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Advanced Propulsion Systems for the Next Decades
Helmut List

AVL List GmbH AVL

1

AVL TECHNOLOGY HIGHLIGHTS AVL
Turbocharged DI-Gasoline Prof. Hans

List PC DI-Diesel EVARE Range Extender EVARE

Universal (Full) Hybrid System HD DI-Diesel

ECO-Target Diesel Mild Hybrid

Founding of AVL AVL

1948

1963

1975

1992 1998 Year (not in scale) /

2004

2009
2
AVL Image general E 02-16

AVL – TECHNICAL CENTERS POWERTRAIN AVL –

Ann Arbor,MI

UK

Haninge Sweden

Sdertalje

Headquarters Graz Moscow

Plymouth, MI Tokio Nagoya

Korea

Lake Forest, CA

China

Sao Paulo France Germany

Headcount: 4300 Turnover 600 mio

India

Munich

Regensburg

Stuttgart

Ingolstadt

Remscheid

Turkey

Australia
3

INFLUENCES ON CUSTOMER DECISION CRITERIA

Technology Development

Societal Aspects

Customer Criteria

Legislative Aspects

4

TRANSPORT IN THE EU – LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE

Vision: carbon-free energy supply for transport sector (20% CO2 neutral in 2020 – 100% CO2 neutral in 2050) / (2020 20% CO2 – 2050 100% CO2 )

Energy Vector“ with 3 main components / Gaseous fuels (BioGas, BioH2) / Liquid fuels (for SI- & CI-engines) / Electricity / ( (

3 H2) )

2000

2050

5

INCREASING DIVERSIFICATION OF PROPULSION SYSTEMS “Fuels”
Hydrogen Electricity Biogas Biofuel Fossil Gas Fossil Fuel ICE HEV PHEV EREV BEV FCV

Vehicle Types

Powertrain Technologies
6

KEY ELEMENTS OF ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

IC Engine

Battery

Transmission

Electric Motor

Control Strategy

7

UPFRONT CONFIGURATION PROCESS

IC Engine

Battery

Transmission

Electric Motor

Control Strategy

8

POWERTRAIN MODULAR SYSTEM

Powertrain Modules
IC Engine Transmission
Control Strategy

Upfront Configuration Process

E -Motor Battery

enables definition of effective

Powertain Modules

9

MODULAR APPROACH - COMBUSTION ENGINE – Boosting Level

Dual stage charging

Single stage charging

Naturally aspirated

Cylinder Number
10

MODULAR APPROACH – E-MOTOR
Performance EV

Active Iron Lenghth

EV

Stand alone

City EV

BSG

Integrated

RE

ISG – Hybrid

Diameter
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MODULARITY OF BATTERIES

From single cell

….to module

… and battery pack …

Source: A123 12

APPLICATION SPECIFIC BATTERY PACKAGES

High Power

Racing PC mild hybrid

Heavy Duty Hybrid

Hybrid Bus

Cell Type

EV Bus PC Plug-In PC EV

High Energy

Light EV and two wheeler

Low Medium High Battery Capacity (Number of Cells & Modules) )
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UPFRONT OPTIMIZATION AND CALIBRATION

IC Engine

Battery

Transmission

Electric Motor

Control Strategy

14

MODULAR DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM WITH CONSISTENT METHODOLOGY AND TOOL CHAIN

CONFIGURATION

OPTIMIZATION & CALIBRATION

CONSISTENT DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM

Engine

E-Motor Engine Test

System Layout

TransTransmission

Battery

Control

ECUECU-Test ECU

E-Motor Test

Chassis Dyno

Road

Simulation

Test

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CHALLENGING TECHNOLOGY HURDLES

Physical Limit = Law of Nature =
Technology C C Technology B B Technology A

Hurdle

Hurdle

Hurdle

Technology Development

16

ICE EFFICIENCY

Peak Efficiency of PC Diesel Engine

Ideal Engine
70 %

Target: Approaching the Ideal Engine :

Technology Hurdles
w/o Heat Losses 52 % 42 %

Physical Properties of Materials: : Low Heat Capacity Low Thermal Conductivity

With Heat Losses

17

HIGH-PERFORMANCE BATTERY

Energy Density on Battery Level (schematic) )

Li Fluor Chemistry /

: 6100 Wh/kg

Other hurdles /
Power density / Durability / Costs / ? ?

:
?
3000 Wh/kg ?
Li Fluor Battery?

1000 Wh/kg
e.g. Li Air Battery

250 Wh/kg
High voltage chemistry

150 Wh/kg
Advanced cell technology

80 Wh/kg
Consumer cell technology

2010

2014

2018

2030?
18

LONG TERM VISION: REDUCTION OF CO2 CO2
Combined approach: High efficient powertrains Use of biofuels Low CO2- /CO2-neutral generation of electricity

CO2

rel. CO2 Emissions [%] CO2
100

CO2 Reduction by Biofuel CO2 Tank To Wheel

50 0

19

LONG TERM VISION: REDUCTION OF CO2 CO2
Combined approach: High efficient powertrains Use of biofuels Low CO2- /CO2-neutral generation of electricity

CO2

rel. CO2 Emissions [%] CO2
100

CO2 Reduction by Biofuel CO2 Tank To Wheel

50 0 50 100

Well To Tank

?

?

20

AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH RANGE EXTENDER AVL

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LONG TERM VISION: EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT Combined approach of advanced powertrain technology and improved PC transport system /

Reduction of energy use for urban PC transport by 70% in 2030 versus 2010 baseline / 2010 2030 70% 100% (= baseline 2010) 65% 35% by improved powertrain efficiency / 35% Additional improvement by /
extended multi-modal transport / improved mobility services / more efficient vehicle operation / 30%

22

CONCLUSIONS



Customer and markets drive specific vehicle requirements



Continuous trend towards CO2-neutral energy sources CO2 Increasing number of powertrain options incl. all forms of electrification





Fast market response due to flexible modular powertrain



Fast development and calibration process



A fundamental approach for major advances in efficiency

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