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初中英语语法网络图 一.名词 I. 名词的种类: 专有名词 国名.地名.人名, 团体.机构名称

普通名词 可数名词 个体名词


不可数名词 抽象名词


II. 名词的数: 1. 规则名词的复数形式: 名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es。现将构成方法与读音规则列表如下: 规则 例词 1 一般情况在词尾加-s map-maps, sea-seas, girl-girls, day-days 2 以 s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加-es class-classes, box-boxes, watch-watches, dish-dishes leaf-leaves, thief-thieves, knife-knives, loaf-loaves, 变-f 和-fe 为 v 再加-es 以-f 或-fe 结尾 wife-wives 3 的词 belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, proof-proofs, roof-roofs, 加-s gulf-gulfs 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i 加party-parties, family-families, story-stories, 4 -es city-cities 以元音字母加 y 结尾的名词, 或专有名词toy-toys, boy-boys, day-days, ray-rays, 5 以 y 结尾的,加-s Henry-Henrys hero-heroes, Negro-Negroes, potato-potatoes, 一般加-es tomato-tomatoes 以辅音字母加 6 piano-pianos, photo-photos, auto-autos, kilo-kilos, -o 结尾的名词 不少外来词加-s solo-solos 两者皆可 zero-zeros/zeroes, volcano-volcanoes/ volcanos 7 以元音字母加-o 结尾的名词加-s radio-radios, bamboo-bamboos, zoo-zoos truth-truths, mouth-mouths, month-months, 8 以-th 结尾的名词加-s path-paths, 2. 不规则名词复数: 英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下: 规则 例词 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, 1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 mouse-mice 2 单复数相同 sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species li, yuan, jin, ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, 3 只有复数形式 contents 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 people, police, cattle, staff 部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, 5 可以作复数(成员) government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼 6 复数形式表示特别含义 貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废 墟)

加-s 7 表示“某 单复数同形 国人” 以-man 或-woman 结尾的改为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 合成名 无主体名词时将最后一部分变 词 为复数 将两部分变为复数

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants


III. 名词的所有格: 名词在句中表示所有关系的语法形式叫做名词所有格。所有格分两种:一是名词词尾加’s 构成,二 是由介词 of 加名词构成。前者多表示有生命的东西,后者多表示无生命的东西。 1. ’s 所有格的构成: 单数名词在末尾加’s the boy’s father, Jack’s book, her son-in-law’s photo, 一般在末尾加’ the teachers’ room, the twins’ mother, 复数名词 不规则复数名词后加’s the children’s toys, women’s rights, 以 s 结尾的人名所有格加’s 或者’ Dickens’ novels, Charles’s job, the Smiths’ house 表示各自的所有关系时,各名词末尾均 Japan’s and America’s problems, Jane’s and Mary’s 须加’s bikes 表示共有的所有关系时在最后一词末 Japan and America’s problems, Jane and Mary’s father 加’s 表示"某人家""店铺", 所有格后名 the doctor’s, the barber’s, the tailor’s, my uncle’s 词省略 2. ’s 所有格的用法: 1 表示时间 today’s newspaper, five weeks’ holiday 2 表示自然现象 the earth’s atmosphere, the tree’s branches 表示国家城市等地方的名 the country’s plan, the world’s population, China’s 3 词 industry 4 表示工作群体 the ship’s crew, majority’s view, the team’s victory 5 表示度量衡及价值 a mile’s journey, five dollars’ worth of apples 与人类活动有特殊关系的 6 the life’s time, the play’s plot 名词 a bird’s eye view, a stone’s throw, at one’s wit’s 7 某些固定词组 end(不知所措) 3. of 所有格的用法: 用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book 用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students 用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed 二.冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法: 1 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of A plane is a machine that can fly. 2 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 A boy is waiting for you.

表示“每一”相当于 every,one We study eight hours a day. 表示“相同”相当于 the same We are nearly of an age. 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you were out 5 名人有类似性质的人或事 That boy is rather a Lei Feng. A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a 6 用于固定词组中 walk, many a time 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, 7 This room is rather a big one. such 之后 8 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. II. 定冠词的用法: 1 表示某一类人或物 The horse is a useful animal. 2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人 3 Would you mind opening the door? 或事 4 用于乐器前面 play the violin, play the guitar 5 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 the reach, the living, the wounded 6 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” the Greens, the Wangs 7 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 He is the taller of the two children. 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海, 山川群岛的the United States, the Communist Party of China, 8 名词前 the French 9 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 The compass was invented in China. 10 在逢十的复数数词之前, 指世纪的某个年代in the 1990’s 11 用于表示单位的名词前 I hired the car by the hour. 用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示时间 12 He patted me on the shoulder. 的词组前 III. 零冠词的用法: 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名 1 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air 等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is 2 every 等限制 this? 3 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 March, Sunday, National Day, spring 4 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 Lincoln was made President of America. 5 学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前 He likes playing football/chess. 6 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 by train, by air, by land 7 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night 8 表示泛指的复数名词前 Horses are useful animals. 3 4 三.代词: I. 代词可以分为以下七大类: 人称代 主格 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they 1 词 宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them 物主代 形容词性 my, your, his, her, its, our, their 2 词 名词性 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs 3 反身代词 myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves 4 指示代词 this, that, these, those, such, some

who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little, 7 不定代词 other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either II. 不定代词用法注意点: 1. one, some 与 any: 1) one 可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为 ones。some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于疑问句和否定句。 One should learn to think of others. Have you any bookmarks? No, I don’t have any bookmarks. I have some questions to ask. 2) some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求等。 Would you like some bananas? Could you give me some money? 3) some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时,some 表示某个,any 表示任何一个。 I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the mistakes, if any. 4) some 和数词连用表示“大约”,any 可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school. Do you feel any better today? 2. each 和 every: each 强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所指的数必须是三个或三个以 上。 Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary. Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points. 3. none 和 no: no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用单数,代替可数名词,谓语 单复数皆可以。 There is no water in the bottle. How much water is there in the bottle? None. None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 4. other 和 another: 1) other 泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他词连用,如:the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way, the other 特指两者中的另外一个,复数为 the others。如: He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam. 2) another 指“又一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是 others,泛指“别的人或事”如: I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one). The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball. 5. all 和 both, neither 和 either all 表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both 和 all 加否定词表示部分否定,全部否定用 neither 和 none. All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English. Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher. 四.形容词和副词 I. 形容词: 1. 形容词的位置:

5 疑问代词 6 关系代词

1) 形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置: 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复 1 nobody absent, everything possible 合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰the best book available, the only 2 的名词之后 solution possible 3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 the only person awake 4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 a bridge 50 meters long 5 成对的形容词可以后置 a huge room simple and beautiful 6 形容词短语一般后置 a man difficult to get on with 2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序: 代词 数词 性状形容词 冠词 冠词前 大小 指示代词 性质 新旧 国籍 材料 的形容 序数词 基数词 长短 颜色 不定代词 状态 温度 产地 质地 词 形状 代词所有格 the 名词 all a beautiful large second one new black Chinese silk both this good short next four cool yellow London stone such another poor square your 3) 复合形容词的构成: 1 形容词+名词+ed kind-hearted 6 名词+形容词 world-famous 2 形容词+形容词 dark-blue 7 名词+现在分词 peace-loving 3 形容词+现在分词 ordinary-looking 8 名词+过去分词 snow-covered 4 副词+现在分词 hard-working 9 数词+名词+ed three-egged 5 副词+过去分词 newly-built 10 数词+名词 twenty-year II. 副词 副词的分类: soon, now, early, finally, once, always, often, frequently, seldom, 1 时间副词 5 频度副词 recently never here, nearby, outside, upwards, 2 地点副词 6 疑问副词 how, where, when, why above hard, well, fast, slowly, how, when, where, why, whether, 3 方式副词 7 连接副词 excitedly, really however, meanwhile almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, 4 程度副词 8 关系副词 when, where, why rather III. 形容词和副词比较等级: 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副 词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。 1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as…如:I am not so good a player as you are. 2. 可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。 3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。 如: The harder you work, the more progress you will make. 4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如:I have never spent a more worrying day. 5. 表示倍数的比较级有如下几种句型: Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four

times the size of yours. 6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。 五.介词 I. 介词分类: 1 简单介词 about, across, after, against, among, around, at, below, beyond, during, in, on 2 合成介词 inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without 3 短语介词 according to, because of, instead of, up to, due to, owing to, thanks to 4 双重介词 from among, from behind, from under, till after, in between 5 分词转化成的介词 considering(就而论), including 6 形容词转化成的介 like, unlike, near, next, opposite 词 II. 常用介词区别: 1 表示时间的 in, on, at at 表示片刻的时间,in 表示一段的时间,on 总是与日子有关 since 指从过去到现在的一段时间,和完成时连用,from 指从时间 2 表示时间的 since, from 的某一点开始 in 指在一段时间之后, after 表示某一具体时间点之后或用在过去时 3 表示时间的 in, after 的一段时间中 4 表示地理位置的 in, on, to in 表示在某范围内,on 指与什么毗邻,to 指在某环境范围之外 5 表示“在…上”的 on, in on 只表示在某物的表面上,in 表示占去某物一部分 表示“穿过”的 through, through 表示从内部通过,与 in 有关,across 表示在表面上通过, 6 across 与 on 有关 7 表示“关于”的 about, on about 指涉及到,on 指专门论述 8 between 与 among 的区别 between 表示在两者之间,among 用于三者或三者以上的中间 besides 指“除了…还有再加上”,except 指“除了,减去什么”,不放 9 besides 与 except 的区别 在句首 with 表示具体的工具,in 表示材料,方式,方法,度量,单位,语 10 表示“用”的 in, with 言,声音 11 as 与 like 的区别 as 意为“作为,以…地位或身份”,like 为“象…一样”,指情形相似 12 in 与 into 区别 in 通常表示位置(静态),into 表示动向,不表示目的地或位置 六.动词 I. 动词的时态: 1. 动词的时态一共有 16 种,以 ask 为例,将其各种时态的构成形式列表如下: 现在时 过去时 将来时 过去将来时 一般 ask / asks asked shall/will ask should/would ask 进行 am/is/are asking was/were asking shall/will be asking should/would be asking 完成 have/has asked had asked shall/will have asked should/would have asked 完成进行 have/has been had been asking shall/will have been should/would have been asking asking asking 2. 现在完成时与一般过去时的区别: 1) 现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状况,但和现在有联系,强调的是对现在造成的影响或 结果,它不能同表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译英时可加“已经”等词。简言之,利用过去,说明现 在。如: I have already read the novel written by the world-famous writer. (已经看过,且了解这本书的内容) 2) 一般过去时只表示过去发生的动作或状态,和现在无关,它可和表示过去的时间状语连用,汉译

英时可加“过”,“了”等词。简言之,仅谈过去,不关现在。如: I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住) I lived in Beijing for ten years.(只说明在北京住过十年,与现在无关) 3. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别: 两者都可以表示“从过去开始一直持续到现在”,在含义上如着重表示动作的结果时,多用现在完成 时,如着重表示动作一直在进行,即动作的延续性时,则多用现在完成进行时。一般不能用于进行 时的动词也不能用于现在完成进行时。I have read that book.我读过那本书了。 I have been reading that book all the morning. 我早上一直在读那本书。 4. 一般将来时的表达方式: 将来时 用法 例句 1 will/shall+动词原形 表示将来发生的动作或存在的状态 My sister will be ten next year. It’s going to clear up. be going to+动词原 含有“打算,计划,即将”做某事,或表示 2 We’re going to have a party 形 很有可能要发生某事 tonight. be + doing 进行时 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词可 He is moving to the south. 3 表示将来 用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作 Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell be about to + 动词 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动 4 rang. 原形 作,后面一般不跟时间状语 The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate 5 be to + 动词原形 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 at noon. The meeting starts at five 一般现在时表示将 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情, o’clock. 6 来 可用一般现在时表示将来 The plane leaves at ten this evening. II. 动词的被动语态: 常用被动语态 构成 1 一般现在时 am/is/are asked 2 一般过去时 was/were asked 3 一般将来时 shall/will be asked 4 过去将来时 should/would be asked 5 现在进行时 am/is/are being asked

常用被动语态 构成 6 过去进行时 was/were being asked 7 现在完成时 have/has been asked 8 过去完成时 had been asked 9 将来完成时 will/would have been asked 10 含有情态动词 can/must/may be asked 的 被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中 介副词。固定结构 be going to, used to, have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 如: 注 Trees should not be planted in summer. / The boy was made fun of by his classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 意 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示。如: It is believed that… It is generally considered that… It is said that… 事 It is well known that… It must be pointed out that… It is supposed that… It is reported that… It must be admitted that… It is hoped that… 项 下面主动形式常表示被动意义:如: The window wants/needs/requires repairing. The book is worth reading twice. The door won’t shut. / The play won’t act. The clothes washes well. / The book sells well.

The dish tastes delicious. / Water feels very cold. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等

七.情态动词 I. 情态动词基本用法: 情态动词 用法 能力(体力,智力,技能) can 允许或许可(口语中常用) 可能性(表猜测,用于否定句或疑 could 问句中) may 可以(问句中表示请求) 可能,或许(表推测) 祝愿(用于倒装句中)

否定式 疑问式与简答 can not / cannot /can’t Can…do…? do Yes,…can. couldn’t do No,…can’t. may not do

May…do…? Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t. Might…do…? Yes,…might might might not do No,…might not. 必须,应该(表主观要求) Must…do…? Yes,…must. must must not/mustn’t do 肯定,想必(肯定句中表推测) No,…needn’t/don’t have to. 只好,不得不(客观的必须,有时 Do…have to do…? have to don’t have to do 态人称变化) Yes,…do. No,…don’t. 应当(表示义务责任,口语中多用 ought not to/oughtn’t Ought…to do…? ought to should to do Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t. 将要,会 用于一三人称征求对方意见 Shall…do…? shall shall not/shan’t do 用于二三人称表示许诺、命令、警 Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t. 告、威胁等 应当,应该(表义务责任) should not/shouldn’t should Should…do…? 本该(含有责备意味) do will 意愿,决心 will not/won’t do Will…do…? 请求,建议,用在问句中 would 比 would not/wouldn’t would Yes,…will. No,…won’t. 较委婉 do Dare…do…? dare 敢(常用于否定句和疑问句中) dare not/daren’t do Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. 需要 Need…do…? need need not/needn’t do 必须(常用于否定句和疑问句中) Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Used…to do…? used Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t not/usedn’t/usen’t to used to 过去常常(现在已不再) . do Did…use to do…? didn’t use to do Yes,…did. No,…didn’t. II. 情态动词 must, may, might, could, can 表示推测: 以 must 为例。must + do(be)是推测现在存在的一般状态进行;must + be doing 推测可能正在进行的

事情;must +have done 是推测可能已经发生过的事情。 1. must“肯定,一定”语气强,只用于肯定句中。 He must be a man from America. / He must be talking with his friend. / He must have already arrived there. 2. may 和 might“也许”,后者语气弱,更没有把握。可用于肯定句和否定句。 He may not be at home. / They might have finished their task. 3. can 和 could“可能”,could 表示可疑的可能性,不及 can’t 语气强,用于肯定、否定、疑问句中。 The weather in that city could be cold now. We could have walked there; it was so near.(推测某事本来可能发生,但实际上没有发生) Can he be in the office now? No, he can’t be there, for I saw him in the library just now.(语气很强, 常用于 疑问句和否定句中) III. 情态动词注意点: 1. can 和 be able to: 都可以表示能力。但 be able to 可以表达“某事终于成功”,而 can 无法表达此意。 Be able to 有更多的时态。另外,两者不能重叠使用。 2. used to 和 would: used to 表示过去常常做现在已经不再有的习惯,而 would 只表示过去的习惯或 喜好,不涉及现在。 3. need 和 dare 作情态动词和实义动词的区别: 两者作情态动词时常用于否定句和疑问句。其形式为:needn’t/daren’t do;Need/dare…do…? 做实义动词时可用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句。其形式为:need(needs/needed)/dare(dares/dared) to do, don’t(doesn’t/didn’t) need/dare to do 八.非谓语动词 I. 非谓语动词的分类、意义及构成: 构成 非谓语形式 时态和语态 否定式 to do to be done 不定式 to be doing to have been to have done done 现在分 doing being done 在非谓 词 having done having been done 语前加 分词 过去分 not done 词 doing being done 动名词 having done having been done

特征和作用 复合结构 for sb. to 具有名词, 副词和形容词的作用 do sth. 在句中做主、宾、定、表和状语 具有副词和形容词的作用 在句中做定、表、宾补和状语 sb’s doing 具有名词的作用 在句中做主、宾、定和表语

II. 做宾语的非谓语动词比较: 情况 常用动词 只接不定式做宾语 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, 的动词 afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist, consider 只接动名词做宾语 can’t help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged 的动词或短语 in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to 两 意义基本相同 begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动

名词多指一般或习惯行为) need, want, require(接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被 动形式) stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事 意义相反 stop doing 停止正在做的事 remember/forget/regret to do(指动作尚未 go on to do(接着做另外一件事) 发生) go on doing(接着做同一件事) remember/forget/regret doing(指动作已经 意义不同 发生) try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) mean to do(打算做,企图做) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) mean doing (意识是,意味着) can’t help to do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做) III.非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别: 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概 常见动词 例句 念 ask, beg, expect, get, order, 主谓关系。 强调动作将发生或I heard him call me several tell, want, wish, encourage 已经完成 times. 不定式 have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 主谓关系。强调动作正在进 I found her listening to the 现在分词 notice, see, watch, hear, find, 行,尚未完成 radio. keep, have, feel 动宾关系。动作已经完成,多We found the village greatly 过去分词 强调状态 changed. IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别: 区别 举例 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将来, I have a lot of papers to type. 不定式 进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式表示在 I have a lot of papers to be typed. 谓语动词之前发生 动名词 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的任何关系 Shall we go to the swimming pool? 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语动 the boiling water / the boiled water 现在分词 作同时发生 the developing country/the developed 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在谓 country 过去分词 语动作之前,现已经完成 the falling leaves / the fallen leaves V. 非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别: 区别 举例 多表示一个特定的具体的将来的动作, 做主语时可以借助My dream is to become a teacher. 不定 于 it 把不定式移到句子后面。 做表语有时可和主语交换位To obey the law is important. 式 置,而且意义不变,并且还能用 what 来提问主语或表语。 (dream, business, wish, idea, plan, duty, task 做主语时常用) 与不定式的功能区别不大, 然而它更接近于名词, 表示的It is no use saying that again and 动名 动作比较抽象,或者泛指习惯性的动作,有时也可以用 itagain. 词 做形式主语,做表语时可以和主语互换位置。 Teaching is my job. 无名词的性质,不能做主语。但是有形容词的性质,可以The situation is encouraging. 分词 做表语,多表明主语的特征性质或者状态等,可被 very, The book is well written. quite, rather 等副词修饰。 (常见分词有 astonishing,

者 都 可 以

现在分词多含有“令人…”之意,说明主, 语的性质特征,moving, tiring, disappointing, 多表示主动, 主语多为物。 过去分词一般表示被动或主语puzzling, shocking, boring, 所处的状态,含有“感到…”之意,主语多是人。 amusing 及其-ed 形式) 九.定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导定语从 句的词叫关系词,他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用,二是在从句中担当一个 成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。 关系词 先行词 从句成分 例句 备注 Do you know the man who is talking with who 人 主语 your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am whom 人 宾语 working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. whom, which 和 I like those books whose topics are about that 在从句中做 history. 宾语时, 常可以 whose 人,物 定语 The boy whose father works abroad is my 省略, 但介词提 关系 deskmate. 前时后面关系 代词 A plane is a machine that can fly. 代词不能省略, that 人,物 主语,宾语 She is the pop star (that) I want to see very 也不可以用 that much. The book (which) I gave you was worth $10. which 物 主语,宾语 The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected by all of as 做宾语一般 as 人,物 主语,宾语 us. 不省略 This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. when 时间 时间状语 I will never forget the day when we met there. 可用 on which 关系 where 地点 地点状语 This is the house where I was born. 可用 in which 副词 I can’t imagine the reason why he turned why 原因 原因状语 可用 for which down my offer. II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别: 情况 用法说明 例句 1. 先行词为 all, everything, anything, 1.He told me everything that he nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。 knows. 2. 先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little,2.All the books that you offered has no, some, few 等修饰时 been given out. 3. 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰时 3.This is the best film that I have 只用 that 的情 4. 先行词既指人又指物时 ever read. 况 5. 先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 4.We talked about the persons and 6. 句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了避免things that we remembered. 重复时 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 只用 which, 1. 在非限制性定语从句中,只能用 which He has a son, who has gone abroad

who, whom 的 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 for further study. 情况 2. 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 I like the person to whom the 中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指人。 teacher is talking. 3. 先行词本身是 that 时, 关系词用 which, 先Those who respect others are 行词为 those, one, he 时多用 who。 usually respected by others. III. as 与 which 的区别: 定语从句 区别 例句 He is not such a fool as he looks. 限制性定 名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰时, 关系代词 Don’t read such books as you can’t 语从句中 用 as,不能用 which understand. They won the game, as we had expected. as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。如果 非限制性 They won the game, which we hadn’t 有“正如,象”的含义,并可以放在主句前, 定语从句 expected. 也可以放在后面,那么用 as;而 which 引导 中 As is well known, he is a famous film star 的从句只能放主句后,并无“正如”的意思。 in the 1980s. IV. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 类别 语法意义及特征 例句 对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句意思 限制性定语 The accident happened at the 就不完整明确,这种从句与主句的关系十分密切, 从句 time when I left. 写时不用逗号分开。 对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十分密 非限制性定 切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当 His mother, whom he loved 语从句 于一个插入语,不能用 that 引导,关系代词做宾 deeply, died ten years ago. 语时也不能省略。 十.名词性从句 种类 作用 主语从句

表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从 句

例句 Whether he will come or not doesn’t 在复合句中做主语, 相当于名词, matter much. 一般置谓语之前,也可用 it 作形 that, whether, if, Whoever comes here will be 式主语,主语从句放主句之后 as if, as though, welcome. who, whose, 在复合句中做表语, 相当于名词, which, how, It looks as if it is going to snow. 位于系动词之后 when, where, He asked me which team could win 在复合句中做宾语,相当于名词 why, what, the game. whatever, You have no idea how worried we 放在名词之后(news, problem, whoever, are. idea, suggestion, advice, thought, wherever The fact that he lied again greatly hope, fact 等) 表明其具体内容 surprised us.


十一。状语从句 种类 连接词 when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, 时间状语 till, by the time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute,

注意点 主句表示将来意义时, 从句须用一般现在 时;while 引导的从句中动词一般是延续 性的; until 用在肯定句中主句动词是延续

immediately, directly, instantly 地点状语 where, wherever 原因状语 because, as, since, now that 条件状语 if, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that

性的,而否定句中主句动词为短暂性的。 because 语气最强,since 较弱,表示大家 都明了的原因,as 又次之。 从句中动词时态不可用将来时, 常用一般 时代替 so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, could, would 等情态动词

目的状语 so that, in order that, for fear that 结果状语 so…that, such…that than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the 比较状语 more 方式状语 as if, as though, as

as if 和 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟 语气。

though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter what, whatever, no matter who, as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式; 让步状语 whoever, no matter which, whichever, no although 和 though 用正常语序,可和 yet matter how, however, no matter when, 连用,但不可和 but 连用 whenever 十二。倒装句 种类 倒装条件 例句 here, there, up, down, in, out, off, away 等副词 Out rushed the children. 开头的句子表示强调 完全 Under the tree stood two tables and four 倒装 表示地点的介词短语作状语位于句首 chairs. 强调表语,置于句首,或为保持句子平衡 Present at the meeting were 1,000 students. never, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, Hardly did I know what had happened. not 等表示否定意义的副词放于句首 Only then did he realized the importance of only 和修饰的状语放于句首 English. not only…but also 连接并列的句子,前倒后不Not only does he know French, but also he is 倒 expert at it. 部分 neither…nor…连接并列的句子,前后都倒装 Neither do I know it, nor do I care about it. 倒装 so…that, such…that 中的 so 或 such 及修饰的 So busy is he that he can not go on a holiday. 成分放于句首时前倒后不倒 as 引导的让步状语 Child as he is, he has learned a lot. so, neither 或 nor 表示前句内容也适用于另外 He can play the piano. So can i. 的人或事。 用于表示祝愿的祈使句中 May you be in good health! 省略 if 的虚拟条件 Were I you, I would not do it in this way. 十三。虚拟语气 类别 用法


从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) If 引导的条 If he were here, he would 与现在事实相反 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词 件从句 help us. 原形

从句动词:had+过去分词 If I had been free, I 与过去事实相反 主句动词:should/would/could/might+have+ would have visited you. 过去分词 从句动词:过去式 / should+动词原形 / If it should rain were+不定式 与将来事实相反 tomorrow, we would not 主句动词:should/would/could/might+动词 go camping. 原形 They are talking as if as if 引导的状语从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式 they had been friends for 其它状语从 years. 句 in order that / so that 引导的状语从句中动词用 can / could / Turn on the light so that may / might / would 等+动词原形 we can see it clearly. demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从句中动词为 should+动He suggested that we not 词原形 change our mind. 宾语从句 I wish I could be a pop wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式和 singer. should/would+动词原形表示与现在,过去和将来情况相反 在 It is necessary / important / strange that…, It is suggested / It is strange that such a 主语从句 demanded / ordered / requested that… 等从句中,谓语动词用person should be our should+动词原形 friends. It’s high time that we It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+动词原形 left. I would rather you stayed 其它句型中 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或者过去完成式 at home now. If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成式, 表示强烈的If only our dream had 愿望 come true! 十四。重要句型 1. It was not until midnight that he finished his task. 2. Not until he came back from abroad was I able to see him again. 3. The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. 4. He walked around the house, gun in hand. 5. May you be in good health! 6. Wish you a pleasant journey back home! 7. The professor was a humorous man with big nose and deep-set eyes. 8. What surprised me most was his imagination and patience. 9. He lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky and his hands under his head. 10. Sitting under the tree are Mr. Green and his first teacher. 11. On the wall hang two pictures of famous scientists. 12. Looking back upon those past years, he couldn’t help feeling very proud. 13. No sooner(Hardly) had he arrived at the theatre than(when) the play started. 14. Young as he is, he has learned advanced mathematics. 15. How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields! 16. There stands a beautiful vase in the corner of the room. 17. Ten miles north of the town lies a paper factory. 18. There goes the bell.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Nowhere has the world ever seen such a bird as here. It is no use crying for help. If only I had been your student in the middle school! It is believed that such a thing will not happen again. Only when he explained did I realize the reason for this. “He works particularly hard.” “So he does, and so do you.” Not only Alice but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another. Such was Albert Einstein, a simple person of great achievements.

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