名词性从句（主语、表语、宾语、同位语从句） （一） 主语从句 1． 定义：用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。 2． 构成：关联词+简单句 3． 引导主语从句的关联词有三类： (1) 从属连词 that。 如： That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between
them. 很明显，她们确是亲姐妹，她们的脸型很相似。 (2) 从属连词 whether。如： Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear. 他是否会来这里还不清楚。 (3) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。如： What she did is not yet known. 她干了什么尚不清楚。 解释： 1． 主语从句能用 it 作形式上的主语。常以 it 作形式主语的句型有： A. It+be+形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.)+that 从句。如： It is certain that she will do well in her exam. 毫无疑问她考试成绩会很好。 B. It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honour, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+that 从句。如： It’s a pity that we can’t go. 很遗憾我们不能去。 。 C.It+seem, happen 等不及物动词及短语+that 从句。如： It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all. Alice 似乎不来参加晚会。 D.It+doesn’t matter (makes no difference, etc.)+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。如： It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. 她是否来这无关紧要。 F. 当 that 引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时，要以 it 作形式主语，而把主语从句后置。如： Does it matter much that they will not come tomorrow? 他们明天不来很要紧吗？ G. 当主语从句出现在感叹句中时，要以 it 作形式主语，而把主语从句后置。如： How strange it is that the children are so quiet! 孩子们这么安静真奇怪！ 2．注意连接代词 whoever, whatever, whichever 等引导主语从句的含义 Whoever comes will be welcome. (whoever=the person who) 来的人将受到欢迎。 （二） 表语从句
1． 2． 3． (1) The
定义：用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。 构成：关联词+简单句 引导表语从句的关联词的种类： 从属连词 that。如： trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。
(2) 从属连词 whether, as, as if。如： He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。 注：从属连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句，但 as if 却可引导表语从句 能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词 be, seem, look 等。如： It looked as if it was going to rain. 看起来天要下雨了。 (3)连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 如： The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。 解释： 1． 连词 because 可引导表语从句。如： I think it is because you are doing too much. 我想这是因为你做得太多。 2． 在一些表示“建议、劝说、命令”的名词后面的表语从句中，谓语动词用虚拟语 气。should+动词原形表示，should 可省略。如： My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天 一早就出发。
注意： 1． what 引导 ? “…….+ is + what 表语从句”，= “…….+ is + 先行词 that ……”，表示“.….是表语从 句” 例：Raw material is what we are badly in need of. = Raw material is the thing that we are badly in need of. 2． when、where、why、whether、how 引导 ? ? “…….+ is +when、where、why、whether、how 表语从句”，表示“.….是表语从句” 表语从句中只能用 whether 表示是否 例：That’s where we differ. 例：The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow morning. 3． that 引导 ? ? “…….+ is /remain/look/seem/appear + that 表语从句”，表示“.….是表语从句” 主语是 reason 时，表语从句必须由 that 引出 例：What’s troubling me is that I don’t have much experience in this field. 例：The reason I don’t go there was that I got a new job. 4． as if/as through 引导 ? “……look/seem/appear/remain（系动词）+ as if/as through 表语从句”，表示“.….好 像表语从句” （三） 宾语从句 1． 定义：用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 2． 构成：关联词+简单句 3． 引导宾语从句的关联词有三类： 例：It looks as if it is going to rain.
(1) 从属连词 that。如： He told us that he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服。 注： that 在引导宾语从句时也并不是任何情况下都可以省略。在以下情况下，that 不能省略。 1． Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened.(and 连接两个宾语从句， that 宾语从句放在 and 的后面时， 不能省略。 that )大家都会看出发生的事情并知道 Tom 非常害怕。 2． know nothing about him except that he is from the south.(that 引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时， I that 不能省略。) 对他我一无所知，只知道他是南方人。 3．That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe. (that 从句位于句首时，that 不可省略。) 我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。 4． We decided, in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. (主句谓语动词与 that 从句之间有插入语，that 不可省略。) 鉴于他的特殊情况，我们决定应允他一段试用期。 (2)从属连词 if/whether。如： I doubt whether he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功。 (3)连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 如：Who or what he was, Martin never learned. (1) 介词宾语从句 宾语从句也可用作介词的宾语。如： He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day. 他对那天发生的事感到很不快。 I walked over to where she sat. 我走向她坐的地方。 有时介词可以省略。如： I don’t care (for) who marries him. 我不管谁跟他结婚。解释：1．如果宾语从句后还有宾语补 足语，则用 it 作形式宾语，而将宾语从句后置。如： We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday. 我们认为小王昨天没来是奇怪的。 He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他已表明他不会屈服。 2．作介词的宾语：连词 that 引导的名词性从句很少作介词的宾语，只用在 except, but, in 后。 其他一些介词的宾语从句如果由连词 that 引导，则需用 it 先行一步，作形式宾语。如： He is a good student except that he is careless. 他是一个好学生，只是有点粗心。 You may rely on it that I shall help you. 你可以指望我会帮助你的。 介词宾语不可以用 which 来引导，而要用 what 来引导。如： Are you sorry for what you've done? 你为你所做的一切感到内疚吗？
3．某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句，这类形容词或过去分词有 sure, glad, certain, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied 等，连词 that 可省略。如： I am not sure what I ought to do. 我不能确定我该做什么。 4．连词 whether (?or not)或 if 引导的宾语从句 if 和 whether 引导的宾语从句可以互换使用，但 whether 常和 or not 连用，if 一般不与 or not 连用。如： I wonder whether it is true or not. 我不知它是真是假。 5．宾语从句的否定转移。在 think, believe, suppose, expect 等动词后的宾语从句，有时谓语尽 管是否定意思，却不用否定形式，而将 think 等动词变为否定形式。如： I don’t think you are right. 我认为你错了。 6． 宾语从句的时态变化规律： (1) 当主句是一般现在时态时，从句可根据需要用任何时态。 (2) 当主句是一般过去时态时，从句只能使用过去范围内的任何时态。但客观真理除外。如： The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun. 老师说地球绕着太阳运行。 注意：that 引导 ? ? ? ? ? “主语 + 谓语动词 + that 宾语从句”，表示“…..做（动作）宾语从句” that 可省略 “Sb.don’t doubt（否定/疑问句） + that 宾语从句” ：否定怀疑时，必须用 that “discuss + that 宾语从句” ：discuss 后面必须跟 that 引导的宾语从句 若 that 引导的宾语从句还有补足语的话，需引入形式并与 it，即“动词 + it + 宾语 补足语 + that 宾语从句” 例：Clinton wants to make it clear to the public that the government will investigate the event seriously. 例：The pupils said (that) the questions were too difficult.
例：I don’t doubt that he is telling the truth. 例：We discussed that we should put off the meeting.
1． 定义：用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。 2． 用法：同位语从句的先行词多为 fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark 等， 关联词多用从属连词 that。如： They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick. 对你生病这件事，他们都很焦虑。 注：同位语从句偶尔由从属连词 whether 引导。如： I have no idea whether he’ll come or not. 我不知道他是否来。 连接代词 who, which, what 和连接副词 where, when, why, how 亦可引导同位语从句。 The question who should do the work requires consideration.
谁该干这项工作，这个问题需要考虑。 We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation. 到哪儿去度暑假，这个问题我们还没有决定。 It is a question how he did it. 那是一个他如何做了此事的问题。 解释： 1．that 引导的同位语从句与定语从句之区别 that 引导的同位语从句，that 引导的定语从句 功能上：that 只起连接从句的作用，无意义。在从句中不充当句子成分。不可省。 that 替代先行词在从句中不仅起连接作用，还充当一个句子成分。如在从句中作动词的宾语 时可省略。 意义上：从句是被修饰名词的内容。从句起限定作用，是定语 如：The news that Mr. Li will be our new English teacher is true. (同位语从句，that 不可省。) 李先生将是我们的新英语老师这个消息是真的。 2． 一些表示 “建议、 命令、 要求” 的名词后所跟的同位语从句中， 谓语动词用虚拟语气 should+ 动词原形表示。should 可省。如： This is our only request that this (should) be settled as soon as possible. 这就是我们唯一的请求：尽快解决这个问题。 注意：that 引导 ? “fact/fear/news/message/word/story/question/problem/truth/hope/idea/promise/ suggestion/belief/doubt/evidence（抽象名词） + that 同位语从句 + 谓语 + 其他” 例：The news that he intended to come gave us much pleasure. ? old. 若同位语从句较长，可将位于主句的谓语动词提前，将同位语从句置后 例：Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months
名词性从句专项练习 1．____he does has nothing to do with me. A. whatever B. No matter what C. That D. If 2. The manager came over and asked the customer how____ A. did the quarrel came about B .the quarrel had come about C. had the quarrel come about D. had the quarrel come about 3. Energy is ____makes thing work.. A. what B. something C. anything D. that 4. Information has been put forward ____ more middle school graduates will be
admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as 5. This is ___the shenzhou V Spaceship landed. A. there B. in which C. where D. when 6. They have no idea at all____. A. where he has gone B. where did he go C. which place has he gone D. where has he gone 7. The doctor did a lot to reduce the patient’s fear ____he would die of the disease. A. that B. which C. of which D. of that 8. The order came ___the soldiers ____the small village the next morning. A. that ;had to leave B. that; should leave C. /; must leave D. when; should leave 9. ___is no possibility ____Bob can win the first prize in the match. A. There; that B. It; that C. there; whether D. It; whether 10. The question came up at the meeting_____ we had enough money for our research. A. that B. which C. whether D. if 11. Is _____he said really true? A. that B. what C. why D. whether 12.____the meeting should last two days or three days doesn’t matter. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Where 13. It worried her a bit _____her hair was turning gray. A. while B. if C. that D. for 14. ???_____more countries can use natural energy in the future remains to be seen. A. Whether B. This C. who D. If 15.____he will go to work in a mountain village surprises all of us. A. What B. That C. Whether D. If 16. ____you don’t like him is none of my business. A. What B. That C. Who D. How 17.____all the inventions have in common is ____they have succeeded. A. What; what B. That; that C. what; that D. That ; what 18. ____appeared to me that he enjoyed the food very much. A. What B. It C. All that D. That 19. It is widely ______that smoking can cause cancer. A. believed B. think C. say D. hoped 20. ____caused the accident is still a complete mystery. A. What B. That C. How D. Where Keys: 1—5 ABABC 6—10 AABAC 11—15 BBCAB 16—20 BCBAA
） ______ of Class Six do what they can to help the orphan is known to everyone
in our school. A The students B Whatever the students C What the students D That the students 2、 （ ）______ caused the accident is still a completely mystery. A What B That C How D When 3、 （ ） What the doctors really doubt is ______ my mother will recover from the serious disease soon. A when B how C whether 4、 （ ）This is ______ the river was polluted. A what 5、 （ A as if 6、 （ B how C that ）It sounds ______ the situation is unlikely to improve. D why D whether
B how C as D so that ）There is a general feeling in them ______ they are dissatisfied with the game C of which D what
result the Chinese football team got. A that B which 7、 （ ）I have no idea ______ .
A what does this sentence mean B what the meaning of this sentence C what this sentence means D what is the meaning of this sentence 8、 （ ）I do not care ______ it does not rain cats and dogs. A whether B weather 9、 （ ）Miss Lin felt ______ . C that D/
A an honour that she was a teacher B that she was a teacher an honour C it an honour whether she was a teacher D it an honour that she was a teacher 10、 （ ）The old man takes a walk every morning ______ it rains. A except B except that C except for D except when 巩固练习 1（ 、 ） ______ really concerned her was that her own son lacked too many hours of sleep every day. A Which B Why C That D What 2、 （ ）______ has eyes can see ______ great progress we have made recently. A No matter who ; how B Whoever ; what C Who ; what D Who ; how 3、 （ ）______ surprised me most was the sudden change of his attitude.
A That 4、 （
B Which C What ）______ he had not looked the door before he left.
A That occurred to him B He occurred that C To him it occurred D It occurred to him that 5、 （ ）______ has not been decided yet. A When a meeting is taking place B When a meeting will be taken place C When will a meeting take place D When a meeting will take place 6、 （ ）______ is necessary to us all is ______ we must know what we are fit for . A It ; what B As ; what C What ; that D It ; that 7、 （ ）It is doubtful ______ he knows it or not. A whether B that C if D what 8、 （ ）______ we shall make the trip depends on ______ much money we have got. A That ; how B Whether ; how C When ; so D If ; how 9、 （ ）______ we will start the experiment depends on ______ we can get enough money. A If ; whether B Whether ; whether C Whether ; that D If ; that 10、 （ ）He said that he was not interested in having a car , but ______ he could not afford one. A the fact that B the fact that was C the fact was that D it was the fact 11、 （ ）I had neither a raincoat nor an unbrella .______ I got wet through. A It is reason B That is why C There is why D It is how 12、 （ ）The problem is ______ or not we can find the right person to deal with the situation. A why 13、 （ A it 14、 （ B how C if D whether ）Shanghai is no longer ______ it used to be twenty years ago. B that C what D which ）At the news ______ theirs team had ______ the game , all the students were
excited. A which ; won B that ; won C that ; defeated D what ; defeated 15、 （ ）The question sometimes comes to my mind ______ it was worth the effort.
A whether B if C if only D that 16、 （ ）One of the men held the view ______ the book said was right. A what that B that what C that which D which that 17、 （ ）We thought the idea ______ were computer lessons was a good one. A that we should have B having C which we have D about to have 18、 （ ）There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ______ road conditions need ______ . A that ; to be improved B which ; to be improved C where ; improving D when ; improving 19、 （ ）You should concentrate ______ the teacher says in class. A on which B at that C over what D on what 20、 （ ）-Which car do you think ______ presently? -The most expensive one. A will she buy B would she buy C she will buy D she would buy 21、 （ ）The students are all interested in ______ Miss Brown managed to do it . A which 22、 （ A where key 1~5 DACBA 1~5 DBCDD B what C that D how ）With his camera , he kept taking pictures ______ he did and saw. B which C of which D of what
6~10 ACCDD 6~10 CABBC