当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

英语倒装句


英语倒装句(Inversion) 主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序: 一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order); 二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。 而倒装语序中又有完全倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion) 完全倒装(Full Inversion):又称"全部倒

装",是指将句子中的谓语动词全部置于 主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。 部分倒装(Partial Inversion):指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主 语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动 词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进 行的倒装。 前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是选择性的, 倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。 语义解析 一、 表示强调: 倒装句最突出、最常见的修辞效果就是强调,其表现形式如下: 1.only +状语或状语从句置于句首,句子用部分倒装。 例子: Only in this way can you solve this problem. 只有用这种方法,你才可以解决这个问题。 Only after he had spoken out the word did he realize he had made a big mistake. 只有当他已经说出那个字后才意识到自己犯了个大错误。 2. hardly,in no way,little,scarcely,seldom,never,no more, no longer,no t, not only, no sooner, not only … (but also),not until… 等具有否定意义的 词或词组位于句首,句子用部分倒装。 例子: No sooner had I got home than it began to rain. 我刚到家就下起了雨。 Seldom do I go to work by bus. 我很少乘公共汽车上班。 Not until twelve o'clock did she go to bed last night . 她昨晚十二点才上床睡觉。 3. so / such...that 结构中的 so 或 such 位于句首可以构成部分倒装句,表示强调 so /such 和 that 之间的部分。 例子: So unreasonable was his price that everybody startled. 他的要价太离谱,令每个人都瞠目结舌。 To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out. 她的彩排进行得那么长,以致于那两个演员都走出去了。 以上各例都用倒装语序突出了句首成分,其语气较自然语序强烈,因而具有极佳的 修辞效果。 二、 承上启下
-1-

1.为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用"so+be 动词(助动词、情态动词)+ 主语"或"neither/nor + be 动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"的倒装句式。 其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述的肯定情况相同",第二个句式表示"与前面所述 的否定情况相同"。 例子: A:His brother is(not) a college student; B:so is mine.(nor is mine .) A:他弟弟(不)是大学生,B:我弟弟也是。(我弟弟也不是。) A:He used to have his further study abroad; B:so did I.(neither did I.) A:他曾去国外深造过。B:我也去过。(我也没有。) A:One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; B:so can his wife.(neither can his wife .) A:我的一个朋友会说三门外国语。B:他的妻子也会。(他的妻子也不会。) 2.倒装可把前一句说到的人或物,或与前一句有联系的人或物在下一句紧接着先说 出来,从而使前后两句在意思上的关系更加清楚,衔接更加紧密,起到承上启下的作 用。 例子: They broke into her uncle's bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead. Around his head was a brown snake. 他们破门进入她叔叔的卧室,发现他躺在地板上死了。一条棕褐色的蛇缠在他头上。 We really should not resent being called paupers. Paupers we are, and paupers we shall remain. 我们确实不应因为被称作穷光蛋而愤愤不平。我们的确是穷光蛋,而且还会继续是 穷光蛋。 三、 制造悬念,渲染气氛 在新闻或文学创作中,有时为了内容的需要,或是为了强调,作者常常运用倒装来制 造悬念,渲染气氛。 如朗费罗(Longfellow)《雪花》中的一节: Out of the bosom of the Air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent, and soft, and slow, Descends the snow. 在这一节诗里,诗人就富有创意地运用了倒装。在前五行中,诗人堆砌了七个状语, 状语连续出现而主语和谓语却迟迟未露,造成一种悬念效应。全节读罢,读者才对诗 歌的主题恍然大悟,因而收到了不同凡响的艺术效果。 四、 平衡结构 英语修辞的一个重要原则是尾重原则,即把句子最复杂的成分放在句尾以保持句子 平衡。在语言使用中为了避免产生头重脚轻、结构不平衡的句子,我们常采用倒装语 序。 1. 以作状语的介词短语开头:当主语较长或主语所带修饰语较长时,为了使句子平 衡,常将状语置于句首,句子用完全倒装语序。 例子:
-2-

A.To the coal mine came a com-pany of PLA soldiers with orders from the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners. B. A company of PLA soldiers came to the coal mine with orders from the headquarters to rescue the trapped miners. 一个连队的解放军战士来到了那座煤矿,奉司令部之命解救受困的矿工。 A. On the ground lay some air conditioners, which are to be shipped to some other cities. B. Some air conditioners lay on the ground, which are to be shipped to some other cities. 地上放着一些空调,等着用船运到其他城市去。 从例句中可看出, 采用倒装语序的 A 句结构平衡稳妥,读起来自然流畅,而采用自然 语序的 B 句结构零乱, 读起来也别扭。因而,在主语较长时就应采用倒装语序以取得 理想的表达效果。 2. 以表语开头的句子:有时为了把较长的主语放在后面,须将表语和谓语都提到主 语前。 例子: Such would be our home in the future. 我们将来的家就是这个样子。 3. 以副词 here , there 开头的句子,也采用完全倒装来保持句子平衡。 例子: Here is the letter you have been looking forward to. 你盼望已久的信在这儿。 五、 使描写生动 有时为了使叙述或描绘更加生动形象,增加语言效果,可将表示方向的副词 (如:down, up, out, in, off, on, away 等)或拟声词(bang, crack 等)置于句首, 句子采用全部倒装的语序(主语为人称代词的句子除外)。 例子: Up went the rocket into the air. 嗖地一声火箭就飞上天了。 Down jumped the criminal from the third floor when the policeman pointed his pistol at him. 当警察把手枪瞄准那个罪犯时,嘭地一下他就从三楼跳了下去。 Boom went the cannon! 轰隆一声大炮开火了! Bang came another shot! 砰!又是一声枪响! 以上句子简洁明快 ,生动逼真地描述了有关动作 ,令我们一览此类倒装的风采。但 这种倒装句的修辞功能在语段中可以体现得更为清楚。 “Stop thief! Stop thief!” There is a magic cry in the sound. The tradesman leaves his counter, ... Away they run, pell—mell, helter—skelter, yelling—screaming, ...

-3-

“Stop thief ! Stop thief !” The cry is taking by a hundred voices, ... Away they fly, splashing through the mud, up go the window, out run the people. ( Dickens ) 作者在第一段和第二段中分别用副词 away, up 和 out 位于句首引出四个倒装句 Away they run , Away they fly, up go the window , out run the people。从 而制造出一种紧张、急促的气氛 ,生动地刻画了一个紧张、混乱的捉贼场面。 倒装是英语中一个重要的修辞手段。倒装句的使用丰富了我们的语言表达,了解并 掌握倒装句各种句式的用法 , 不仅会提高我们对英语语言的欣赏能力 , 对英语表 达能力的提高也将大有裨益。因此,写作中适当用一些倒装句式定会使文章表达更生 动、有力。 结构解析 一、含有否定意义的副词或副词短语引起的倒装 ??某些表示否定意义的副词或副词短语位于句首,表示强调,句子要求用倒装结构。 常见的这类副词或副词短语有:never,seldom , rarely,no sooner..than,hardly . /scarcely/ barely..when,no,little,nowhere,not, hardly,no longer, not . until,not only..but also 等等。 . 1、never,rarely,seldom 位于句首,用于进行"比较",句子要求用倒装结构。例如: ? Never before that night had I felt the extent of my own power. 2、no sooner ..than,hardly /scarcely/ barely ..when 位于句首,表示一件 . . 事紧接着另一件事发生,句子要求用倒装结构。例如: Hardly had he opened his eyes when she told him that it was time for them to clean. Scarcely had it grown dark when she realized it was too late to go home. 3、在由 neither,nor 开头、引导的表示"前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(或事物)" 的句子中,要求用倒装结构,neither,nor 为"否定的附和"。例如: The customer complained that the dining table had not been delivered yet,and neither had the chairs. I could not persuade him to accept it,nor could I make him see the importance of it. 但是,neither 用作主语或主语的一部分时,不用倒装结构。例如: Neither of the two books holds the opinion that the danger of nuclear war is increasing. Neither of the young men who had applied for a position in the university was accepted. 4、含有 not until 的强调句,如果 not until 位于句首,句子要求用倒装结构,如果是 主从复合句,倒装结构出现在主句中。例如: 1)Not until the game had begun did he arrive at the sports ground. 2)Not until then did he come to realize the seriousness of the situation. 5、其他表示否定意义的副词或副词短语位于句首,句子要求用倒装结构。例如: 1)Little did we suspect that the district was so rich in mineral resources. 2)Nowhere has the world ever seen such great enthusiasm for learning as in this country. 6、含有"no"、表示否定意义的介词短语位于句首,句子要求用倒装结构。常见的这类介 词短语有: no point 决不) at no time, no means, no case, no circumstances, at ( , by in in
-4-

in no sense, no shape, no way, no wise, on no account, no consideration, in in in on under no circumstances,in no time(立刻) ,in vain(徒劳) ,not once,still less 等等。例如: 1)We have been told that under no circumstances may we use the telephone in the office for personal affairs. 2) no time and in no circumstances should a Communist place his personal interest At first. 二、其他副词引起的倒装 ??在以下列副词及连接词开头的句子中,要求用倒装结构。常见的副词有:only,so, here,there,now,often,then,down,out, in,up,hence,thus,well,off,away, twice, gladly,many a time 等等。 1、在由 only 开头的句子中,only 后面紧跟用作状语的副词、介词或从句,要求用倒装 结构。例如: ?1)Only by shouting at the top of his voice was he able to make himself heard. ? 2)Only under special circumstances are freshmen permitted to take make-up tests. ? 如果 only 在句首,但是 only 后面没有紧跟用作状语的副词、介词或从句,则不用倒 装结构。 2、在由 so 开头、引导的表示"前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(或事物)"的句子中, 要求用倒装结构,so 为"肯定的附和"。例如: ??John had been working hard and so had his brother. 3、由 there 引起的句子,要求用倒装结构。例如: ??1)The door opened and there entered a young man in a blue uniform. 4、由 there 或 now 引起的句子、谓语为 come(go)的句子,要求用倒装结构。例如: ??1)There comes the bus. ??2)Now comes your turn. 5、由 here 引起的句子、谓语为 be 的句子,要求用倒装结构。例如: ??1)Here are some good newly-published novels. ??2)Here is China's largest tropical forest. ??但是, 如果主语是人称代词时, here 和 there 引出的句子也不用倒装结构。 由 例如: ??1)Here we are. ??2)Here you are. 6、由 then 引起的句子、谓语为 come(follow)的句子,要求用倒装结构。例如: ??1)Then come wind,hail and frost. ??2)Then came a new difficulty. 7、由 often 引起的句子,要求用倒装结构。例如: ??Often did we warn them not to do so. 三、虚拟条件状语从句中的倒装 1、在含有 were,had,should 的虚拟条件状语中,如果省略了连接词 if,要求用倒装结 构。例如: ??1)Were she to leave right now,she would get there on Sunday. ??2)Were they to arrive before we depart the day after tomorrow,we should have a wonderful dinner party.
-5-

??3)Had he worked harder,he would have got through the exams. 2、在表示祝愿的句子中,往往要求用倒装句。常常将助动词提前或直接将谓语动词置于 主语前面,表示祝愿。例如: ??1)May this book in a small way help to improve your English. ??2)Long live friendship! 四、让步状语从句、方式状语从句和比较状语从句中的倒装 在比较状语从句中,如果主语不是人称代词,常常可以在主语前添加助动词 do(be)代 替前面出现过的动词。这时,比较对象放在这个 do(be)后面,形成一种部分倒装的形 式; ??1)He always spends more time on that useless matter than do the others. ??2)The living standard of the people is higher than was the case ten years ago. The more you explain, the more confused I am. 在由 no matter how,however 和 how 引导的方式状语从句中,其后的形容词、副词应随 其移至主谓语之前,而形成部分倒装。例如: ??1)However hard he tried,he still failed in the entrance exam. ??2)No matter how badly they had slept she was always up early. 五、在由"so+adv./adj.+ that"和"such that"引出的结果状语从句中,要求用倒 装句。例如: ??1)So far does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed. ??2)So suddenly was the attack that we had no time to escape. ??3)So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. 六、为了强调或突出句子的某一部分,往往可以用倒装结构。例如: ??1)A very capable young man he is. ??4)Standing beside the table was an interpreter. ?七、在感叹的句子中,往往要求用倒装句。 当一个句子包含一个带补语的复合谓语,而补语又被 what 或 how 修饰时,要求用倒装结 构。例如: ??1)What a great project it is! ??2)How beautiful these hills look with the clouds behind them ! 虚拟语气的考点可以归纳如下: 1. (should)+动词原形的情形(已考) 2. if 或 but for 等引导的条件句(已考) 3. wish, if only, it is time?的用法 (should)+动词原形的情形 1.在动词 suggest, order, demand, propose, command, request, desire, insist, require, decide, promise, resolve, argue, maintain, determine, recommend, advise, advocate, persuade 等表示“命令”、“建议”、“要求”动词后的宾语从句中。 She insisted that the seats (should) be booked in advance. 她坚持要预定座位。 He advised that the doctor (should) be sent for. 他劝我们派人请医生。 注:如果上述动词作其他意思解释,或者说话者认为所讲的事是事实,要用陈述语气。 When asked why he declined our invitation, he suggested that he was not on good terms with the director.
-6-

真题重现 【CET-4:2006.6】The professor required that __________________(我们交研究报告)。 参考答案:we hand in our research report(s) 2.在 advice, demand, order, necessity, resolution, decision, proposal, requirement, suggestion, idea, recommendation, request, plan,等名词后的主语从 句或表语从句中------上面(情形 1)动词对应的名词 He issued the order that the troops (should) withdraw at once. 他命令部队马上 撤退。 3.在形容词 important, necessary, imperative, natural, urgent, essential, appropriate, desirable, vital, advisable, preferable, incredible 以及短语 no wonder, a pity 等可以构成“It is +形容词(名词)+that”句型中。 It is necessary that some immediate effort (should) be made. 必须立即采取行动。 真题重现 【CET-6:2007.6】It is absolutely unfair that these children ______(被剥夺了受 教育的权利). 参考答案:These children (should) be deprived of the right to receive education. if 或 but for 等引导的条件句★★★ if 引导虚拟条件句的用法 条件从句 与现在事 实相反 与过去事 实相反 与将来事 实相反 动词过去式(be 动词用 were) had+过去分词(had done) 一般过去时/were+不定式 /should+动词原形 结果主句 would+动词原形 would have done would(should)+动词 原形

He wouldn’t feel so cold if he were indoors.他要是在室内就不会觉得冷了。 (与 现在事实相反) I am sorry I am very busy just now. If I had time, I would certainly go to the movies with you. 我很抱歉,现在很忙。如果有时间,我肯定陪你去看电影了。 (与现在事实相反) The conference wouldn’t have been so successful if we hadn’t made adequate preparations. 如果我们不做充分的准备,会议是不会开得这么成功的。 (与过去事实相反) If it snowed/were to snow/should snow tomorrow, I should (would) stay at home. 与将来事实相反 but for=if it were not for?/if it had not been for?l But for your help they would not have fulfilled the task in time. 真题重现【CET-4:2006.12】The victim _______________________(本来会有机会活下 来)if he had been taken to hospital in time 参考答案:would have survived
-7-

【CET-6:2007.12】But for mobile phone, ____________________. 我们的通讯就不可能如此迅速和方便) 参考答案:our communication would not have been so efficient and convenient. 【CET-6:2007.1If you had ___________________(听从了我的忠告, 你就不会陷入麻 烦). 参考答案:followed my advice/suggestion, you would not have been in trouble. It is (high, about) time ?句型要求用虚拟语气 谓语动词用过去式,指现在或将来的情况,表示“早该干某事而已经有些晚了”。 ★★It’s time_____________________(采取措施) about the traffic problem downtown. something was done/some measures were taken 动词 wish 后的宾语从句用虚拟语气 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 were 或动词的一般过去式 had done 或 would/could have done

将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望 would/should(could, might)+动词原形 I wish she were here. 她在这里就好了。 I wish you would go with us tomorrow. 但愿你明天跟我们一块去。 I wish she had taken my advice. 那时她要是听我的话就好了。 if only 后用虚拟语气(要是?就太好了) 现在没有实现的愿望 过去没有实现的愿望 一般过去式 过去完成式

If only she had known where to find you. 他要是知道到哪里去找你就好了。 If only I could speak several foreign languages!我要是能讲几种外语就好了!

-8-


相关文章:
高中英语倒装句(完整版详细讲义+随堂练习)
高中英语倒装句(完整版详细讲义+随堂练习)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。Grammar of the Inversion (Module 5 Unit 4) 倒装句 英语最基本的语序是主语在前,谓语动词...
英语倒装句归纳
英语倒装句的用法 类型 1)部分倒装—— 助动词\情态动词+主语+谓语的实义动词型 2)全倒装——谓语+主语型 一、在以下结构中用全倒装:这种结构通常只用于一般...
最全英语倒装句语法
最全英语倒装句语法_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。英语倒装句语法大全 倒装句的高考考点: 全部倒装: 1. 在以 here、there、now、then、off、away 等副词开头的...
英语倒装句的用法
英语倒装句的用法_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。英语倒装句是英语中很重要的一种句型,难度相对也有点大。英语倒装句的用法英语句子按主谓排列顺序来分有正常语序和...
英语倒装句的九种分类讲解
英语倒装句的九种分类讲解_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。英语倒装句的九种分类讲解为了强调或平衡句子结构,英语中常用倒装。倒装有全部倒装和部分倒 装。全部倒装...
英语倒装句(最全面_最简洁)
英语倒装句(最全面_最简洁)_高二英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。英语句子的自然顺序是主语在前,谓语在后(主语+谓语) 。把谓语动词放在主语之前(谓语+ 主语) ,...
英语中的倒装句
英语中的倒装句_初二英语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。英语中的倒装句英语倒装的概念与分类英语句子的结构一般是“主语 + 谓语”,语法上称这种语序为自然语序。但有...
英语倒装句的用法讲解
英语倒装句的用法讲解倒装是一种语法手段〃用于表示一定的句子结构或强调某一句子成分。倒装句有两种:完全倒装和 部分倒装。 完全倒装 1) 完全倒装即把整个谓语放到...
英语倒装句的用法
英语倒装句的用法_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。倒装句分为全部倒装(将整个谓语置于主语之前)和部分倒装(把谓语的一部分,如 be,have, 助动词、情态动词等置于主语...
高中英语倒装句巧妙归纳及相应练习
? ? 高中英语倒装句巧妙归纳及相应练习 英语的自然语序是主语 + 谓语(+其他成分) 。 有时由于句子结构的需要或表示强调,就要采用倒装语序。将谓语部分或完全放在...
更多相关标签:
倒装句 | 英语倒装句语法 | 英语倒装句练习 | 高中英语倒装句 | 千万别学英语 | 初中英语倒装句讲解 | 英语倒装句12种类型 | 英语倒装句例句 |