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高考英语说明文写作技巧


高考说明文写作指导
说明文是今年来高考英语书面表达比较常见的一种体裁, 其特点是对事物或做事情的方 法进行客观地介绍。 有些书面表达题虽是以应用文的形式出现的, 但其主要内容也属于说明 文。以下是近两年来高考说明文的分类统计: 年份 2007 年 (4 篇) 省份 全国卷 II 北京卷第 二节 上海卷 天津卷 全国卷 I 2006 年 (6 篇) 北京卷第 二卷 湖北卷

江西卷 山东卷 广东卷 内容 为一家新开业的宾馆写简介 小鸟长大后离开父母 “礼物” 如何保护视力 介绍学校图书馆基本状况 介绍街头雕塑内容 高中生阅读兴趣 中秋节的等待 公民道德缺失 今昔通讯方式对比 出题形式 文字提示 图画 半开放式 图画 图画 图画 图表 图画 图画 图画 说明顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 空间顺序 空间顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 逻辑顺序 时间顺序 说明内容 事物 事物 事物/事理 事理 事物 事物 事物 事物 事物 事物

分析上表可以看出, 近两年高考英语说明文多以图画形式出现, 内容集中在反映社会现 象、介绍方位地点和指导如何做事情,要求学生能够按照一定的说明顺序进行介绍和说明, 以达到实际应用和交际的目的。 写说明文宜采用三段式: 第一段主要介绍要说明的对象及说明的目的; 第二段说明事物 的主要特征或做事情的方法步骤;第三段进行总结概括。时态通常用一般现在时。写作时应 遵循以下几个步骤: 一、仔细审题,明确说明对象,抓住要说明的事物或事理的主要特征。 二、选择合理的说明顺序(时间顺序、空间顺序或逻辑顺序)分层次进行说明,注意条 理清晰。 三、选择恰当的说明方法,比如定义法、举例法、比较法和细节描述法等,不要遗漏主 要内容。 四、根据说明顺序及内容确定过渡词和恰当的句型结构。文字应客观、简洁、明了,不 要追求华丽和加入太多个人观点。 以下将就高考中常见的三种说明文类型进行具体的写作指导。 【如何进行方位说明】

写作要点
在介绍一个地点时,首先要抓住该地点的特征,在第一段中进行简要介绍:要说明的是 工厂还是学校?是农村还是城市?是图书馆还是公园?它们各自有什么区别于其他地点的 特征?第二段中要按照一定的顺序对该地点进行具体说明。 说明的顺序可从外到内, 从上到 下,从前到后,由远及近,也可按顺时针方向或逆时针方向等来介绍。这样可以避免文章杂 乱无章。通常建议考生采用以下两种说明顺序:1、选择中心坐标进行说明:在介绍规则排 列的方位或有多个建筑物时, 先选定中心坐标, 然后再就其前后左右的其他建筑物进行说明。 这样写作可以突出重点,语言也会非常紧凑。2、按照参观的顺序进行说明:介绍不规则排 列的方位时,可以按照参观的顺序,选择好起点,然后逐一进行介绍。这种写作方法条理清 晰,符合人们认识事物、欣赏事物的习惯,让人读起来很舒服。但无论选择以上哪种方法进 行说明都要注意 in front of, behind, on the left, on the right, in the east, to the west 等方位词的

使用。在句型结构方面建议学生多使用倒装句、定语从句和 with 短语。介绍方位的文章最 容易写得呆板单调,缺乏生气,让人读起来感到乏味。所以可适当地运用描写,增加文章的 文采, 使所写内容打动读者, 达到最佳的表达效果。 例如在介绍学校时, 可以这样写: On the west of the teaching building lies a small garden, which is very beautiful in spring with all kinds of flowers bursting into blossom. 另外, 方位说明类的文章出题常以图画形式出现。 这类文章在写作时考生最常犯的两种 错误一是未能抓住主题进行说明,二是遗漏画面中主要要点。解决第一种问题,要求考生仔 细观察画面,结合提示中的文字信息搞清几幅画间的内在联系,然后进行抽象概括,找出主 要的说明对象。 然后对图中所给信息进行筛选: 哪些是与主题有关的需要加以说明?哪些与 主题无关可以忽略?为避免遗漏要点, 建议考生把与文章主题有关的事物先在图上圈出, 再 逐条以文字形式列出。说明时也要按照一定的顺序合理安排这些要点,使文章条理清晰。通 常先说明完一幅画再去说明另一幅画,不要穿插着进行说明,否则会显得杂乱无章。

好词好句推荐:
1.过渡词 above, in front of, in the center of, on the left, across, below, in the distance, on the right, beyond, nearby, opposite to, over, further, next to, on top of, up, down, close to, beneath, under, around, near to, along 2.常用句式: 1)It is located / situated in… 2)It lies between …and … 3)In front of it is…, with …on its left and …on its right. 4)Turning to the left, you will see …, behind which is … 5)Walking past …, the building that appears in front of you is … 6)Along the road are lines of trees, from which students can find shade from the hot sun. 7)A walk around ?is a feast for the mind as well as the eye. 8)Opposite to the …stands … 9)The door on your left leads you to …. 10) Next to the door against the wall there is a …, in which we sit to watch TV every evening. 11) On your left lies a …, with all kinds of… in it.

实战演练
2006 高考英语作文全国卷 I 假定你是李华。应英国朋友 Bob 的要求, 写一封短信介绍你校图书馆的基本情况。内容须 包括下面两幅图中的相关信息。注意: 1、 字数 100 左右 2、 可以适当增减细节,以使行文连贯 3、 开头语已为你写好 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last letter asking about our library.______________________

Best wishes Li Hua

注:上面的小字是:借阅须知:每人每次 5 本,借期 10 天。下面的小字是:开放时间:周 一至周五,早 9:00 至晚 7:00,周末闭馆。)

【例文 1】 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last letter asking about our library. Here is some information about it. Located between the garden and the teaching building, our school library situates in the center of the school and has beautiful surroundings. It has all kinds of books, magazines and newspapers providing us with all kinds of knowledge and the latest information. According to the rules, each student can borrow no more than 5 books at a time for at most 10 days, and it is open from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m every day except weekends, which makes it convenient for us students to read in it or to borrow books from it. The school library is our favorite place after class. We enjoy reading in it. 点评:该生作文属于第五档(23 分) 。考生充分理解了题目要求,带着一种自豪的语气但又 很客观准确地介绍了学校图书馆。 写作内容覆盖了两幅图中所有要点, 在说明第一幅图时采 用了选择中心坐标法, 在说明第二幅图时将图书馆规则和便于学生使用结合起来, 逻辑非常 清晰,全文结构紧凑。该考生对倒装句、定语从句使用熟练恰当,行文流畅。完全达到了预 期的写作目的。 【例文 2】 Dear Bob, Thank you for your last latter asking about our library. Our library, which is surrounded by green trees, ①located in the middle of our school, just behind the garden and in front of the teaching building. Even though it has not ②a large space, there are quantities of books for us to read or to borrow. We can borrow books from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. on ③workdays. And each of us can borrow 5 books once for a t most 10 days. Magazines are available too, but we can’t take them away. I love my school library. Welcome to our school to visit it! 点评:该生作文属于第四档(18 分) 该文基本覆盖了所有主要内容,也应用了一些高级表达

法和词汇,语言基本准确,但也出现了一些错误(文中①②③处) 。第一幅图说明较好,采 用了中心坐标法, 但第二幅图在说明过程中缺乏一定的顺序和逻辑, 只运用了简单的连接词 and。总的说来完成了试题规定的任务,达到了预期的写作目的。

模拟练习
假如你叫李华,你的一位外籍朋友 John 要来你所在的城市工作,请你帮忙租一套公寓。 请你根据下面两幅图中所提供的信息给他发电子邮件,向他介绍公寓情况。 字数:100 字左右。开头结尾已为你写好,不计入总字数。

Hi John, I have found a suitable flat for you to stay in when you are working in my city. ___________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Yours, Li Hua 参考答案 Hi John, I have found a suitable flat for you to stay in when you are working in my city. It is on the third floor of a four-storeyed building in Nanhua Street. It lies to the north of a beautiful park, with a hospital, a school, a shop and a post office all within walking distance, which makes it convenient for life. Inside the flat, there is a sitting-room on the right hand side of the door, opposite to which is a dining-room and a kitchen. Two bed-rooms lie on the east of the sitting-room and the dining-room, with a bathroom in between. It’s a nice flat with all furniture and appliances. I hope you’ll be satisfied with it. Yours, Li Hua 【如何说明一件事物的特点或优势】

写作要点
近两年高考英语书面表达中出现过要求学生介绍一个新开业的宾馆或一幅图画内容的 说明文,这类说明文属于事物性说明文,其说明对象是具体事物,说明目的是使读者了解、 认识这个事物的特点或优势。该类文章还可包括产品介绍、人物介绍、地点或景物介绍、图 片说明、现象说明等。 事物类说明文多以提纲要点式和提纲表格式出现。 考生在动笔前一定先要仔细审题, 了 解介绍和说明的目的。 文章是写给什么人的?他关心的内容是什么?需要说明的主要对象是 什么?应该以什么样的语气来写?头脑中有个大概认识之后再来看需要介绍的具体内容。 给文字提示的说明文,考生最容易写成逐句翻译,这样会严重影响得分。为避免这种现

象发生,考生需要将所给要点根据一定的中心重新分类,用“同类合并”的方法把全文划分 为几个相对独立的部分, 并进而概括出每部分的大意, 再用过渡词把每部分的大意连缀起来, 就能比较清楚地显示出全文的说明顺序。比如介绍一个地点时,可以从它的位置规模人口、 气候植被、旅游景点特产、工农业及重要性四个方面进行概括;介绍一件产品时,可以从物 体的形状、规格大小、颜色和功能几个方来介绍;介绍一个人物时,可以从他的外貌年龄、 学习工作经历、性格特点、行为举止四方面来说明。 在明确各段说明要点之后,使用什么说明顺序,还要看说明的对象。一般来说,说明 事物的演变发展的,用时间顺序;说明建筑物,用空间顺序;介绍高科技产品或说明事物间 的联系的,用逻辑顺序。 事物类说明文适合以定义法开头。比如在介绍手提电脑的这种产品时,可以这样写: Laptop is a portable computer that can be carried easily and used conveniently whenever and wherever you are. 在说明的过程中,要借助举例法和细节描述法使被介绍的内容清晰丰满。 在结尾段要突出题目要求,重申说明目的,使文章完整。 在语言使用方面,应尽量使语言显得客观公正,不要使用太多夸张的修饰词和表达个 人观点的语句,因为你是在客观说明而不是发表议论。为达到这一效果,推荐考生多用被动 句,句子不要太复杂,最好长短句结合,另外还要记住尽量使用第三人称。

好词好句推荐
1.过渡词 表顺序:first, second, third, in the first place, above all, at first, in the beginning, to begin with, besides, what’s more, in addition, furthermore, moreover, another, also, especially, in particular 表时间:first, then, next, after that, next, finally now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, form now on, from then on, at the same time, meanwhile, till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as during, 表示解释说明:for example, for instance, in this case, such as…, take… for example,in fact, actually 2. 常用句式: 1) …is a new kind of …produced by…, which is … 2) Made of …, it is light, small, and easy to carry. 3) …containing much top and new technique is famous for its excellent quality and reasonable price. 4) China is a large country with rich history and much population. 5) …, the capital of …, lies in the middle of … 6) It has an area of 160,000 square kilometers with a population of over 90 million. 7) It is rich in natural sources such as coal and gold and has mild weather. 8) …is located at the foot of/ by the side of …, to the east of…and to the north of… 9) … is provided for the convenience of customers/ visitors. 10) Built in the16th century, the castle has witnessed too much coming and going in history.

实战演练
07 年全国卷 一家宾馆新开业,为吸引外国宾客,希望在互联网上进行宣传,请你用英语为其写一篇文字 介绍。主要内容应包括: 1.地点:距白山入口处 500 米;

2.房间及价格:单人间(共 20 间) ,100 元/天; 双人间(共 15 间) ,150 元/天; 热水淋浴; 3.餐饮:餐厅(中、西餐) ,咖啡厅(茶、咖啡) ; 4.游泳池:全天免费开放; 5.欢迎预定。 注意: 1.词数 100 左右,开头语已为你写好; 2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel Baishan Mountain Hotel is now open for business. 【例文 1】 Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel Baishan Mountain Hotel is now open for business. The hotel has an ideal location, only 500 meters to the entrance of the mountain. It has 20 single rooms and 15 double rooms, all with hot showers. The price is very reasonable: 100 yuan per day for a single room and 150 per day for a double room. It provides different kinds of services including three meals a day in the dining hall with choices between Chinese food and Western food, coffee and tea in the café , and a swimming pool open all day free of charge. Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel. Reservation in advance is advised because it is a good choice for all tourists. 点评: 该文章为第五档文(23 分) 。该生把握主了事物类说明文的主要特征,语言客观、精 练。 在说明事物时对其特征进行了归类整理, 文章条理清晰。 在写作过程中注意到了长短句、 主被动句交替使用,语言错落有致,丰富精彩,高级句型和词汇运用恰当,显示出其较强的 语言运用能力。文章覆盖了所有主要内容,完全达到了预期的写作目的。 【例文 2】 Welcome to Baishan Mountain Hotel Baishan Mountain Hotel is now open for business. Our hotel locates 500 meters away from the entrance to Baishan Mountain. If you pay 100 yuan a day, you can live in a single room. If you pay 150 yuan per day, you can live in a double room, certainly all with hot showers. But there are only 20 single rooms and 15 double rooms, so you’d better book in advance. The hotel serves three meals every day in the dinning room and you can choose the food you like. You can also enjoy coffee or tea whenever you want. In addition, there is a swimming pool which is open all day free of charge. Welcome to our Baishan Mountain Hotel! 点评: 该文为第四档(19 分) 。文章语言流畅,能够运用一些高级词汇和表达法,并且注意 到了连接词和过渡词的使用。文章覆盖了所有主要内容,但漏掉了 1、2 个次重点比如餐厅、 咖啡厅、中西餐等。主要的问题是未能对文字提示进行有效整合,逻辑略显不清晰。另外, 文章在人称的使用上 our, you 交替出现,显得不够客观。

模拟练习
请根据下表提供的信息写一篇文章向外宾介绍国家体育馆“鸟巢” 。字数:100 字左右 提示词汇:标志性建筑 symbolism

地点 建筑面积 开/竣工时间 外观 用途 专家评价

北京北部 5.8 万平方米,可容纳 9 万多名观众 2003 年 12 月—2008 年 犹如树枝搭成的鸟巢 奥运会期间可举办田径、足球比赛 奥运会后可用于举办各种大型活动 奥运史上一个难以置信的标志性建筑

参考答案 The Bird’s Nest, the national stadium, is located in the north of Beijing, with an area of 5.8 million square meters, holding more than 90,000 audience. Started in December, 2007 and to be completed in 2008, it will be used for track and field events and football matches during the Beijing Olympic Games, while after that it will be used to hold all kinds of grand activities. Seen from the outside, it resembles a real bird nest made of branches, which explains how its name came from. It is no wonder regarded by experts as an incredible symbolism in Olympic history.

【如何说明做某事的具体方法】

写作要点
说明如何做事情的作文属于事理性说明文。生活中这类文章有很多,也很实用,比如说 明如何使用一件新产品、如何包饺子,如何学外语、如何查英语字典、如何上网查资料、如 何保持身体健康、如何办理出国签证等。 要写好事理类说明文,首先要限制说明的事物和范围,根据题目要求抓住一点去写,拣 主要内容去写,不要泛泛而谈、东拉西扯。比如写一篇题为“How to improve your English” 的说明文,只能写区别于其他学科的英语特有的方法,而不是适用于所有学科的学习方法。 这就需要考生认真审题, 明确说明内容。 这一点在半开放或开放性作文的写作过程中特别值 得注意。以高考 07 年天津卷为例,题目中点明了要学生从阅读时间、光线、眼睛保健及睡 眠等方面谈谈保护视力的具体方法,但有部分考生忽略了“阅读时间、光线、眼睛保健及睡 眠等方面” 这个范围, 随意发挥, 这样会导致要点严重缺失,偏离题目要求,从而造成失分。 其次,一定要注意在说明时条理清晰。写这类说明文通常按照逻辑顺序或时间顺序。先 做什么, 后做什么, 为什么要这样做。 为达到这一目的, 就要借助过渡词的使用, 例如: first, then, next, finally, in the first place, above all, besides, in addition, furthermore, moreover, on top of that, apart from that, last but not least 等。 在布局结构方面, 在第一段首先要表明说明的对象及目的, 如果给出的是图表或图画应 首先说明图表或图画内容,但文字不要过多,因为说明的重点应放在方法说明上。第二段应 集中在方法说明。要注意在说明时有足够多的、确切的例子阐述例证。选例时不宜太多,否 则会给人以堆砌例证、罗列现象的感觉,但也不要只选一例,因为即使事例较典型,如果只 选一例其说服力也不够有力。比如在写如何保持身体健康时,可以这样写: One important factor to keep fit is to take regular exercise such as running, swimming, playing basketball, or doing yoga. 最后一段进行归纳总结 在语言使用方面,首先要注意过渡词的使用,其次句型应采用祈使句。另外,还可以多 使用介词短语、插入语、定语从句使行文跌荡起伏,错落有致。这类说明文有一些常用句型 和表达法,考生可借鉴使用。

好词好句推荐
1. 过渡词: 表顺序:first, then, next, finally, in the first place, last but not least, above all, first and foremost, 表递进: in addition, besides, fruthermore, what’s more, on the other hand, meanwhile, for one thing?for another, on top of that, apart from that, 表举例: for example, for instance, such as, a typical (striking) example is that, a case in point 表目的: for this reason,, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to, 表总结:in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, as we all know, as has been stated, as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion, 2.常用句型: 1) Nowadays it is common to use…, but not knowing how to use…keeps many people away from enjoying the wonderful service that …has brought us. 2) As is known to all, it is important to …. Therefore, an increasing number of people are showing more interest in how to … 3) With the development of …, there is an increasing need for people to know how to … 4) There are several steps to follow./ Here are some tips. 5) The first thing to do is to … 6) Although …is important, but without …, all the efforts you have made will be in vain. 7) To ensure success, there is one more thing that you must bear in mind, that is… 8) If you can do what has been mentioned above, you can guarantee success. 9) With the help of the above methods, you will achieve you goal soon.

实战演练
07 天津卷 假设你校举办看图征文活动,题目为“How to Protect Our Eyesight” 。请你用英语写一 篇短文,指出图中所反映的现象,并从阅读时间、光线、眼睛保健及睡眠等方面,谈谈保护 视力的具体方法。 注意: 1.词数:不少于 100 词; 2.可适当加入细节,以便使行文连贯。 参考词汇:近视 — short-sighted

【例文 1】 How to Protect Our Eyesight Nowadays, when you enter any middle school classroom, you can hardly find any student without glasses on their nose, as we can see from the picture above. How to protect our eye sight has become an important lesson that every teenagers should learn. To begin with, students must set a limit to their reading time and guarantee enough sleep. Remember to take a break every now and then while reading. In addition, avoid reading in dim light which will do harm to the eyes. What’s more, it is also important to take eye-exercise and have a healthy diet. If we can do what has been mentioned above, we can protect our eyesight and say farewell to glasses. 点评: 该文章为第五档文(23 分) 。该生准确地理解了题目要求,先说明图片内容,再根据 提示说明保护视力的方法, 内容完整, 要点齐全。 在说明事理的过程中注意了过渡词的使用, 条理清晰。语言方面使用了祈使句,状语从句、主语从句和定语从句使用恰到好处。并且用 了不少固定短语为文章增色,出色地完成了写作目的。 【例文 2】 How to Protect Our Eyesight Nowadays, we students’ eyesight is becoming worse and worse. Whenever you come into a classroom, you will find almost everybody has a pair of glasses on his nose. There are many reasons for this. First, students often tiredly study with their eyes till deep night. Second, many students don’t pay attention to the health protection of their eyes. Third, fewer sleep can also harm one’s eyesight. So if we want to protect our eyesight from being injured, we must let our eyes have proper rest, and pay attention to the health protection of our eyes. 点评: 本文属于第二档(10 分) 。文章从文字方面看未出现太多错误,行文还算流畅,也注 意了过渡词的使用。 但从内容上来看偏离了题目要求, 第二段写了较多与要求无关的有关近 视成因方面的内容,而对保护视力的方法介绍不足,遗漏了主要点,未能向读者传达有效信 息,未能恰当地完成试题规定的任务。

模拟练习
根据调查,每次考试时总有些同学出现头晕、乏力、睡眠不足和食欲不振等“紧张情绪” 。 请你用英语写一篇短文, 介绍一下你是如何对待考试及如何克服考试紧张情绪的。 短文应包 括以下内容: 1、平时努力学习,正确对待考试; 2、考前适当运动,正常作息; 3、睡前洗个热水澡、喝杯热牛奶有助于睡眠。 注意:1、文章开头已经给出,但不计入总词数; 2、词数:100 左右。 How to overcome the pressure of exams As we all know, most of us middle school students feel somehow nervous whenever we’re taking an important exam.

参考答案 How to overcome the pressure of exams As we all know, most of us middle school students feel somehow nervous whenever we’re taking an important exam. As a matter of fact, exams are no more than a means of evaluating, therefore, there is no need to worry too much about the results. To avoid suffering from the pressure of exams, first of all, we should have a correct attitude towards exams and work hard every day. Besides, we’d better do proper outdoor exercise and have a regular timetable before exams. What’s more, a hot bath or a cup of hot milk before going to bed night may help you have a sound sleep. So, my suggestion is: don’t worry about exams, try to relax yourself.


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