虚拟语气 虚拟语气是通过特殊的谓语动词形式来表达的愿望、假设、怀疑、猜测或建议等 语气，它不表示客观存在。 一、虚拟语气在单句中的用法 常用来表示祝愿、采用固定的倒装句式。例如： Long live the People?s Republic of China!中华人民共和国万岁！ May you be happy! May you have a good time!
二、虚拟语气在复合句中的用法： 1． 在非真实性条件句与主句中的用法 1） 表示与现在事实相反 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 （be 多用于 were）would/should/could/might＋动词原 形 例如：If I were you,I should accept the invitation. 如果我是你，我会接受邀请的。 If I had time,I would go there. 如果我有空，我就去那儿。 2） 与过去事实相反 条件从句 过去完成时 主句 would/should/could/might＋have do ne 例如：If you had come earlier,you couldn?t/wouldn?t have missed t he bus.
如果你早点来，你就不会错过那辆公共汽车了。 If he had seen you yesterday,he would have returned your bo ok. 如果他昨天见到了你，他就会还你的书的。 3） 与将来事实可能相反 条件从句 主句
一般过去时（be 多用 were） would/should/could/might＋动词原 should do,were to do 形
例如：If it should rain/were to rain/rained tomorrow,the sports meet would be put off.万一明天下雨， 运动会就推迟。 事实上明天下雨的可能性不大。 （ ） If you dropped/should drop/were to drop the glass,it would brea k. 万一杯子掉下来会打碎的。 4） if 的省略 如果条件句中有 were,had,should 等助动词，可将 if 省略，而把 were,had 或 s hould 置于句首,来表达以 if 引导的条件句的相同意思。 例如：Should it rain/were it to rain tomorrow,the sports meet would b e put off./Had he seen you yesterday,he would have returned your boo k.
5)条件句或主句的省略 当有上下文或上下句中的语言环境暗示的时候， 表示虚拟语气的从句或主句往往 可以省略，以避免重复。 例如：——Why didn?t you attend the party yesterday? ——I would/should have,but I was too busy then. I was surprised that you didn?t like this job.You could have done it better.（后面省略了 if you had liked it.） 6)混合时间条件句与主句 条件句与主句的动作发生的时间有先后之差， 应按各自动作时间搭配好相应的结 构形式。 例如：If the teacher hadn?t been ill yesterday,who could give us a le cture now?/If you had reviewed the lesson,you would answer the questi on now. 7)含蓄条件句与主句 即用 without(＝but for),or(else)代替 if 从句。 例如：Without/But for his help,we wouldn?t have made such great progr ess. ＝If we hadn?t got his help,we wouldn?t have made such great progres s. 2.在 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中用法： 在 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中， 谓语动词多用倒退一个时间段的方式来 表达虚拟语气。例如： The man speaks as if he were a foreigner.
The speaker told us a lot about that country as though he had been th ere many times .They talked as if they had been good friends for years. 注：as if/as though 从句中不一定都要用虚拟语气。如果情况真实性、可能 性很大，就要用正常时态来描绘。例如：It looks as if it is going to rai n.天看起来象要下雨。（下雨的可能性很大。）
3．在宾语从句、表语从句、主语从句中的用法： 1）在 wish 后的宾语从句中的用法： A．与过去事实相反的愿望：宾从谓语为“had done”形式。例如：I wish I h ad passed yesterday?s exam.要是我昨天的考试及格了该多好。 B．与现在事实相反的愿望：宾从谓语为“did”形式。例如：He wishes he wa s as clever as you./I wish I had a large room to live in. C．表示将来愿望：宾从谓语用“would/could do”形式。例如：How I wish I would go abroad next year! 2)在 suggest,propose,demand,request,require,order,insist 等动词后的宾 语从句中，谓语为“ (should) do”形式。例如：I suggest/propose/dem
and/request/require/order/ insist that he(should) be sent to the nearest hospital as soon as pos sible.
3)在“It is (about/high) time＋that 从句”结构中，that 从句的谓语用一 般过去时或“should do”形式。例如：It is high time he t is high time he should start 4)在表语从句、同位语从句中的用法：在 suggestion,proposal,request,requi rement, advice 等名词后的表语从句、同位语从句中，谓语用“(should) do”形式。例 如： My suggestion is that we (should) send a few comrades to help the oth er groups./He gave an order that the work be done at once. started = I
虚拟语气考点分析 1．——Alice,why didn?t you come yesterday? ——I _____,but I had an unexpected visitor. A.had B.would C.was going to D.did (NMET)
析:此题 A、D 明显不合上下文，因为乙方没有去。B 选项若为 would have 则 成立，可以理解为 I would have come if I hadn?t had an unexpected visit or.的简略式。 但此处是 would,故应排除。 只有 was going to 可得体地表达 “我 原本打算去的，但是有不速之客造访”这一意思。 2．If there were no subjunctive,English ______ much easier. A.will be B.would have been C.could have been (NMET)
析：观察题干，可知全句表达的是与现在事实相反的虚拟语气。故答案为 D。 3． The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ______ the rules. (NMET)
析：根据 insist 后的宾语从句谓语要用(should) do 形式规律，可定正确答 案是 B。 4．I wish I _____ you yesterday. A.seen B.did see C.had seen D.were to see
析：此题表与过去事实相反的原望，答案应为 C。 5．—— If he _____ ,he _____ that food. —— Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A.was warned;would not take en C.wuld be warned;had not taken taken 析：从对话看，是表达与过去事实相反的虚拟语气，故答案为 B。 6.Without electricity human life _____ quite different today. T) A.is B.will be C.would have been D.would be (NME D.would have been warned;had not (NMET)
B.had been warned;would not have tak
析： without 引出一个含蓄条件句， 主句表述的是与现在事实相反的虚拟语气， 故答案为 D。 7．When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it look as if it ____ _. (NMET) A.breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken
析；放入水中的铅笔看上去是断的，但实际上并非如此，因此是与现在的事实 相反，这时 as if 从句谓语要用一般过去时，故答案为 C。 8．You didn?t let me drive.If we _____ in turn,you _____ so tired. (NMET) A.drove;didn?t get C.were driving;wouldn?t get B.drove;wouldn?t get D.had driven;wouldn?t have got
析：观察题干，可知 if 从句表述与过去事实相反的假设，因此答案只能是 D。 9．I didn?t see your uncle at the party.If he _____ ,he would have sa id hello to me. A.would come B.had come C.came D.did come
析：观察题目上下文，特别是第二句的主句谓语为 would have said，可知 i f 从句表述的是与过去事实相反的愿望，因此答案为 B。 10．_____ it _____ for your help,I couldn?t have made any progress. A.Had;not been B.Should;not be C.Did;not be D.Not;be
析：根据主句谓语形式，可知从句要用 had done 形式，故应选 A，Had it no t been for your help＝If it had not been for your help.（要不是你帮忙 的话） 11．Mr Smith was badly ill,or he _____ our dinner party. A.should come to C.would come to B.would have attended D.should have attended
析：or 可引导含蓄条件句，表达虚拟语气。根据此题内容，可知是与过去事 实相反的假设，故答案为 B。 1） 概念 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想，所说的是一个条件，不一定是 事实，或与事实相反。 2） 在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类，一类为真实条件句，一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件 句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况，故采用虚拟语气。 1.真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气，假设的情况可能发生，其中 if 是如果的意思。 时态关系 句型：条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形 If he comes, he will bring his violin. 典型例题 The volleyball match will be put off if it ___. A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained
答案 B。真实条件句主句为将来时，从句用一般现在时。 注意： 1） 在真实条件句中， 主句不能用 be going to 表示将来， 该用 shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it. 2） 表示真理时，主句谓语动词便不用 shall (will) +动词原形，而直接 用一般现在时的动词形式。 2.非真实条件句 1）时态：可以表示过去，现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。 a. 同现在事实相反的假设。
句型 ： 条件从句 一般过去时
主句 should( would) +动词原形
If they were here, they would help you. b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。 主句 should(would) have+ 过去分词
句型： 条件从句 过去完成时
If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded. The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it. 含义：He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it. If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义： He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想 句型： 条件从句 主句 should+ 动词原形 would + 动词原形
一般过去时 were+ 不定式 should+ 动词原形
If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If you should succeed, everything would be all right. If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
3.混合条件句 主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间，这时主，从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形 式因时间不同而不同，这叫做混合条件句。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. （从句与过去事实相反，主句与现在事实相反。 ） If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在). 4.虚拟条件句的倒装 虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有 were, should, 或 had, 可将 if 省略，再 把 were, should 或 had 移到从句句首，实行倒装。 Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us. Had you come earlier, you would have met him =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved. 注意： 在虚拟语气的从句中， 动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were"， 不用 was， 即 在从句中 be 用 were 代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你，就会去找他。 If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿，一切都会好的。 典型例题 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were IB. I were C. Were I D. Was I
答案 C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有 were, should, had 这三个词，通常 将 if 省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在 虚拟条件状语从句中， 省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我 们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do. 5.特殊的虚拟语气词：should 1） It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的 谓语动词要用 should 加动词原形， should 可省略。 句型： (1)suggested It is (2)important (3) a pity (1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, insisted； + (should) do (2)important, necessary, natural, strange a pity, a shame, no wonder demanded, requested, that…+ (should) do
(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow. 2）在宾语从句中的应用 在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。 order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week. He insisted that he (should ) be sent there. 注意： 如 suggest, insist 不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时"，即
它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时，宾语从句用陈述语气。 The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 判断改错: （错） (对) (错) (对) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill. Your pale face suggests that you are ill. I insisted that you ( should) be wrong. I insisted that you were wrong.
3）在表语从句，同位语从句中的应用 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的 表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。 My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week. 6.wish 的用法 1）用于 wish 后面的从句，表示与事实相反的情况，或表示将来不太可能实 现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为： 真实状况 从句动作先于主句动词动作 （be 的过去式为 were） 从句动作与主句动作同时发生 （had + 过去分词） 将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could + 动词原形 I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。 过去时 过去完成时 wish 后 过去时
He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。 2）Wish to do 表达法。 Wish sb / sth to do I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager. I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.) 7.比较 if only 与 only if
only if 表示"只有"；if only 则表示"如果……就好了"。If only 也可用 于陈述语气。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会 醒。 If only the alarm clock had rung. If only he comes early. 当时闹钟响了，就好了。 但愿他早点回来。
8.It is (high) time that It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用 should 加动 词原形，但 should 不可省略。 It is time that the children went to bed. It is high time that the children should go to bed. 9 need "不必做"和"本不该做" didn't need to do 表示： 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。. needn't have done 表示： 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。 John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她不必步行回家了。
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary 步行回家，没有遇上 John 的车。) 典型例题 There was plenty of time. She ___. A. mustn't have hurried hurry B. couldn't have hurried C. must not
D. needn't have hurried 答案 D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必"，即已经做了某事，而时实
际上不必要。 Mustn't have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为 couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时） 。 1. The teacher demanded that the exam _____ before eleven. A. must finish finished 2. She made the demand that the journalists _____ at once ______ Iraq. A. leave; for be left; for 3. He is talking so much about America as if he _____ there. A. was had been B. D. has gone has been C. B. leave; to C. left; to D. to B. would be finished C. be finished D. must be
4. The young man insisted that he _____ nothing wrong and _____ free. A. did; set B. had done;
should be set
C. should do; be set be set
D. had done; must
5. I suggested there ____ be a kind of language all could understand and use ____ . A. can; it it D. may; / B. /; / C. would;
6. The suggestion has been made _____ the basketball game _____ put off. A. for; to to; being 7. The order came that the medical supplies _____ to Beijing for the Sars soon. A. would be sent sent 8. It is important that we _____ wild animals. A. will protect protecting 9. Had you listened to the doctor, you _____ all right now. A. are have been 10. _____ any change about the date, please tell me immediately. A. Will there be be B. Should there be C. There will be D. There should B. were C. would be D. would B. should protect C. shall protect D. are B. should send C. be sent D. must be B. that; be C. which; should be D.
11. _____ today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would he leave C. Were he to leave 12. Should it rain, the crops _____ . A. would be saved saved C. will be saved D. had been saved B. would have been B. Was he leaving D. If he leave
13. You _____ come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. A. may would D. have B. should have C.
14. He treated me as though/as if _____ his own son. A. was I am B. D. I were I would be C. I
15. I _____ you some money, but I hadn’t any on me then. A. would lend B. would have lent C. could lend D. may have lent
16. A few minutes earlier and we _____ the rain. A. have caught B. had caught C. could have caught D. were to catch
17. --- “Have you ever been to Beijing?” --- “No, but I wish I _____” A. do have D. had B. will C.
18. I’m glad I went over all my notes; otherwise _____ .
A. I may have failed failed
B. I’d fail
C. I’d have failed
D. I’ll have
19. --- “What will you do during the summer holiday?” --- “I don’t know, but it’s high time _____ something.” A. I’m deciding I decide 20. What should we do if it _____ tomorrow? A. should snow snow 21. If only I _____ my watch! A. hadn’t lost don’t lose 22. You _____ such a serious mistake if you had followed his advice. A. may not make not make C. shouldn’t have made made 23. We _____ the work on time without your help. A. hadn’t had finished B. D. might not have B. might B. haven’t lost C. didn’t lost D. B. would snow C. snow D. will B. I’ll decide C. I decided D.
didn’t have finished C. couldn’t have finished have finished D. can’t
24. --- “Where have you been?” --- “I got caught in traffic; otherwise _____ sooner.” A. I would be here here C. I had been here been here 25. If it were not for the fact that you _____ ill, I would ask you to do this right now. A. were should be B. had been C. are D. D. I would have B. I have been
Key: 1-5. CAABB 11-15. CAABDB
6-10. BCBCB 16—20. CDCCA 21-25. ADCDC