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Unit one Festivals around the world

1、Discuss when they take place. 讨论一下它们什么时候发生。 take place 发生 When did the wedding take place? 婚礼是什么时候举行的。 The opening of the play will take place tomorrow night. 这出戏明天晚上开始演出。 易混辨析:happen; take place; break out 发生 happen 指“偶然发生”。还可指运动会的“举行”。可以和 occure 互换,但 occure 有―It occures/ occurred to sb. that…突 然想起‖句型,happen 没有此句型。 A traffic accident happened in the street this morning. 今天早上大街上发生了一起交通事故。 take place 指“有计划,有安排让发生”。 Great changes have taken place in China in the past 30 years. 过去三十年中国发生了巨大变化。 break out“爆发”。多指爆发灾难性的事情,如战争、火灾、地震、瘟疫等。 The first world war broke out in 1914. 第一次世界大战 1914 年爆发。 特别提示: (1)happen; take place; break out 都没有被动式。 (2)take the place of 表示―代替…的位置‖。 即时活用: 1、A terrible accident ______ on No.6 Street yesterday, where a couple were killed by a truck. A. folded B. broke out C. took place D. occurred 2、A quarrel ___________ last Sunday, and he ___________ his family. A. was broken out; broke away B.broke out; broke away C.was broke out; broke away from D. broke out; broke away from 3、Don’t you believe it! Glass can ________ steel in many ways in life. A. take place of B. take the place of C. in place of D. instead of 4、The question occurred to me ______ we were to get the machines mended. A. that B. what C. why D. where 5、–When did the concert_____? ---Oh, two days ago. A. happened B. take place C. hold D. start 答案:DDBAB 2、At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find, especially during the cold winter months. 那个时候如果食物难找人会饿死的,尤其是寒冷的冬天。 starve 用法归纳: (1)饿死;挨饿 (vi.) Many children in Africa are starving to death. 非洲的许多儿童正在被饿死。 Because there is no food, the people are starving. 由于没有粮食,哪儿的人正在挨饿。 (2)使挨饿(vt.) If you waste any food again, I will starve you. 如果你再浪费粮食,我就让你挨饿。 Some people starve themselves to lose weight. 有些人在挨饿减肥。 联想扩展:be starved of 很需要 starve for 渴望得到 starvation n. 挨饿;饿死 3、For the Japanese festival Obon, people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors. 在日本的盂兰盆节,人们要扫墓、烧香,以缅怀祖先。 in memory of 纪念;追念 We held the meeting in memory of the soldiers who died in the war.我们举行这个会议以纪念在战争中阵亡的将士。 联想扩展:in honor of 纪念某人 in praise of…表扬;赞扬 in search of 寻找 in face of 面对 in need of 需要 in defense of 保卫 in charge of 负责 in possession of 拥有 in terms of 至于;关于 in case of 要是… in favor of 同意;赞同 即时活用:Washington , a state in the United States , was named ______ one of the greatest American presidents . A. in honor of B. instead of C. in favor of D. by means of 答案: A 4、The Western holiday Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. 西方节日万圣节也源自人们古老的信念,认为亡者的灵魂会返回人间。 beliefs 信念 特别提示:belief 变复数时直接加 s。 联想扩展:名词的几种特殊变化 (1) 复数名词以―s‖或―es‖结尾,其读音规则是:清辅音之后发[s],浊辅音和元音之后发[z],[s,z,∫,t∫,d]之后发[iz] (2) 以 o 结尾的名词变复数, 多数加―s‖, 少数几个加―es‖。 可归纳为: 黑人和英雄吃土豆和西红柿。 Negroes and heroes

eat potatoes and tomatoes. (3) 以 th. 结尾的名词加―s‖后, th.发生音变的有: 一个青年去洗澡, 回来路上撇着嘴。 即―youth‖, ―bath‖,―path‖,―mouth‖ 这四个词发生音变,其它 th.结尾的名词加 s 变为复数时 th.不发生音变。 (4) 以 f 结尾的名词变复数时大都变 f 为 ves,但有几个直接加 s 变为复数。可归纳为:一个农奴(serf)从海湾(gulf) 来到房顶(roof)上,找到首长(chief) ,有了证据(proof) ,增加了信仰(belief) 。 (5) 名词修饰名词,除 man 和 woman 随后边的名词的单复数变化外,其余名词一律用单数。可以归纳为:所有名词 都用单(数) ,男人女人随名词变化。 即时活用:– Where are you going to do your shopping? --- I am going to the _________. A. shoe’s B. shoe store C. shoes store D. shoes’ store 答案:B 5、It is now a children’s festival, when they can dress up and go to their neighbor’s homes to ask for sweets. 现在成了一个儿童节日,节日期间孩子们打扮起来,去邻居家要糖果。 dress up 用法归纳: (1) 打扮成某种样子;穿上最好的衣服 (2) The dress up as Father Cristmas during Cristmas. 圣诞节期间他们打扮成圣诞老人。 It’s only an informal party, you needn’t dress up. 只是个非正式的聚会,你没必要打扮。 (2)把…打扮起来 Would you please dress the children up? 能把孩子们打扮一下吗? Why are you dressed up? 为什么要打扮? 6、If the neighbors do not give any sweets, the children might play a trick on them.如果邻居们不给他们糖果,孩子们就会 作弄他们。 play a trick on sb. 开玩笑; 欺骗 It is acceptable to play tricks on your friends on April 1st. 在愚人节那天作弄朋友是可以接受的。 联想扩展: take…into…坑人 trick sb. out of 骗取 play a joke on sb. 戏弄某人 have a joke 说笑话 make a joke about sb. or sth.. 拿某人或某事说笑话 laugh at sb.嘲笑某人 make fun of sb. 取笑某人 7、Some people might win awards for their farm produce, like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster. 由于他们的农产品,如最大的西瓜,或者最漂亮的公鸡,有些人会得到奖励的。 award n.奖;奖品 v.授予;判定 He won first award of talking big competition. 他在演讲大赛中获得了第一名。 The school awarded Mary a prize for her good work. 由于她优秀的工作学校给玛丽发奖。 易混辨析:award , prize , reward 奖 award ―奖,奖品‖。对于优异成绩获卓越贡献经过评定后正式授予的奖励。奖励可以是精神的,也可以是物质的。其 获得这并不一定参加某种竞赛,但其成绩却达到获奖水平。 prize ―奖赏,奖品‖。确认某人在竞赛中取得优异成绩并给与特殊奖励。含有优胜者几经拼搏,胜利来之不易的意思。 广义指极好的东西,珍品。 reward ―报答,酬劳‖不指荣誉,指应得的报酬。 即时活用:It is widely accepted that young babies learn to do things because certain acts lead to _____. A. rewards B. prizes C. awards D. results 答案:A 8、The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring. 最富有生气而又最重要的节日,就是告别冬天,迎来春天的日子。 look forward to 盼望;希望 The children are looking forward to the Spring Festival. 孩子们盼望春节。 I am looking forward to hearing from you. 希望收到你的来信。 特别提示:look forward to 句型中,to 为介词,所以后面跟名词或动名词。 联想归纳:下列词组中的 to 为介词 look forward to 希望 see to 处理;修理 be / get used to 习惯于 pay attention to 注意 get down to 开始认真做 lead to 引起;导致 devote…to 献身 stick to 坚持 object to 反对 prefer doing… to doing 比起后面的更喜欢前面的 get around to 找 时 间 做 … live up to 不 辜 负 refer to 查 阅 ; 适 用 于 belong to 属 于 compare…to… 比 作 turn to 查阅;求助于 add to 增加 due to 由于 set about to 着手 be addicted to 沉迷于 adapt to 适应 agree to 同意

即时活用: 1、We all look forward ____ your beautiful country. A. to visiting B. to visit C. to D. visiting 2、I’m looking forward to ______to Hong Kong. A. visiting B. my visiting C. visit D. my visit 3、I was looking forward to ______, but no letter came to me. A. hear him B. hearing him C. hearing from him D. hear 4、 Your mother and I are looking forward __________ you. A. of seeing B. for seeing C. to see D. to seeing 答案 A D C A 9、The country, covered with cherry tree flowers, looks as though it is covered with pink snow. 整个国家到处是盛开的樱花,看上去就像是覆盖了一层粉红色的雪。 as though=as if 似乎;好像 用法归纳: (1)表示与事实不相符的假设,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。 He treats me as though I were his son. 他对待我就好象我是他的儿子一样。 She was shaking with fear as though he had seen a ghost 她吓得直哆嗦,就好象看到了鬼一样。 特别提示:as though 或 as if 引导的从句用虚拟语气条件句的时态。 (2)表示与事实相符的假设,.从句中的谓语动词不用虚拟语气。 It looks as though it is going to rain. 天看起来好像要下雨了。 It seems as though he knows everything. 他好像什么都懂。 即时活用:1、It looks______ the coming autumn harvest will be even better than the last one. A. even if B. that C. as if D. like 答案:C 2、Holding his head high, he walked past the soldiers ______ they didn’t exist. A. even if B. even though C. as D. as if 答案:D 10、 People love to get together to eat, drink and have fun with each other.人们喜欢聚在一起, 吃饭、 喝酒、 互相开心的玩。 have fun with 玩得开心 Did you have fun with the children yesterday? 昨天和孩子们一起玩得高兴吗? 联想扩展:have fun doing 做某事开心 We had a lot of fun swimming in the swimming pool. 我们很开心的在游泳池里游泳。 The children had great fun going outing today. 今天去郊游孩子们都很开心。 即时活用:The children had _____basketball. A. a great fun playing B. great fun playing C. great fun to play D. a great funny playing 答案:B 11、Festivals let us enjoy life, be proud of our customs and forget our work for a little while. 节日使我们欣赏生活,为我们的风俗骄傲并且暂时忘掉工作。 custom n. 风俗;习惯 It is our custom to fire firework during the Spring Festival. 春节期间放鞭炮是我们的风俗。 It is my custom to get up early in the morning. 早起是我的习惯。 易混辨析:habit , custom , practice 习惯 habit ―习惯‖;指个人形成且不易放弃的生活、行为方式。 custom ―习惯,习俗‖;指社会或群体长期以来形成的行为、生活方式。 practice 可等同于 custom。但含贬义,还指商业、法律、医疗等行业的常规做法。 即时活用:Is it the custom ______ each other every morning? A. shake hands with B. shaking hands with C. to shake hands with D. to shake hand with 12、But she didn’t turn up. 但是她没来。 turn up 用法归纳: (1)出现 For some reason he didn’t turn up. 由于某种原因他没来。 Your lost pen may turn up some day. 你丢失的钢笔说不定那天就会出现。 (2)把声音开大 Please turn up TV, I can’t hear it clearly. 把电视机声音开大点,我听不清楚。 Turn up the gas, vegetables should be cooked quickly. 把煤气开大,菜要快炒。 (3)发生某种情况 I sense something will turn up. 我感觉有什么事要发生。 No one knows what will turn up tomorrow. 没人知道明天会发生什么事情。


联想扩展:turn against 背叛 turn back 回来 turn down 拒绝;把声音关小 turn in 上交 turn into 变成 turn off 关闭 turn on 打开 turn out 结果是;原来是 turn over 移交 turn to 查找;转向 即时活用: 1、The performance supposed to be popular _____ to be a great disappointment after it was over. A. turned up B. turned down C. turned out D. turned over 2、 When you refuse an offer, you turn it _______. A. away B. out C. down D. off

答案: C C

13、She said she would be there at seven o’clock, and she thought she would keep her word. 她说她会七点到那儿的,他想她会遵守诺言的。 keep one’s word 守信;遵守诺言 An honest man will always keep his word. 诚实的人总是会遵守诺言的。 I will keep my word, I will not tell anyone about it. 我会遵守诺言的,我不会告诉任何人。 联想扩展:keep one’s chin up 不泄气 keep one’s head 保持镇静 keep one’s temper 不生气 break / eat one’s word 食言 go back on one’s word 食言 即时活用: 1、—It’s almost eight, but Tom hasn’t turned up. He may not be here. —He will. He never ____ on his words. A. goes back B. comes back C. gives back D. gets back 2、I don’t trust that man; he is the guy who _________. A. never eat his word B. never keeps saying C. always eats his word D. keeps his word 答案: A C 14、He was not going to hold his breath for her to apologize. 他不会低声下气的等她道歉。 hold one’s breath 屏住呼吸 How long can you hold your breath in water? 你在水里能憋多长时间? He held his breath and dived into water. 他吸了一口气,潜到水里。 联想扩展:catch one’s breath 缓口气 lose one’s breath 喘不过起来 out of breath 气喘吁吁 save one’s breath 别白费力气 waste one’s breath 白费力气 即时活用:The audience ______ their breath as the acrobat walked along the tightrope . A. lose B. hold C. keep D. stop


15、As Li Fang set off for home, 当李方动身回家的时候, set off 用法归纳: ⑴ 动身;出发 They set off on a fine morning. 他们在一个大晴天的早上出发。 The car set off in a cloud of dust. 小车发动,扬起一股尘土。 ⑵ 燃放 The children are setting fireworks off in the garden. 孩子们正在花园放鞭炮。 Do be careful with these fireworks, a slight spark could set them off. 这些烟火要特别小心,稍有火星就能引起爆炸。 ⑶ 引起;使发火 That set all of them off laughing again. 那使得他们有一次笑了。 He was so angry now, a word from her would set him off. 他很生气,她说的任何一句话都可能使他发火。 ⑷ 触发 The teacher’s word set off a heated debate. 老师的话引起了一场热烈的辩论。 Careless handling of international relations can set off a war. 国际关系的粗心处理可能会引起一场战争。 ⑸ 衬的很好看 The frame sets off your painting very well. 这个画框很配你的画。 联想扩展: set about 开始; 散布 set back 往回拨; 推迟 set aside 挑出; 不顾; 不理会 set apart 使分离; 留出 set forth 动身;启程;阐明 set off 动身;出发;引爆 set oneself against 坚决反对 set out 动身;开始;装饰;摆放 set out to do sth 着手做 set about doing sth 着手做 即时活用: 1、________in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States . A. Being founded B. It was founded C. Founded D. Founding 2、It’s ten years since the scientist _____ on his life’s work of discovering the valuable chemical. A. made for B. set out C. took off D. turned up 3、Having decided to rent a flat, we _____ contacting all the accommodation agencies in the city. A. set about B. set down C. set out D. set up

4、Rita _____ two hours every Sunday afternoon to spend with her son. A.set out B. set away C. set aside D.set off 5、 The funny story ____ a loud laugh in the classroom. A. got off B. set off C. took off D. turned out 答案: CBACC 16、I don’t want them to remind me of her. 我不想它们使我想起她。 remind 用法归纳: (1)remind sb. about sth. 提醒某人某事 Please remind me about the meeting this afternoon. 请提醒我下午的会议。 Can you remind me about the time of the train? 能提醒我火车时间吗? (2)remind sb. of sth. 使某人想起 The boy’s story reminded me of my childhood. 那个孩子的经历使我想起了我的童年。 What he said reminded me of my unfinished work. 他的话使我想起了我还没有做完的工作。 (3)remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事 Please remind me to get up at seven tomorrow morning. 明天早上七点叫我。 Remind him to post the letter. 提醒他发信。 (4)remind sb. of doing sth.提醒某人已做过某事 Thank you for reminding me of giving back the money to you.谢谢你提醒我给你还过钱了。 即时活用: 1、This reminded us ______ we did together during our holiday. A. about which B. of what C. of which D. about what 答案:B 2、A reminder is something which reminds somebody ______ somebody or something else. A. from B. for C. with D. of 答案:D 17、Everyone who comes must be prepared to keep moving, as it is too cold to stand and watch for long. 要来的人必须准备好不停的走动,应为天太冷你不可能站在那儿看很长时间。 be prepared (1)准备,打算。 He is not prepared to help me. 他没打算要帮我。 (2)对…有准备 A + to You must be prepared to what he will say. 他会说什么你应该有所准备。 B + for Li Ming is not prepared for the question. 李明没有准备这个问题。 即时活用:Seeing the soldiers well _____ for the flood-fight, the general nodded with satisfaction. A. preparing B. prepared C. prepare D. having prepared 答案:B 18、One of the favorite events is the dog-sled race, in which teams of about six husky dogs pull long sleds at great speeds along a snowy track.最喜欢的一个比赛项目就是狗拉雪橇比赛,比赛中六个强壮的狗拉着雪橇高速的越过雪道。 speed 速度 用法归纳: (1)with great / all speed 高速 The car is running with all speed. 汽车在高速奔跑。 (2)at top / high / low / the same / an ordinary… speed 高速 / 低速 / 相同速度 /普通速度 The two balls fell at the same speed and hit the ground at the same time. 两个球以相同速度下落并且同时到达地面。 (3)at ( the speed of) + 数词 + 名词 + 时间单位 以每…多大速度运行 Man-made satellites have to fly at the speed of 11.2 kilometers per second to escape the earth gravity. 人造卫星必须以每秒 11.2 公里的速度运行以摆脱地球引力。 即时活用:1、– I think John will win the race.--- Yes, he started off ______ a great speed. A. with B. at C. though D. by 答案:B 2、John may win the first prize. He has started _____ the speed of 80 miles. A. at B. of C. on D. in 答案:A

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