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100种有机溶剂的极性和其他物理常数列表


pp.408-411 Appendix Table A-1. Compilation of hundred important organic solvents together with their physical constants, arranged by decreasing No. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) Solvent Name Water Formamide 1,2-Ethanediol Methanol N-Methylformamide Diethylene glycol TriethyIene glycol 2-Methoxyethanol Tetraethylene glycol N-Methylacetamide Ethanol 2-Aminoethanol Acetic acid 1-Propanol Benzyl alcohol 1-Butanol 1-Pentanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol, Isoamyl alcohol 2-Methyl-1-propanol, Isobutyl alcohol 2-Propanolm) 2-Butanol Cyclohexanol Propylene carbonate 2-Pentanol Nitromethane 3-Pentanol Acetonitrile Dimethylsulfoxide Aniline SulfoIane Acetic anhydride N,N-Dimethyl-formamide N,N-Dimethyl-acetamide Name in Chinese 水 甲酰胺 乙二醇 甲醇 甲基甲酰胺 双乙二醇 三乙二醇 2-甲氧基乙醇 四乙二醇 甲基乙酰胺 乙醇 氨基乙醇 乙酸 丙醇 苄醇 丁醇 戊醇 异戊醇 异丁醇 异丙醇 2-丁醇 环己醇 碳酸丙二酯 2-戊醇 硝基甲烷 3-戊醇 乙腈 二甲亚砜 苯胺 环丁砜 乙酸酐 二甲基甲酰胺 二甲基乙酰胺 ET (h) 1 0.799 0.79 0.762 0.722 0.713 0.704 0.667 0.664 0.657 0.654 0.651 0.648 0.617 0.608 0.602 0.568 0.565 0.552 0.546 0.506 0.5 0.491 0.488 0.481 0.463 0.46 0.444 0.42 0.41 0.407 0.404 0.401 bp (° C) 100 210.5 197.5 64.5 180-185 245.7 288 124.6 327.3 206.7 78.3 170.95 117.9 97.15 205.45 117.7 138 130.5 107.9 82.2 99.5 161.1 241.7 119 101.2 115.3 81.6 189 184.4 287.3 (dec.) 140 153 166.1

(34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58) (59) (60) (61) (62) (63) (64) (65) (66) (67) (68) (69) (70) (71)

Propanenitrile 2-Methyl-2-propanol, t-Butanol 1.3-Dimethyl-imidazolidin-2-one, DMEU 1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one Acetone 1.3-Dimethyl-2-oxo-hexahydropyrimidine, DMPU 1,2-Diaminoethane Cyanobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 2-Butanone Nitrobenzene 2-Methyl-2-butanol, t-Pentyl alcohol 2-Pentanone Tetramethylurea Morpholine Hexamethylphosphoric acid triamide, HMPT 3-Methyl-2-butanone Dichloromethane" Acetophenone Pyridine Methyl acetate Cyclohexanone 4-Methyl-2-pentanone 1,1-Dichloroethane Quinoline 3-Pentanone Chloroform 3,3-Dimethyl-2-butanone Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2,4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether 1,2-Dimethoxyethane Ethyl acetate 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone Diethylene glycol diethyl ether Tetrahydrofuran Methoxybenzene

丙腈 叔丁醇 二甲基乙撑脲 甲基砒咯烷酮 丙酮 二甲基亚丙基脲 乙二胺 腈基苯 1,2-二氯乙烷 丁酮, 甲乙酮 硝基苯 叔戊醇 2-戊酮 四甲基脲 吗啉 六甲基磷酰胺 异戊酮 二氯甲烷 苯乙酮 吡啶 乙酸甲酯 环己酮 4-甲基-2-戊酮 1,1-二氯乙烷 喹啉 3-戊酮 氯仿 3,3-二甲基-2-丁酮 三乙二醇二甲基醚 2,4-二甲基-3-戊酮 双乙二醇二甲基醚 乙二醇二甲基醚 乙酸乙酯 邻二氯苯 2,6-二甲基-4-庚酮 双乙二醇二乙基醚 四氢呋喃 苯甲醚

0.401 0.389 0.364 0.355 0.355 0.352 0.349 0.333 0.327 0.327 0.324 0.321 0.321 0.318 0.318 0.315 0.315 0.309 0.306 0.302 0.287 0.281 0.269 0.269 0.269 0.265 0.259 0.256 0.253 0.247 0.244 0.231 0.228 0.225 0.225 0.21 0.207 0.198

97.35 82.3 225.5 202 56.1 230 116.9 191.1 83.5 79.6 210.8 102 102.3 175.2 128.9 233 94.2 39.6 202 115.25 56.9 155.65 117.4 573 237.1 102 61.2 106.3 216 125.25 159.8 (dec.) 84.5 77.1 180.5 168.2 188.9 66 153.6

(72) (73) (74) (75) (76) (77) (78) (79) (80) (81) (82) (83) (84) (85) (86) (87) (88) (89) (90) (91) (92) (93) (94) (95) (96) (97) (98) (99)

Diethyl carbonate Fluorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Ethoxybenzene lodobenzene 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,4-Dioxane Trichloroethene t-Butyl methyl ether Piperidine Diethylamine Diphenyl ether Diethylether Benzene Di-n-propyl ether Toluene 1,4-Dimethylbenzene Di-n-butyl ether Carbon disulfide Tetrachloromethane Triethylamine Tri-n-butylamine cis-Decahydro-naphthaline n-Heptane n-Hexane n-Pentane

碳酸二乙酯 氟苯 1,1-二氯乙烯 氯苯 溴苯 苯乙醚 碘苯 1,1,1-三氯乙烷 二噁烷 三氯乙烯 叔丁基甲醚 哌啶 二乙基胺 二苯醚 乙醚 苯 二丙醚 甲苯 对二甲苯 二丁醚 二硫化碳 四氯甲烷 三乙基胺 三丁基胺 顺十氢萘 正庚烷 正己烷 正戊烷 环己烷

0.194 194 0.194 0.188 0.182 0.182 0.17 0.17 0.164 0.16 0.148 0.148 0.145 0.142 0.117 0.111 0.102 0.099 0.074 0.071 0.065 0.052 0.043 0.043 0.015 0.012 0.009 0.009 0.006

126.8 84.7 31.6 131.7 155.9 169.8 188.3 74.1 101.3 87.2 55.2 106.2 55.55 258.1 344 801 90.1 110.6 138.4 140.3 46.2 76.6 88.9 214 195.8 98.4 68.7 36.1 80.7

(100) Cyclohexane

a The physical constants were taken from the following references: (1) R. C. Weast and M. J. Astle: CRC Handbook of Data b C. Reichardt and E. Harbusch-G° rnert. Liebigs Ann . Chem 1983,721; C. Laurence, P. Nicolet. M. Lucon, and C. Reichardt, c Melting point. d Boiling point at 1013 mbar. e Relative permittivity (dielectric constant) for the pure liquid at 25° unless followed by another t emperature in parentheses. C

f Dipole moment in Coulombmeter (10^(-30) C m). measured in benzene, tetrachloromethane, 1,4-dioxane. Or n-hexane at 20

g Refractive index at the average D-line of sodium (16969 cm-1) at 20° unless followed by another tem perature in parenthe C

h Normalised ET-values, derived from the transition energy at 25 ° of the long-wavelength absorption of a standard pyridiniu C

I Y. Marcus and S. Glikberg, Pure Appl. Chem. 57. 855 (1985) (Methanol). l Y. Marcus, Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 860 (1985) (Ethanol) m Y. Marcus, Pure Appl. Chem. 58, 1411 (1986) (1-Propanol, 2-Propanol, 1-Butanol). n J. F. Coetzee and T.-H. Chang, Pure Appl. Chem. 58, 1541 (1986) (Nitromethane). p M. Breant, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 197/,725 (I-Methylpyrrolidin-2-one). q J. F. Coetzee and T.-H. Chang, Pure Appl. Chem. 58, 1535 (1986) (Acetone). r C. Agarni, Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. /968, 1205 (1,2-Dimethoxyethane). s J. F. Coetzee and T.-H. Chang, Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 633 (1985) (THF, 1,4-Dioxane).

k J. F. Coetzee (ed.): Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities (Acetonitrile, Sulfolane. Pro

o B. J. Barker, J. Rosenfarb, and J. A. Caruso, Angew. Chem. 91, 560(1979); Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 18, 503 (1979) (D

t K. M. Kadish and J. E. Anderson, Pure Appl. Chem. 59, 703 (1987) (Benzonitrile, Dichloromethane. 1,1-Dichloroethane, 1,2

onstants, arranged by decreasing ET-values as empirical parameter of solvent polarity. mp (° C) 0 2.55 -12.6 -97.7 -3.8 -7.8 -4.3 -85.1 -6.2 30.6 -114.5 10.5 16.7 -126.2 -15.3 -88.6 -78.2 -117.2 -108 -88 -114.7 25.15 -54.5 -28.55 -75 -43.8 18.5 -6 28.45 -73.1 -60.4 -20 nD20 (g) 1.333 1.4475 1.4318 1.3284 1.4319 1.4475 1.4558 1.4021 1.4577 1.4253(35° ) 1.3614 14545 1.3719 1.3856 1.5404 1.3993 1.41 1.4072 1.3959 1.3772 1.3971 1.4648(25° ) 1.4215 1.4064 1.3819 1.4104 1.3441 1.4793 1.5863 1.4816(30° ) 1.3904 1.4305 1.4384 Er(e) 78.3 111.0(20° ) 37.7 32.66 182.4 31.69(20° ) 23.69(20° ) 16.93 19.7 191.3(32° ) 24.55 37.72 6.17(20° ) 20.45 13.1(20° ) 17.51 13.9 15.19 17.93 19.92 16.56 15 64.92 13.71 35.94 13.35 35.94 46.45 6.71(30° ) 43.3(30° ) 20.7(19° ) 36.71 37.78 u (f) 5.9 11.2 7.7 5.7 12.9 7.7 10.0 6.8 10.8 14.2 5.8 7.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.7 6.1 6.0 5.5 5.5 6.2 16.5 5.5 11.9 5.5 11.8 13.5 5.0 16 9.4 10.8 12.4

-92.8 25.6 8.2 -24.4 -94.7 <-20 11.3 -12.75 -35.7 -86.7 5.8 -8.8 -76.9 -1.2 -4.8 7.2 -92 -94.9 19.6 -41.55 -98.05 -32.1 -84.7 -97 -14.85 -39 -63.5 -49.8 -45 -69 -64 -69 -83.55 -17 -46 -44.3 -108.4 -37.5

1.3658 1.3877 1.4707(25° ) 1.47 1.3587 1.4881(25° ) 1.4568 1.5282 1.4448 1.3788 1.5562 1.405 1.3908 1.4493(25° ) 1.4542 14588 1.388 1.4242 1.5342 1.5102 1.3614 1.451 1.3958 1.4164 1.6273 1.3923 1.4459 1.3952 1.4224 1.3999 1.4078 1.3796 1.3724 1.5515 1.4122 1.4115 1.4072 1.517

28.86(20° ) 12.47 37.6 32.2 20.56 36.12 12.9 25.2 10.37 18.51(20° ) 34.78 5.78 15.38(20° ) 23.6 7.42 296 15.87(30° ) 8.93 17.39 12.91 6.68 16.10(20° ) 13.11(20° ) 10.0(18° ) 8.95 17.00(20° ) 4.81(20° ) 13.1(14.5° ) 7.5 17.2(20° ) 5.8 7.2 6.02 9.93 9.91(20° ) 5.7 7.58 4.33

11.7 5.5 13.6 13.6 9.0 14.1 6.3 13.4 6.1 9.2 133.0 5.7 90.0 11.7 5.2 18.5 9.2 5.2 9.8 7.9 5.7 10.3 2.7 6.1 7.3 9.4 3.8 9.3 9.1 6.6 5.7 6.1 7.1 8.9 5.8 4.2

-43 -42.2 -122.6 -45.6 -30.8 -29.5 -31.35 -30.4 11.8 -86.4 -108.6 -10.5 -49.8 26.9 -116.3 5.5 -123.2 -95 13.3 -95.2 -111.6 -22.8 -114.7 -70 -43 -90.6 -95.3 -129.7 6.7

1.3837 1.4684(15° ) 1.4247 1.5248 1.5568 1.5074 1.62 1.438 1.4224 1.4773 1.369 1.4525 1.3846 1.5763(30° ) 1.3524 1.5011 1.3805 1.4969 1.4958 1.3992 1.6275 14,602 1.401 1.4291 1.481 1.3876 1.3749 1.3575 1.4262

2.82(20° ) 5.42 4.82(20° ) 5.62 5.4 4.22(20° ) 4.49(20° ) 7.25(20° ) 2.21 3.42(16° ) 4.5(20° ) 5.8(20° ) 3.78 3.69(20° ) 4.2 2.27 3.39(26° ) 2.38 2.27(20° ) 3.08(20° ) 2.64(20° ) 2.23 2.42(20° ) 2.20(20° ) 1.92(20° ) 1.88 1.84(20° ) 2.02(20° )

3.0 4.9 4.3 5.4 5.2 4.5 4.7 5.7 1.5 2.7 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 0.0 4.4 1.0 0.0 3.9 0.0 0.0 2.9 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

J. Astle: CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds. Vol. I and II, CRC Press, Boca Raton/Florida 1985; (2) R C. Weast (ed.): Handbook

olet. M. Lucon, and C. Reichardt, Bull. Soc Chim Fr 1987,125: ibid. 1987, 1001; cf. also Table 7-3 in Chapter 7.

ther t emperature in parentheses. another tem perature in parentheses.

ne, 1,4-dioxane. Or n-hexane at 20-30° C.1 Debye=3.336x10-30 Cm.

absorption of a standard pyridinium-N-phenoxide betaine dye, ET(30); cf. Eqs. (7-27) and (7-29) in Section 7.4

urities (Acetonitrile, Sulfolane. Propylene carbonate, Dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-Dimethylformamide, Hexamethylphosphoric triamide, Pyridine, 1.

m., Int. Ed. Engl. 18, 503 (1979) (DMEU, DMPU, Tetramethylurea).

methane. 1,1-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloroethane).

5; (2) R C. Weast (ed.): Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 66th edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton/Florida 1985/86; (3) J. A. Riddick, W. B. Bu

ylphosphoric triamide, Pyridine, 1.2-Diaminoethane, N-Methylacetamide, and N-Methylpropionamide). Pergamon Press, Oxford 1982.

ida 1985/86; (3) J. A. Riddick, W. B. Bunger, and T. K. Sakano: Organic Solvents. Physical Properties and Methodrof Purification. 4th edition. I

Pergamon Press, Oxford 1982.

nd Methodrof Purification. 4th edition. In A. Weissberger (ed.): Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. II, Wiley-lnterscience, New York 1986: (4) A. L. M

nterscience, New York 1986: (4) A. L. McClellan: Tables of Experimental Dipole Moments. Freeman. San Francisco. London 1963; (5) A. A. Ma

n Francisco. London 1963; (5) A. A. Maryott and E. R. Smith: Table of Dielectric Constants of Pure Liquids. NBS Circular 514; Washington 195

ids. NBS Circular 514; Washington 1951; (6) Deilstein's Handbook of Organic Chemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin; (7) M. Windholz (ed.): The M

ag, Berlin; (7) M. Windholz (ed.): The Merck Index. 10th edition, Rahway/New Jersey 1983.


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