1. 问题解决型： 对某一问题/话题进行分析,找出解决办法,表达自己的看法.
第一段：Nowadays，we have to face a problem that…(问题) /Nowadays，more and more peop
le are concerned about the problem…(问题) /It is important for us to…(问题). For instance_____________________(例一) First，_________________________(原因一). Moreover，_____________________(例二) Second，_______________________(原因二) 第二段：People have figured out many ways to solve the problem． /Confronted with…(问题)we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation． Firstly，________________________(解决方法一) Secondly，______________________(解决方法二) 第三段：1)Personally，I believe that_______________(我的方法) /To me，I am taking two ways to solve the problem of…(问题) One of them is ________________________(我的方法) The other way is_______________________(方法二) By now ways have been working perfectly and efficient1y…(结果) 2) 第四段：In conclusion/In a word/To sum up/In summary/Obviously/It’s clear that…/It’s no doubt that….
要求考生列举出解决问题的多种途径 １． 问题现状 ２．怎样解决(解决方案的优缺点) 第一段：阐述问题 In recent days, we have to face the problem X, which is becoming more and more serious. First, ------------(说明Ａ的现状)．Second, ---------------(举例进一步说明现状) 第二段：大家的解决方法 Confronted with X, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, --------(解决方法一). For another thing,--------(解决方法 二). Finally, --------(解决方法三).Personally, I believe that -----第三段：我的方法 (我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because -------(带来的好处).
① ② ③ ④ TOPIC With the ___ of ___, _____. So it is of great importance for us to ____. On one hand, _____. On the other hand, _______.
TOPIC ① There has been a discussion recently about ________. ② It is true to the present situation that ______. ③ But _______. ④ As is known to all, there are many ways __________. ⑤ First of all, ________. ⑥ Furthermore, ________. ⑦ Last but not least, _________
TOPIC ① Nowadays, there is a growing concern on ________. ② It is certain that _____. ③ However, ________
⑤ However, we have figured out many ways to _______. ⑥ Firstly, _____. ⑦ So long as _________. ⑧ Secondly, ________ ⑨ Thirdly, _____. ⑩ In fact, ________. 11. That is because ______. 12. In a word, ________.
④ It will cause many serious results if ________. ⑤ Firstly, _______. ⑥ Secondly, ________ ⑦ Finally, _________.
⑧ So it is high time for us to _____. ⑨ That is because _______. ⑩ Secondly, _____. 11. Thirdly, _________. 12. In conclusion, _________
⑧ In spite of all these, there are still many ways _________. ⑨ First of all, _______. ⑩ In addition, _________. 11. Thirdly, _______. 12. Only in this way, _________.
2. 现象解释型： 现象解释型模板一
TOPIC ①Recently, _____________. ②What amazes us most is _____. ③It is true that ___________. ④There are many reasons explaining ____. ⑤The main reason is ________. ⑥What is more, ____________. ⑦Thirdly, ______________. ⑧As a result, _____________. ⑨Considering all these, ___. ⑩For one thing, _________. 11. For another, _____________. 12. In conclusion, ___________.
TOPIC ①As is known to all, _________. ②___ seem to get accustomed to_____. ③In fact, __________. ④The reasons of _______ lie in several aspects. ⑤ Firstly, ______. ⑥ Secondly, _________. ⑦ Thirdly, ________. ⑧ Finally, _________ ⑨As a matter of fact, _______. ⑩On the one hand, _____. 11. On the other hand, ______. 12. Therefore, __________.
TOPIC ①Nowadays, _________. ②For one thing, _____. ③For another, _____________ ④It is obvious that ________. ⑤Many remarkable factors contribute to __________ ⑥First of all, _______. ⑦In addition, _________. ⑧Finally, _________. ⑨As to me, ________ ⑩As we know, _________. 11. Besides, _________ 12. In a word, ___________.
TOPIC ① It so happened that _____. ② Just at the moment, _____. ③ It impressed me most because____. ④ What happened was _______. ⑤ At first, _______. ⑥ Almost at the same time, _______. ⑦ What’s more, ________. ⑧ As a result, _________. ⑨ As I understand, ________. ⑩ On the one hand, _______. 11. On the other hand, ______. 12. Therefore, ___________.
TOPIC ① As is clearly shown in the chart/table/figure/ graph, ______. ② Especially_______. ③ There are three reasons for _______. ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ To begin with, _______. In addition, ________. For example,_________. Last but not least, _________ In short, __________.
TOPIC ① The table/graph/figure/chart shows that ___________. ② It is self-evident that _____. ③ Three possible reasons contribute to _________. ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ One reason is that ____. Another reason is that _______. For instance, __________. What’s more, _________. As a result, _________.
⑨ As far as I am concerned/As for me/For my part, ___________. ⑩ On one hand, ___________. 11. On the other hand, ________. 12. In brief, ___________.
⑨ However, in my opinion,_____. ⑩ For one thing,_________. 11. For the other thing, _________. 12.To sum up, In conclusion, ____.
首段：现象描述 主段：说明出现这一现象的理由或该现象的具体体现形式 尾段：提出建议或措施 Problems of traffic A.many drivers do not obey regulation. B.there is air pollution and noise pollution. C.every day there are many traffic jams. Solutions A.to issue stricter traffic laws and regulations. B.to raise the public awareness of the traffic regulations. C.to encourage more people to use transportation.
3. 对比论述型： 不同观点对比---列举理由---然后自己的观点. 第一段：Some people tend to think that_________________________(观点一) They point out that__________________________________(理由一) Additionally，_____________________________________(理由二) A case in point is___________________________________(举例) Therefore_________________________________________(小结) 第二段：On the contrary，other people hold the view that_____________(观点二) They argue that_______________________________________(理由一) What's more________________________________________(理由二) As an illustration，__________________________________(举例) Accordingly，_____________________________________(小结) 第三段：As far as I am concerned，(I think) ________________________(我的观点) The reason is that_______________________________________(理由一) And also，____________________________________________(理由二) 第四段：So，_________________________________________________ (总结自己的观点) 对比论述型模板一
TOPIC ①There is a heated debate over __. ②It is commonly accepted that __. ③In contrast, others _______. ④ Those who hold the first opinion suggest __________. ⑤ In their view, ________. ⑥ However, others think _____. ⑦ They argue that _______.
TOPIC ① Recently, we may hear quite different opinions ___________. ② Most people take it for granted that ______. ③However, others hold __________. ④ A dominant idea is that _______. ⑤ In this view, _______. ⑥ Nevertheless, the objectors think ____. ⑦ They argue that _______.
TOPIC ① Different people will offer quite different ideas __________. ② Many people assert ________. ③ However, others believe _____. ④ Some may proclaim ________. ⑤ They maintain such as idea because _______. ⑥ In contrast, the objectors think ____. ⑦ They argue that ________. ⑧ As far as I am concerned, I agree to _________. ⑨ First, _______. ⑩ Second, ________. 11. Last but not least, ________. 12. In a word, __________.
⑧ Considering one after another, I stand on the side of ____. ⑨ First of all, _________. ⑩ Further more, ______. 11. Thirdly, ________. 12. Therefore, ___________
⑧ As to me, I prefer _________ ⑨ On the one hand, _______. ⑩ On the other hand, ________. 11. Therefore, __________. 12. In conclusion, ____________.
4. 说明利弊型： Advantages & Disadvatages 可按：引出问题----分析利弊优劣----提出个人观点/并说明应如何正确对待 第一段：提出问题 with the society developing, ?has become popular . Nowadays ,there is a widespread concern over (the issue that) ....In fact ,there are both advantages and disadvantages in ... Nowadays many people prefer ...Because it has a significant role in our daily life. Recently the issue of whether or not ...has been in the limelight and has aroused wide concern in the public. There are two major arguments that can be made for ....For one thing ,...can bring ...to ....For another ,it is widely hold that people usually ...when... But we must not lose sight of the fact that there are also drawbacks to ...For instance ,it can be ....Besides..... 第二段：分析问题 Those who are in favor of ? claim that it has a lot of advantages.Firstly?.Secondly?,Besides(in addition)?.Last but not least,... Those who are opposed to ...think that there are many disadvantages.In the first place...,in the second place ,.... Lastly(Finally).... Generally speaking,it is widely believed there are several positive aspects as follows .Firsrly ,Secondly ,...Just as a famous saying goes"every coin has two sides" ...is no exception .It still has negative aspects.To begin with, In addition ... Generally ,its advantages can be seen as follows.First ,second,besides. But every coin has two sides .The negativeaspects are also apparent. ONe of the important disadvantages is the ...To make things worse,... 第三段：提出个人观点 As far as I am concerned ,the advantages of ...outweigh its disadvantages.First, Second , Third ,Besides . To sum up ,we should try to bring the advantages of ...into full play,and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same time.In that case ,we will definitely make a better use of the... Through the above analysis,I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones .Therefore I would like to ... From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of ... we should try to reduce its negative effects.Only in this way ,...
第一段：[某观点 /某件事/某现象有利(列举好处)]Whenever we hear people say that_____(主题)we'll
instantly have the idea that it is a good／bad thing for_______(某人) Indeed，_________(主题)have advantages to_____________(某人) We can take_____________________(举例)as an example…． It will benefit____________________(好处一) In addition______________________(好处二) 第二段：[也有弊(列举弊端)]In the mean time，we must realize those disadvantages of____(主题) First of all，_______________(坏处一) Second,___________________(坏处二) 第三段：[应如何正确对待]To sum up the above arguments，I think a proper attitude towards__________(主题) is that_______________________(我的观点)
5. 对立观点型： 对立观点式 A．有人认为 X 是好事，赞成 X， 为什么？ B．有人认为 X 是坏事， 反对 X，为什么？ C．我的看法。 Some people are in favor of the idea of doing X. They point out the fact that _______________________支持 X 的第一个原因。 They also argue that _____________________________支持 X 的另一个原因。 However, other people stand on a different ground. They consider it harmful to do X. They firmly point out that ________________________反对 X 的第一个理由。 An example can give the details of this argument: ________________一个例子。 There is some truth in both arguments. But I think the advantages of X overweigh the disadvantages. In addition to the above-mentioned negative effects it might bring about, X also may X 的有一 个坏处。 批驳观点式 A．一个错误观点。 B． 我不同意。 Many people argue that ____________________错误观点。 By saying that, they mean _________________对这个观点的进一步解释。 An example they have presented is that _______一个例子。 （According to a survey performed by X on a group of Y, almost 80% of them ________赞成 这个错误观点或者受到这个错误观点的影响） 。 There might be some element of truth in these people’s belief. But if we consider it in depth, we will feel no reservation to conclude that _______与错误观 点相反的观点。 There are a number of reasons behind my belief. 对比观点题型 题型一： 要求论述两个对立的观点并给出自己的看法。 1． 有一些人认为。。。2． 另一些人认为。。。3． 我的看法。。。 The topic of X---（主题）is becoming more and more popular recently. There are two sides of opinions about it. Some people say A is their favorite. They hold their view for the reason -----------------（支持 A 的理由一）What is more… Moreover, While others think that B is a better choice in the following three reasons. Firstly,…. Secondly (besides)…. Thirdly (finally),…. From my point of view, I think ----------------（我的观点）. The reason is that --(原因). As a matter of fact, there are some other reasons to explain my choice. For me, the formerlatter is surely a wise choice . 题型二： 给出一个观点，要求考生反对这一观点 Some people believe that ①---------------（观点一） . For example, they think ②----------------（举 例说明）．And it will bring them ③-----------------(为他们带来的好处). In my opinion, I never think this reason can be the point. For one thing,④-------------(我不同意该 看法的理由一). For another thing, ⑤-----------------(反对的理由之二)． Form all what I have said, I agree to the thought that ----(总结我对文章所讨论主题的看法)．
6. 你的观点型： 此类型要求考生对某一现象或观点表明自己的看法和观点。题目特点： A.express your opinion about... B.How do you think about... C.What's your opinion about... Eg.many people think that nowadays people are being subjected to more and more pressure in their work ,and thus are having less and less time to relax.To what extent do you agree or disagree? Eg:Some people think that the animals shouldd be treated as pets;others think that animals are sources of food and clothing.What is your opinion? 写作策略： 第一段：明确表态，让阅卷老师知道你的观点 第二段：可以采用一边倒的写法。从单方面论述，用具体的理由支持所提出的观点。如果有让 步段， 在篇幅上，你支持的观点段要明显多于你不支持的观点段。 第三段：重申首段的观点，最好换一种表达方式，不要和首段的观点机械重复 注意：开门见山 尽量采用两个方面去写，但要做到有主有次，你支持的观点段落要明显多于 你不支持的观点篇幅。
7. 一分为二型： 从两方面去分析一个问题,然后阐述自己的观点. 第一段：Nowadays more and more people．．．/．．．plays an important part in．．．. like everything else, ． ． ． has/have both favorable and unfavorable aspects/both advantages and disadvantages. Generally, the favorable aspects/advantages can be listed as follows. 第二段：Firstly,.. Secondly,?In addition/What’s more? 第三段： Every coin has two sides. The negative aspects/disadvantages are also apparent/obvious. To begin with?; To make matters worse?; Worse of all? Conclusion 第四段：Through above analysis/All things considered, we can see that the positive aspects/advantages outweigh the negative ones/disadvantages. Therefore?
8. 两者选一型： 分析两种事物的优劣势,阐述自己的观点. “两者选一”类作文范例 ① 健康与财富(Health and Wealth) 提示: 健康与财富哪个更重要一直是一个热门话题(hot topic),请简述你的观点. ② 哪里住更好(Where to live?) 提示: 有的人喜欢往城里挤,有的人喜欢往乡下搬. 各有所好,孰是孰非,你以为如何? 模式?:A、B 两者优劣势分析,要么选 A,要么选 B. 第一段：Some people hold the opinion that (A) is superior to (B) in many ways. Others, however, argue that (B) is much better. Personally, I would prefer (A) because I think (A) has more advantages. 第二段：There are many reasons why I prefer (A). The main reason is that ? Another reason is that?(赞同 A 的原因) 第三段： Of course, choosing (B) also has advantages to some extent, (列出 1~2 个 B 的优势) 第四段： But if all these factors are considered, (A) is much better than (B). from what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the conclusion that ?(总结观点) 模式?: A、B 优势相当,依情况而定,有条件地选择 A 或 B. 第一段：Which would you prefer if you are faced with the choice between (A) and (B)? Before you make the decision, you had better make a close comparison. 第二段：It is true that(选择 A 的优势之一). It is also true that(选择 A 的优势之二). But (选择 A 的劣势). 第三段：Though.(选择 B 的劣势), (选择 B 的优势之一). Furthermore, (选择 B 的优势之二). 第四段： Therefore, if you?, you should choose (A), but if you?, you should choose (B). (总结观点,提出建议)
9. 图表型： 看图（表）作文．通过阅读图表中的数字与项目得出一个结论或形成一种看法． 下列表格为某市 1996 年与 2006 年人们度假方式的情况比较， 请按表格内容写一篇 150 词左右的短文，并对度假方式变化原因加以简要评析。 年 度 境外旅游 海边度假 爬山野营 1996 11% 38% 11% 2006 22% 31% 34% 原因 收入增加 海水污染 回归自然
The way people spend their holidays changed a lot from 1996 to 2006. 范文： The way people spend their holidays changed a lot from 1996 to 2006. The table shows that a greater number of people spent their holidays traveling abroad in 2006. The rate of 2006 (22%) doubled that of 1996 (11%). We are sure that the number will increase because with their incomes rising, more people can afford the journeys abroad. At the same time, the seaside attracted a lot of people. However, the rate slightly dropped from 38% in 1996 to 31% in 2006, the reason for which lies in the fact that sea water is being polluted. The polluted seaside is likely to drive more visitors away. The year 2006 saw a sharp increase in the number of people who went climbing and camping. The rate in 2006 (34%) was more than three times that in 1996 (11%). The reason is that more and more people are eager to get close to nature. 图表描述应注意的问题: 1) 要突出重点,抓住图表中的极端点。如：最大或最小、最多 或最少、最好和最差。 2）总趋势的描述必须准确，要看出总的规律、趋势，抓住特征。 3）图表往往提供大量数据，应仔细观察分析，从中选择有效信息，图表上资料、数据的 描述必须选择重点，不能事无巨细，一一列出。 图标类经典句子： 1）As is shown in the table... 如表格所示... 2）From the table/chart/diagram/figure, we can see clearly clear/apparent from the chart that... 从图表 我们可以很清楚（明显）看到... 3）The diagram shows (that)... 该图向我们展示了... 4) The table/chart diagram/graph/ figures/statistics shows (that) 5) According to the table/chart diagram/graph 6) As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/ figures, 7) It can be seen from the figures/statistics 8) We can see from the figures/statistics 图表中的数据（Data）具体表达法 增加：increase / raise / rise / go up .. 减少：decrease / grow down / drop / fall / decrease. 波动：fluctuate / rebound / undulate / wave ...
that...or it is
稳定：remain stable / stabilize / level off ... 在同一时期 during the same period As can be seen from the diagram, great changes have taken place in... 从图中可 以看出，...发生了巨大变化 in the year between...and... 在...年到...期间... the number sharply went up to... 数字急剧上升至... in terms of / in respect of / 在...方面 in contrast 相反，大不相同 表示数据变化的单词或者词组 rapid/rapidly dramatic/dramatically significant/significantly sharp/sharply steep/steeply gradual/gradually slow/slowly slight/slightly stable/stably steady/steadily
迅速的，飞快的，险峻的 戏剧性的，生动的 重大/要的 明显的，急剧的 稳固的，坚定不移的 渐进的，逐渐的 缓慢的 轻微的,轻略的 稳定的
图表类作文标准化结构： 第一段：第一句：This is a _____chart, which demonstrates the number of_____ from ____ to ____. 如果两个图，则：There are two charts below. The _____ chart describes the number of _____, and the _____ chart illustrates the figure of ____. 第二句：（所有题目适用），From the chart we can see that the number of ______ varies constantly/greatly in _____. 第二段： As we can see from the chart,/or It is clear from the chart that ____. 如果有两个图：则：The _____ chart shows that ______./or As we can see from the first chart, _______ 第三段： (如果两个图的话，) It is clear from the second chart that ? 第三段：From the figures/statistics above, we can see/conclude/draw a conclusion that ? 10. 阐述主题型： 要求从一句话或一个主题出发，按照提纲的要求进行论述． １． 阐述名言或主题所蕴涵的意义． ２． 分析并举例使其更充实． 第一段：The good old proverb ----------------（名言或谚语）reminds us that ----------------(释 义). Indeed, we can learn many things form it. 第二段：First of all,-----------------(理由一). For example, -------------------(举例说明). Secondly,----------------(理由二). Another case is that ---------------(举例说明). Furthermore , ------------------(理由三)． 第三段： In my opinion, ----------------(我的观点). In short, whatever you do, please remember the saying------A. If you understand it and apply it to your study or work, you’ll necessarily benefit a lot from it.
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