Ⅰ. 概念: (1) 定语从句:在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。 定语从句一般紧接在先行词(antecedent)后面。 (2) 先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词 , 短语,或整个主句。 (3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用: 1) 引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词; 2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主
语,宾语,表语,定语, 状语) 常用的关系代词: that、 which、 who、whom、whose、 as 、 常用的关系副词(在从句中只作状语): when、why、 where The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句三步: Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法: ●that: 可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。(指人 时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which)(一般不用 于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如:
1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语) 2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now? 3. You can take anything ( that) you like. (宾语) 4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about? 5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see. 6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.(表语) 7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be. = Our hometown is not the same as it used to be. = Our hometown is different from what it used to be。 = Our hometown is not what it used to be. ●which: 指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语,。如: 1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.(主语) 2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.(宾语) 3. The factory in which his father works is far from here.
4. He was proud, which his brother never was. (表语) 5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.(定语) 6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him. ●who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格,在从句中作宾语; 只可指人 whose: 属格,在从句中作定语,可指人也可指物。 I like the students who/that work hard. (主语) All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.) Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. (宾语) He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. The student who answered the question was John. I know the reason why he was so angry. The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother.
I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. 定语从句和其他从句的区别 定语从句是高中阶段学习的重点，也是教学中的一个难点， 难就难在它有时往往与其它从句相混淆，现就使用定语从句 时易出现混淆的问题说明如下： 一、 定语从句与结果状语的区别 结果状语从句常用的句式为 so...that, such...that, 而在 as 引导 的定语从句中常用的句型是 such...as， the same...as，在平时 使用中，常出现不只是用 such...that 或 such...as 的情况，在 这里， 特别注意的是在 that 引导的从句中 that 只起连接作用， 不在从句中作任何成分， 而关系代词 as 在从句中作主语或宾 语。如： Pollution is such a big problem as concerns the whole mankind. 污染是一个关系到全人类的大问题。（as 引导定语从句，在 从句中作主语） Pollution is such a big problem that it concerns the whole mankind. 污染是一个这样大的问题，以致于它关系到全人 类。（that 引导结果状语从句，that 在从句中不作任何成分， 从句中主语为 it）
二、 定语从句与地点状语从句的区别 定语从句修饰先行词--名词、名词词组或代词、地点状语从 句修饰主句中的谓语动词，说明动作发生的地点或动作的方 向，定语从句通常放在先行词的后面，地点状语从句则无先 行词。如： （1） He lives in the house where he lived ten years ago. 他住在 十年前住过的房子里。（定语从句，先行词为 the house） He lives where he lived ten years ago. 他住在十年前住过的地 方。（where 引导状语从句） （2）You may find her in the place where her brother lives. （where 引导定语从句，修饰先行词 the place） （3）You may find her where her brother lives. （where 引导 地点状语从句） 三、 定语从句与同位语从句的区别 同位语从句一般跟在某些名词（如 belief， fact, hope, idea, problem 等）的后面，用以说明或解释前面的名词，引导同 位语从句的连词 that 只起连接作用，在从句中并不作任何成 份，而定语从句与它前面的名词是所属或限定关系，引导定 语从句的 that 是关系代词，除了起连接作用外，还在从句中
作句子成分。 如： The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to us all. （that 引导同位语从句，说明 the fact 的具体 内容）地球绕着太阳转的事实我们众所周知。 The fact that / 或 which he talked about yeaterday is known to us all. （that 引导定语从句，对 the fact 起限定作用，that 在 定语从句中作宾语可省去）他昨天谈到的事实我们众所周 知。 四、 定语从句与强调句的区别 强调句的句式结构是"It + be + 被强调成分 + that + 其它"。 被强调的成分可以是主语、宾语、状语等，强调的部分指人 时用 who(m)，有时用 that，其他情况用 that。注意：当强调 时间、地点状语时容易跟定语从句相混淆。如： （1）It is in the house that he was born. （强调 in the house）是在这个房子里他出生的，that 不能换 成 where。 It is the house where he was born. 这个那座他出生的房子， where 引导定语从句。 It was at the street that I met Lucy yesterday.
是在这个街上我昨天遇到露西的。 强调 at the street，that 不能换成 where。 It is the street where I met Lucy. 那是我见到露西的那条街，where 引导定语从句限定 the street。 五、 定语从句与主语从句的区别 说到定语从句与主语从句的混淆，常常是指 that 引导的主语 从句与 as 引导的非限定性定语从句的混淆， 让我们先看下面 的一道单选题： （1）________ is known to us, China is a developing country. 中国是一个发展中的国家，这一点我们都知道。 （2）________ is known to us that China is a developing country. A. As B. It 句（1）应选 as。as 为关系代词，在从句中作主句，引导定 语从句，句（2）应选 It 作形式主语，代表 that 引导的主句 从句，显然两句中表达汉语意思一样，而仅差一个词"that" 引导的从句却不同。又如：
As is natural he will marry her. （定语从句）很自然，他会娶 她。 It is natural that he will marry her. （主句从句） 因此在学习中我们一定要掌握定语从句的用法，以防出现差 错。 如何快速区别非限制性定语从句与并列句 如何快速区别非限制性定语从句与并列句？请看看下 面这道题： —He wrote a lot of novels, none of ______ were popular. —It’s the same with his wife. She wrote some plays, but none of __________ was a success. A. these, them B. which, which C. those, which D. which, them 此题应选 D。很容易误选 A，B。选对该题的关键是： 要注意前面一句的 none of...没有并列连词(说明它才是非限 制性定语从句，所以其后填 which)，而后面一句的 none of... 前有一并列连词 but(说明它与前面一句构成并列句，所以其 后填 them)。请做以下类似题(注意 and, but 等的有无)。如： 1. a. He has two sons, but neither of _____is clever. b. He has two sons, neither of ________ is clever. A. them, them B. whom, whom C. them, whom D. whom, them 2. a. Mr Smith made a lot of money, most of____ was spent helping the poor. b. Mr Smith made a lot of money, and most of___ _____ was spent helping the poor. A. it, it B. which, which C. it, which D. which, it 类似地，以下一题也与 but, and 这类词的有无相关：
3. ______many times, but he still couldn’t remember. A. Having been told C. Having told
答案：1. C 2. D 3. D
B. Being told D. He was told