:假以时间“Don't feel depressed ! Things will improve with time.

(20)For any length of time:短暂而已“Tom likes to work in different companies. Evidence shows that he has not held on to the same job for any length of time.”

how to express Chinese phrase in English(中国一些流行词语的英文表达)

1.素质教育:Quality Education 2. EQ:分两种,一种为教育商数 Educational quotient, 另一种情感商数 Emotional quotient 3.保险业:the insurance industry 4.保证重点指出:ensure funding for priority areas 5.补发拖欠的养老金:clear up pension payments in arrears 6.不良贷款:non-perFORMing loan 7.层层转包和违法分包:mutlti-level contracting and illegal subcontracting

8.城乡信用社:credit cooperative in both urban and rural areas 9.城镇居民最低生活保障:a minimum standard of living for city residents 10.城镇职工医疗保障制度:the system of medical insurance for urban workers 11.出口信贷:export credit 12.贷款质量:loan quality 13.贷款质量五级分类办法:the five-category assets classification for bank loans 14.防范和化解金融风险:take precautions against and reduce financial risks 15.防洪工程:flood-prevention project 16.非法外汇交易:illegal foreign exchange transaction 17.非贸易收汇:foreign exchange earnings through nontrade channels 18.非银行金融机构:non-bank financial institutions 19.费改税:transFORM administrative feessintostaxes 20.跟踪审计:foolow-up auditing 21.工程监理制度:the monitoring system for projects 22.国有资产安全:the safety of state-owned assets 23.过度开垦:excess reclamation 24.合同管理制度:the contract system for governing projects 25.积极的财政政策:pro-active fiscal policy 26.基本生活费:basic allowance 27.解除劳动关系:sever labor relation 28.金融监管责任制:the responsibility system for financial supervision 29.经济安全:economic security 30.靠扩大财政赤字搞建设:to increase the deficit to spend more on development 31.扩大国内需求:the expansion of domestic demand 32.拉动经济增长:fuel economic growth 33.粮食仓库:grain depot 34.粮食收购企业:grain collection and storage enterprise 35.粮食收购资金实行封闭运行:closed operation of grain purchase funds 36.粮食销售市场:grain sales market 37.劣质工程:shoddy engineering 38.乱收费、乱摊派、乱罚款:arbitrary charges, fund-raising, quotas and fines 39.骗汇、逃汇、套汇:obtain foreign currency under false pretenses, not turn over foreign owed to the government and illegal arbitrage 40.融资渠道:financing channels 41.商业信贷原则:the principles for commercial credit 42.社会保险机构:social security institution 43.失业保险金:unemployment insurance benefits 44.偷税、骗税、逃税、抗税:tax evasion, tax fraud and refusal to pay taxes 45.外汇收支:foreign exchange revenue and spending 46.安居工程:housing project for low-income urban residents 47.信息化:inFORMation-based; inFORMationization 48.智力密集型:concentration of brain power; knowledge- intensive 49.外资企业:overseas-funded enterprises 50.下岗职工:laid-off workers

银行口语十句话 银行是大家经常要去到的地方。在银行办理业务的时候,不妨顺便背背下面这几句实用口语。

1. I'd like to open an account in your bank. Should I take a number first? 我想在你们银行开户。我要先取号码牌吗?

2. What's your interest rate for your checking accounts? 你们的活期存款利率是多少?

3. I'd like to transfer my account. 我要转帐。

4. I'd like to withdraw NT$10,000 from my account. 我想从户头提领一万元出来。

5. I'd like to report the loss of my credit card and cancel it. 我要办理信用卡挂失并取消那张卡。

6. I'd like to exchange some U.S. dollars. What's today's exchange rate? 我想兑换一些美金。今天的汇率是多少?

7. Where's the ATM? / Do you have an automatic passbook entry machine? 自动提款机在哪里?/ 你们这里有没有存折自动补登机?

8. Do you offer an inter-bank transfer service? 你们有跨行转帐的服务吗?

9. My credit card is expired. Can you renew it for me? 我的信用卡过期了。可以换发新卡给我吗?

10. Can my credit limit be increased? 我的信用额度可以提高吗?

中国菜名中英文对照 头盘餐前小品 Appetizers 1.各式刺身拼 Sashimi Platter 2.锅贴 Pot Sticker 3.辣汁脆炸鸡腿 Fried Chicken Legs (Spicy Hot) 4.鸡沙律 Chicken Salad 5.酥炸大虾 Fried Prawns 6.酥炸生豪 Fried Oysters 7.酥炸鲜鱿 Fried Squid 8.海哲分蹄 Smoked Jelly Fish 9.五香牛展 Special Beef 10.白云凤爪 Chicken Leg 11.琥珀合桃 House Special Honey Walnuts 12.脆皮春卷 Spring Rolls 13.蜜汁叉烧 B.B.Q. Pork 汤羹类 Soup 1.花胶鲍鱼火鸭丝羹 Congee Pike Maw With Roast Duck 2.红烧鸡丝翅 Chicken Shark's Fin Soup 3.竹笙烩生翅 Bamboo Shark Fin Soup 4.粟米瑶柱羹 Corn with Dry Scallops Soup 5.竹笙海皇羹 Bamboo Seafood Soup 6.鸡蓉粟米羹 Corn & Chicken Soup 7.酸辣汤 Hot & Sour Soup 8.法国海鲜汤 French Style Seafood Soup 9.法国杂菜汤 French Style Vegetable Soup 10.杂锦云吞汤 Combination Won Ton Soup 11.芥菜肉片咸蛋汤 Mustard Green Salted Egg Soup 12.火鸭咸蛋芥菜汤 Roast Duck Salt Egg / Mustard Green 13.西葫牛肉羹 West Lake Beef Soup 14.三丝烩鱼肚 Fish Soup 15.蝴蝶海参羹 Sea Cucumber Soup 16.四宝豆腐羹 Steam Tofu Soup 龙虾蟹类 Seafood (Lobster, Shrimp, Crab) 1.法式咖喱焗龙虾 French Curry Lobster 2.法式芝士牛油焗龙虾 Cheese Lobster 3.上汤焗龙虾 Special Style Lobster 4.蒜茸蒸龙虾 Garlic Style Lobster 5.豉椒炒肉蟹 Crab

6.上汤姜葱焗蟹 Green Onion Crab 7.椒盐蟹 Spicy Salt Crab 8.粉丝咖喱蟹煲 Rice Noodle Curry Crab 虾鲜鱿贝类 Seafood 1.菜远虾球 Shrimp with Tender Green 2.白灼中虾 Boil Shrimp 3.点桃虾球 Walnut Shrimp 4.油泡虾球 Crystal Prawn 5.柠檬虾球 Lemon Prawn 6.咕噜虾 Sweet & Sour Prawn 7.蒜茸蒸虾 Steam Prawn w/ Garlic Sauce 8.四川虾球 Szechuan Shrimp 9.豆瓣酱鲜鱿 Fresh Squid 10.虾龙糊 Shrimp w/ Lobster Sauce 11.韭王象拔蚌 Gold Chive Geoduck 12.韭王花枝片 Gold Chive Squid 13.椒盐鲜鱿 Pepper Salt Fresh Squid 14.豉汁炒三鲜 Mixed Seafood w/ Black Bean Sauce 15.马拉盏炒鲜鱿 Special Fresh Squid 16.碧绿炒带子 Tender Green Scallop 17.双菇鲜带子 Mushroom Fresh Scallop 18.豉汁炒大蚬 Clam w/ Black Bean Sauce 19.姜葱生豪 Oyster w/ Ginger, Green Onion 20.豉汁炒青口 Mussel w/ Black Bean Sauce 21.豉汁豆腐蒸带子 Tofu Scallop w/ Black Bean Sauce 海鲜鱼类 Seafood (Fish) 1.清蒸游水石斑 Steam Live Rock Cod 2.清蒸蒜茸带子 Steamd Scallop w/ Garlic Sauce 3.豉汁煎焗塘虱 Catfish w/ Black Bean Sauce 4.清蒸龙利 Flounder 5.清蒸海鲈 Fomfret 6.蒸金钱片塘虱 Steam Catfish 7.辣汁串烧鱼 B & Q Fish Stick w/ Hot Sauce 8.西兰炒雪鱼球 Pan Fried Snow Fish w/ Green 9.菜远石斑球 Tender Green Rock Cod 10.豉汁石斑球 Steam Rock Cod w/ Black Bean Sauce 11.油泡石斑球 Crystal Rock Cod 12.川味石斑球 Szechuan Rock Cod 13.骨香石斑球 Fried Rock Cod Bone 14.咕噜石斑球 Sweet & Sour Rock Cod 15.鱼腐扒菜胆 Yu Fu w/ Vegetable 鸡鸭鸽 Poultry 1.脆皮炸子鸡(半)Fried Chicken (Half) 2.红烧石岐项鸽 Roast Pigeon

3.豉油皇乳鸽 Pigeon w/ Soy Sauce 4.姜葱油淋鸡(半)Green Onion Chicken (Half) 5.北京片皮鸭 Peking Duck 6.酸甜明炉烧鸭(半)Roast Duck (Half) 7.柠檬鸡球 Lemon Chicken 8.西芹腰果鸡球 Vegetable Cashew Chicken 9.咖喱鸡 Curry Chicken 10.豉汁炒鸡球 Chicken w/ Black Bean Sauce 11.四川炒鸡球 Szechuan Chicken 12.菜远鸡球 Chicken w/ Tender Green 13.宫保鸡球 Kung Pao Chicken 14.豉汁黄毛鸡(半)Chicken w/ Soy Sauce 15.咕噜鸡 Sweet & Sour Chicken 16.八珍发菜扒鸭(半)Combination Duck (Half) 17.子罗炒鸡片 Ginger & Pineapple Chicken 18.游龙戏凤 Chicken, Shrimp, Squid w/ Mixed Vegetable 19.龙凤琵琶豆腐 Egg, Chicken, Shrimp, Steam Tofu 猪牛肉类 Meat 1.酸甜咕噜肉 Sweet & Sour Pork 2.菜远炒排骨 Spareribs w/ Tender Green 3.豉椒排骨 Spareribs w/ Black Bean Sauce 4.凉瓜炆排骨 Bitty Melon Spareribs 5.京都骨 Peking Spareribs 6.椒盐排骨 Pepper Salt Spareribs 7.豉椒焖排骨 Spareribs w/ Black Bean, Pepper 8.菜远炒牛肉 Broccoli Beef 9.凉瓜炒牛肉 Bitty Melon Beef 10.黑椒牛仔骨 Black Pepper Short Rib 11.椒盐牛仔骨 Pepper Salt Short Rib 12.中式牛柳 Chinese Style Beef 13.四川牛肉 Szechuan Beef 14.干扁牛柳丝 String Beef 15.柠檬牛肉 Lemon beef 16.麻婆豆腐 Mar-Boh Tofu 煲仔类 Clay Pot Style 1.北菇海参煲 Mushroom Sea Cucumber Duck Feet 2.诸诸滑鸡煲 Chicken Clay Pot 3.鸡粒咸鱼茄子煲 Salt Fish Chicken Egg Plant Clay Pot 4.粉丝虾米杂菜煲 Rice Noodle Vegetables Clay Pot 5.罗白牛腩煲 Beef Stew w/ Turnip Clay Pot 6.支竹羊腩煲 Dry Tofu Lamb Clay Pot 7.火腩生豪煲 Roast Pig Oyster Clay Pot 素菜类 Vegetarian 1.豪油冬菇 Oyster Sauce Mushroom

2.什笙上素 Bamboo Vegetable 3.红烧豆腐 Fried Tofu 4.炒素丁 Vegetable Roll 5.罗汉腐皮卷 Vegetable Egg Roll 6.素咕噜肉 Vegetarian Sweet and Sour 7.蒸山水豆腐 Steam Tofu 8.鲜菇扒菜胆 Mushroom Tender Green 9.炒杂菜 Mixed Green Tender 10.清炒芥兰 Chinese Green Tender 11.盐水菜心 Salt Green Tender 12.干扁四季豆 String Bean Western Style 13.上汤芥菜胆 Mustard Green Tender 炒粉、面、饭 Rice Plate 1.龙虾干烧伊面 Lobster Teriyaki Noodle 2.上汤龙虾捞面 Lobster Noodle 3.杨州炒饭 Yang Chow Fried Rice 4.虾仁炒饭 Shrimp Fried Rice 5.咸鱼鸡粒炒饭 Salted Egg Chicken Fried Rice 6.蕃茄牛肉炒饭 Tomato w/ Beef Fried Rice 7.厨师炒饭 House Fried Rice 8.生菜丝炒牛肉饭 Beef Fried Rice w/ Lettuce 9.招牌炒面 House Chow Mein 10.鸡球炒/煎面 Chicken Chow Mein 11.蕃茄牛肉炒面 Tomato Beef Chow Mein 12.海鲜炒/煎面 Seafood Chow Mein 13.虾子姜葱捞面 Ginger Green Onion Noodle 14.干烧伊面 Teriyaki Noodle 15.鸡丝上汤窝面 Chicken Noodle Soup 16.菜远炒牛河 Vegetable Beef Chow Fun 17.豉椒排骨炒河 Sparerib w/ Black Bean Chow Fun 18.星洲炒米粉 Singapore Noodle (Hot Spice) 19.鸳鸯馒头 Shanghai Buns (12) 20.上汤水饺 Dumpling Soup 21.上汤云吞 Won Ton soup 22.丝苗白饭 Steam Rice 甜品 Dessert 1.雪哈红莲 Bird Nest Red Bean Soup 2.椰汁炖雪哈 Coconut Bird Nest 3.玫瑰红豆沙 Red Bean Soup 4.椰汁西米露 Coconut Tapioca 5.百年好合 Red Bean Fresh Lily Bulb 厨师精选 Luncheon Special 1.酸甜咕噜肉 Sweet & Sour Pork 2.京都骨 Peking Spareribs

3.豉椒排骨 Sparerbis w/ Black Bean Sauce 4.凉瓜排骨 Bitter Melon Spareribs 5.菜远炒排骨 Spareribs w/ Tender Green 6.菜远炒牛肉 Beef w/ Tender Green 7.豉椒炒牛肉 Green Pepper Beef w/ Black Bean Sauce 8.柠檬牛肉 Lemon Beef 9.四川牛肉 Szechuan Beef 10.辣汁炸鸡腿 Fried Chicken Leg w/ Hot Sauce 11.柠檬鸡球 Lemon Chicken 12.杂菜鸡球 Chicken w/ Mixed Vegetable 13.豉椒炒鸡球 Chicken w/ Black Sauce 14.四川炒鸡球 Szechuan Chicken 15.咖喱鸡球 Curry Chicken 16.菜远炒鸡球 Chicken w/ Tender Green 17.宫保鸡球 Kung Pao Chicken 18.腰果鸡球 Cashew Chicken 19.酸甜咕噜鱼 Sweet & Sour Fish 20.酸甜咕噜虾 Sweet & Sour Shrimp 21.柠檬炒虾球 Lemon Shrimp 22.菜远炒虾球 Shrimp w/ Vegetable 23.四川炒虾球 Szechuan Shrimp 24.四川炒鲜鱿 Szechuan Squid 25.豉椒炒鱿 Squid w/ Black Bean Sauce 26.红烧豆腐 Fried Tofu w/ Tender Green 27.炒杂菜 Mixed Vegetable 特价小菜 1.豆腐虾 Tofu & Shrimps 2.白灼虾 Boiled Prawns 3.椒盐虾 Spicy Slat Prawns 4.豉椒虾 Black Bean Sauce Prawns 5.滑蛋虾 Prawns with Eggs 6.油泡虾 Crystal Prawns 7.时菜虾 Vegetable Prawns 8.四川虾 Szechuan Prawns 9.茄汁虾 Prawns with Ketchup 10.豉汁炒蚬 Clams Black Bean Sauce 11.时菜斑球 Vegetable Rock Cod 12.豉汁斑球 Black Bean Sauce Rock Cod 13.椒盐龙利球 Pepper Salt Fried Flounder 14.香煎鲫鱼 Pan Fried Fish 15.时菜鲜鱿 Vegetable & Squid 16.椒盐鲜鱿 Salt and Pepper Squid 17.豉椒鲜鱿 Black Bean Sauce Squid 18.酥炸鲜鱿 Deep Fried Squid

19.四川鸡 Szechuan Chicken 20.宫保鸡 Kung Pao Chicken 21.当红炸子鸡 Crispy Fried Chicken 22.柠檬鸡 Lemon Chicken 23.腰果鸡 Cashew Nuts Chicken 24.甜酸鸡 Sweet & Sour Chicken 25.时菜鸡 Vegetable & Chicken 26.咖喱鸡 Curry Chicken 27.豉椒鸡 Black Bean Sauce Chicken 28.京都上肉排 Peking Spareribs 29.椒盐肉排 Pepper Salt Fried Spareribs 30.梅菜扣肉 Preserved Vegetable & Pork 31.豉汁排骨 Black Bean Sauce Spareribs 32.时菜排骨 Vegetable & Spareribs 33.蜜汁叉烧 B.B.Q. Pork 34.炸菜牛肉 Pickled with Beef 35.蒙古牛肉 Mongolian Beef 36.姜葱牛肉 Ginger & Green Onion Beef 37.豪油牛肉 Oyster Sauce Beef 38.时菜牛肉 Vegetable & Beef 39.豆腐牛肉 Tofu and Beef 40.四川牛肉 Szechuan Beef 41.柠檬牛肉 Lemon Beef 42.椒盐牛仔骨 Pepper Salted Fried Beef Ribs 43.火腩塘虱煲 Roasted Pork & Catfish Clay Pot 44.东江豆腐煲 Tofu in Clay Pot 45.海鲜煲 Seafood in Clay Pot 46.八珍煲 Assorted Meat in Clay Pot 47.柱侯牛腩煲 Stew Beef Basket 48.鱼香茄子煲 Eggplant in Clay Pot 49.虾米粉丝煲 Dried Shrimp & Noodle in Clay Pot 50.咸鱼鸡豆腐煲 Salted Fish & Chicken Tofu in Clay Pot 51.蒸山水豆腐 Steamed Tofu 52.红烧豆腐 Braised Tofu 53.麻婆豆腐 Bean Sauce Tofu 54.干烧四季豆 Braised Green Bean 55.鱼香茄子 Braised Egg plant 56.蒜茸豆苗 Garlic Pea Greens 57.豉汁凉瓜 black Bean Sauce & Bitter Melon 58.上汤芥菜胆 Mustard Green 59.北菇扒菜胆 Mushroom & Vegetable 60.清炒时菜 Sautéed Vegetable 61.蒜茸芥兰 Garlic & Broccoli 62.豪油芥兰 Oyster Sauce Broccoli

63.豪油北菇 Oyster Sauce Mushrooms 64.炒什菜 Sautéed Assorted Vegetable

汉英口译分类词汇(01)--社会发展词汇 211 工程 211 Project 安居工程 housing project for low-income families 安居小区 a neighborhood for low-income families 保障妇女就业权利 to guarantee women’s right to employment 补发拖欠的离退休人员统筹项目内的养老金 All back pension entitlements have been paid for the retired covered by the overall government plan. 裁定保险赔偿 adjudication of benefits 城镇居民最低生活保障 guarantee of subsistence allowances for urban residents 在城镇强制推行以养老、 失业、医疗为重点的社会保险 Social welfare insurance, particularly old-age, unemployment and medical insurance, must be made mandatory in urban areas. 城镇社会保障体系 the social security system in urban areas 城镇职工基本医疗保险制度 the basic medical insurance system for urban employees 创新精神 be innovation-minded; to have a creative mind 促进学生德、智、体、美全面发展 ensure that students improve in terms of their moral, intellectual and fitness level as well as in their appreciation of aesthetics 大家庭 extended family 大力推行个人助学信贷 Personal loans to finance education should be vigorously promoted. 大专文凭 associate degree (conferred to junior college students) 代培 training-on-contract program 代培生 trainee on contract 带薪分流 assign redundant civil servants to other jobs while allowing them to retain their original rank and benefits 待业人员 job seekers 待遇优厚的工作 a well-paid job 单亲家庭 single parent family 定向培训 training for specific posts 独生子女 the only child 对保障方案进行精算评估 Security programs should undergo actuarial review. 对口扶贫 provide poverty alleviation aid to the designated sister regions 恶性犯罪 major crimes 反对迷信 be against superstition 福利分房 buy a benefit-oriented apartment from the organization one works with 复式住宅 compound apartment 干部年轻化 rejuvenation of cadres

岗位培训 on-job training 高度重视精神文明建设 pay close attention to cultural and ethical progress 搞好优生优育 promote good prenatal and postnatal care 个人自愿计划 voluntary private plans 工伤保险制度 the on-job injury insurance system 工资收入分配制度 the wage and income distribution system 关系国计民生的大事 matters vital to national well-being and the people’s livelihood 关心和支持残疾人事业 Programs to help the physically and mentally challenged deserve our care and support. 关心老龄人 care for senior citizens. 贵族学校 exclusive school(美); select school(英) 国企下岗职工基本生活保障 guarantee of basic cost of living allowances for workers laid off from state-owned enterprises 过紧日子 tighten one’s belt 过温饱生活 live a life at a subsistent level 合理调整就业结构 to rationally readjust the employment structure 后勤服务社会化 make logistic services independent in their operation 积极发展民办教育 Efforts should be made to develop schools not operated by government education departments. 基本养老金 basic pensions 计划生育责任制 responsibility system of family planning 继续开展“扫黄打非”斗争 The fight against pornography, illegal publications and piracy shall be continued. 加快住房分配货币化进程 capitalization process of housing distribution/allocation 加强计划生育工作 further improve family planning 加强舆论监督 ensure that the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion 家庭美德 family virtues 坚持“两手抓、两手都要硬”的方针 adhere to the principle of “doing two jobs at once and attaching equal importance to each” 坚持正确的舆论导向 maintain the correct orientation for public opinion 建立集体合同制度 to establish a group contract system 建立市场导向的就业机制 to establish a market-oriented employment mechanism 建立新型的劳动关系 to establish a new type of labor relations 建设廉洁、勤政、务实、高效政府 build a clean and diligent, pragmatic and efficient government 建设一个富强、 民主、 文明的国家 build a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced country 教育程度 educational status; education received 教育程度比率 educational attainment ratio 戒毒所 drug rehabilitation center 精算界 actuarial profession 精算师 actuaries 扩大就业和再就业 to expand employment and reemployment 劳动保障监察制度 the labor security supervision system 劳动标准体系 labor standard system 劳动争议处理体制 the system of handling labor disputes 面临困境 face adverse conditions

努力稳定低生育水平 work to stabilize the low birth rate 培养创新精神和实践能力 help them develop practical abilities and a spirit of innovation 破案率 rate of solved criminal cases 强制性普及方案 universally compulsory program 切实减轻中小学生过重的课业负担 effectively reduce too heavy homework assignments for primary and secondary school students 确保国有企业下岗职工基本生活费和离退休人员基本养老金按时足额发放 to ensure that subsistence allowances for laid-off workers from state-owned enterprises and basic pensions for retirees are paid on time and in full 人口出生率 birth rate 人口老龄化 aging of population 人口增长的高峰期 baby boom 人口增长与社会经济发展相协调 try to keep population growth in line with social and economic development 人民生活水平 quality of life; the living standards 认真贯彻实施中国妇女、儿童发展纲要 The programs for the development of work concerning women and children should be earnestly implemented. 弱势群体 disadvantaged groups 扫除青壮年文盲 eliminate illiteracy among young and middle-aged people 伤残保险 disability insurance 社会保障 social security 社会保障“三条保障线”制度 social security system of “three guarantees” 社会福利制度 the social welfare system 社会公德 social morality 社会互助制度 the social mutual help system 社会治安状况好转 see an improved law-and-order situation 深入扎实地开展群众性精神文明创建活动 Extensive public participation activities are launched to promote cultural and ethical progress. 生活待遇 material amenities 生活费收入 income available for cost of living 生活费用 cost of living; income maintenance; subsistence cost 生育保险制度 the childbirth insurance system 失学儿童 dropouts 失业保险 guarantee of unemployment insurance benefits 失业保险 unemployment insurance 失业保险制度 the unemployment insurance system 失业率 rate of unemployment 实施积极促进就业的政策 to implement the policy of vigorously increasing employment 实现基本普及九年义务教育 The goal in the effort to make nine-year compulsory education basically universal has been attained. 实现小康目标 attain the goal of ensuring our people a relatively comfortable life 实行弹性大、灵活性强、多样化的就业形式 to adopt elastic, flexible, diversified forms of employment 实行计划生育、 控制人口数量、 提高人口素质 promote family planning and control the population size and improve the health of the people

实行劳动合同制度 to institute a labor contract system 树立正确的价值观、世界观、人生观 help foster in the young the morally sound values and outlook on the world and life 思想道德建设(思想政治工作) moral education among people 提高部分优抚对象抚恤标准 Allowances for certain disabled service men and women and family members of revolutionary martyrs and service men and women have been increased. 提高劳动者素质 to enhance workers’ quality 统筹兼顾城乡就业 to make overall plans for urban and rural system 推动就业服务向社区延伸,形成多层次的就业服务网络 to encourage the formation of community-run agencies as a part of the multi-level employment service network 推进素质教育 push ahead with education for all-around development 推行职业资格证书制度 to introduce a vocational qualification credentials system 退休基金 pension fund 脱贫 lift off poverty; cast off poverty 完善和落实再就业优惠政策 to improve and implement preferential reemployment 完善失业保险制度 to improve the unemployment insurance system 文明城市 model city; culturally advanced city; city cited for high moral and cultural standards 物业管理 estate management, property management 消费价格总水平 the general price level 小家庭 nuclear family 小康生活 enjoy a fairly comfortable life; be moderately better off 新生儿死亡率 infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate 行行出状元 Every profession produces its own leading authority.

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