英语句子成分 （一）句子主要成分有主语和谓语；次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 （二）主语：主语是一个句子所叙述的主体，一般位于句首。主语可由名词、代词、数词、 不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。 例如：划出主语并说出什么词充当的主语 During the 1990s, American country music has become more
and more popular. We often speak English in class. To swim in the river is a great pleasure. The rich should help the poor. One-third of the students in this class are girls. Smoking does harm to the health. It is necessary to master a foreign language.
When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. （三）谓语：动词做谓语,谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。谓语的构成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语构成。如：He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语： （1）由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如：You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如：We are students. （四） 表语： 表语用以说明主语的身份、 特征和状态， 它一般位于系动词 （如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等）之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、不定式、动名词、 介词短语及表语从句表示。 例如：划出表语并说出有什么词充当 Our teacher of English is an American. The weather has turned cold. Three times seven is twenty one? His hobby is playing football. Time is up. The class is over. 例如： They went to see an exhibition yesterday. The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. They helped the old with their housework yesterday. I enjoy listening to popular music. He pretended not to see me. I think（that）he is fit for his office. Is it yours? The speech is exciting. His job is to teach English. The machine must be out of order. The truth is that he has never been abroad.
宾语种类：（1）双宾语（间接宾语+直接宾语），例如：Lend me your dictionary, please. 2）复合宾语（宾语+宾补），例如：They elected him their monitor. （六）宾语补足语：英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一个宾语补语， 才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型为：某些及物动词（如 make 等+宾语+ 宾补）。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。 例如： His father named him Dongming. Let the fresh air in. We saw her entering the room. They painted their boat white. You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. We found everything in the lab in good order.
We will soon make our city what your city is now. （七） 定语： 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。 定语可由以下等成分表示：名词， 形容词，代词，分词，动名词，不定式短语，介词短语等
例如：找出定语并看由何种成分充当： Guilin is a beautiful city. China is a developing country; America is a developed country. There are thirty women teachers is our school. His rapid progress in English made us surprised. Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. He is reading an article about how to learn English. （八）状语：修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子，说明动作或状态特征的句子成分，叫做 状语。可由以下形式表示： Light travels most quickly.（副词及副词性词组） He has lived in the city for ten years.（介词短语） He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.（不定式短语） He is in the room making a model plane.（分词短语） Wait a minute.（名词） Once you begin, you must continue.（状语从句） 状语种类如下： How about meeting again at six?（时间状语） Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.（原因状语） I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.（条件状语） Mr Smith lives on the third floor.（地点状语） She put the eggs into the basket with great care.（方式状语） She came in with a dictionary in her hand.（伴随状语） In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.（目的状语） He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.（结果状语） She works very hard though she is old.（让步状语） I am taller than he is.（比较状语） 英语句子结构 英语句子看上去纷繁庞杂， 但仔细观察不外乎五个基本句式。 这五个基本句式可以演变出多 种复杂的英语句子。换言之，绝大多数英语句子都是由这五个基本句式生成的。这五个基本 句式如下： S 十 V 主谓结构 He runs quickly S 十 V 十 F 主系表结构 He seems interested in the book 常见的系动词有： look， seem， appear， sound，feel，taste，smell，grow，get，fall ill/asleep，stand/sit still，become，turn 等 S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 They found their home easily． He offered me his seat/his seat to me． 带双宾语的动词有 They named the boy Charlie． S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾补结构
give，ask，bring，offer，send，pay，lend，show，tell，buy，get；rob，warn 等 说明：S＝主语；V＝谓语；P＝表语；O＝宾语；O1＝间接宾语；O2＝直接宾语；C＝宾
练习 一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分： 1. The students got on the school bus. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 6. His job is to train swimmers.
5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 11. He managed to finish the work in time. 13. He found it important to master English.
10. His wish is to become a scientist. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 14. Do you have anything else to say?
15. To be honest, your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 二、分析下列句子成分 1. Our school is not far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 3. All of us considered him honest. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city． 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 20. The apples tasted sweet.
7. ---I love you more than her，child ． 8. Tees turn green when spring comes. 9. They pushed the door open. 三.划分句子成分练习题（1） 1.They are working on the farm now. 2.Seeing is believing 3.All of us like Kobe Bryant very much 4.She became a doctor in 1998 5.The book lying on the floor are mine 6.Suddenly it begins to rain 7.To catch the train ,I got up early yesterday 8.I always find her happy 9.He wonders If I still study English 10.The letter which I received the day before yesterday was a friend of mine 11.We always work hard at English. 12.He said he didn't come. 13.She watched her daughter playing the piano. 14.Speaking doesn't mean doing. 15.Bye the time I got to the station,the train had left. 16.The children bought their parents a car for the 25th anniversary of their marriage. 17.It takes me an hour to get there.
10. Grandma told me an interesting story last night.
In the past a gentleman would offer his seat __(1)__ a lady on a crowded bus. But now, he will probably look out of the window or hide behind his newspaper, __(2)__(leave) the lady standing __(3)__ someone else gets off. You can’t entirely blame men for this change in manners. __(4)__(go) are the days when women could be referred to the weak. A whole generation has grown up demanding __(5)__(equal) with men in jobs, in education and in social life. Hold a door for some women __(6)__ you are likely to get __(7)__ angry lecture on treating women __(8)__ weaklings. Take a girl out for a meal and she’ll probably insist on paying __(9)__ share of the bill. All these, according to some sociologists, will change men’s attitude towards women and the conventional active politeness is perhaps slowly being __(10)__(replace) by true consideration for the needs and feeling of women, so that men can see women as equal human beings.
In the small towns of the United States in the __(1)__(nineteen) century, the general store was __(2)__ everyone bought the things he couldn’t make __(3)__ grow at home. What the stores sold __(4)__(tell) a great deal about __(5)__ life at that time. People bought tools that they needed for farm work; salt, sugar and __(6)__ foods that the farm didn’t produce; articles of clothing that they couldn’t make __(7)__; shirts for the men; or clothes for the children. Life was simple then. One feels that people were __(8)__(thank) for what they had and that they looked __(9)__ with courage to whatever the future brought. It would be interesting to know how they would feel about the life today. Would it seem to them that life is too complex? Would they enjoy __(10)__(live) a life as we do now?
Do you feel __(1)__ difficult to be happy all the time? Now I’ll give you some tips __(2)__ how to make yourself happy. One way is being __(3)__ (self) because unselfishness is the key factor __(4)__ (require) if you want to get along well with others. By __(5)__ (say) being unselfish we mean we __(6)__ not want everything our own way or demand the best share of everything. Another way is to look for good points in __(7)__ people. You’ll find most people pleasant to go with and it will surely make you happy. Third, you can not expect to be too perfect, __(8)__ don’t be too unhappy when you make a mistake. Everything will be OK if you try to make things right. Finally, it is important to remember that while you are no __(9)__ (bad) than others, chances you have may not be much better. In this case, __(10)__ surest way to be happy is to think yourself above other people.