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高中英语动词时态讲解


英语高考专题复习 动词时态
一、概说:英语一共有十六个时态(8 种基本时态 +8 种合成时态)如下:(以”write”为例) 一般时态 现在 write writes 过去 wrote 将来 shall/will +write shall/will+be writing shall/will+have written 过去将 should 来 /would +write

should/would+be writing should/would+ have should/would written writing +have been shall/will + have been writing was/were +writing had + written had + been writing am/is/are +writing have/has +written have/has + been writing 进行时态 完成时态 完成进行时态

二、考点聚焦 1、动词时态考查要点简述 (1)一般现在时考点分析 ① 表示客观事实、客观规律和客观真理谚语格言等(不受时态限制) The geography teacher told us the earth moves around the sun. He said that the earth turns round the sun. ② 表示经常发生、习惯性的动作,与 every day, usually, once a week 等时间状语连用。 He goes to school on foot everyday. We always care for each other and help each other. ③ 表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see、 hear、smell、taste、feel、notice、 agree、believe、like、hate、want、think、belong seem 等。如: I know what you mean. All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School. ④ when 引导的时间状语从句和 if 引导的条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。注意,此时,主句 在 用将来时态,从句用一般现在时态表示将来。 If it is fine tomorrow, we will go to the countryside. I will write to her when I have time. Do you know when he _will come_(come) back? When he comes back, please let me know. I wonder if he _will come_ ( come) back tonight. If you will accept my invitation and come to our party, my family will be pleased.如果你愿意接受并参加我们的 舞会,我的家人会非常高兴。
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⑤少数用于表示起止的动词如 come、go、leave、arrive、fly、return、start、begin、pen、close、end、stop 等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。 The shop closes at 11:00 p.m. every day. Tomorrow is Wednesday. (2)一般过去时的考点分析。 ① 一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用(或有上下文语 境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的事通常用过去式。如: I once saw the famous star here. They never drank wine. 表达过去的习惯 ② 表示两个紧接着发生的动作, 常由以下词语连接, 用一般过去时。 but, and, when, as soon as, immediately, 如: the moment, the minute。 The moment she came in, she told me what had happened to her. He bought a watch but lost it. (3)一般将来时考点分析。 一般将来时的 5 种表达形式 (1) “will/shall+动词原形”:将要发生的动作或状况,也可表示“预见”(带有说话人的主观态度和看法)。 Will you be busy tonight? You will feel better after taking this medicine. (2) “be going to + do”有两种意义, 一是表示“意图”,即打算在将来做某事;二是表示“预见”,即现在已有迹 象表明将要发生某种情况。 The wall is going to be painted soon. George is putting on weight. He’s going to be quite fat.

Look at the dark clouds over there. It’s going to rain. (3) “be to + 动词原形”有两种含义:一是表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作,常可与“be+ v.-ing” 交换使用, “be to + 动词原形”较正式; 二是表示义务、应该(相当于 should)。★ 可用于 if 条件句表示打算、想要。 I am to have tea with Betty this afternoon. ★ If you are to succeed, you’d better work hard. (4)既定的时间如生日、日历、课时安排、交通时刻表等,通常用一般现在时表示将来的动作。 The plane takes off at 5:30 a.m. The new school year begins on September 1. (5) “be about to+ 动词原形”表示正要、马上做某事,这种结构的将来时不与表示将来的时间状语连用。 Take your seat. The meeting is about to begin. I was about to go to bed when someone knocked at the door. ★ “will+动词原形” 有时还可以表示一种倾向性或惯性的动作。 Oil will float on water. This machine won’t work. You’re to answer for what you’ve done.

(won’ 可以用来表示“不能,没法”,表示主体不具有某种功能) What’s the matter with the pen? The ink won’t come out.

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(4)现在进行时考点分析 (主语﹢be ﹢现在分词) 现在进行时的用法注意点: (1)现在进行时与一般现在时的用法比较。现在进行时既可表示现在时刻正在进行的动作,也可表示现阶段 一直进行的动作(说话时不一定正在进行), 强调动作的暂时性和未完成性—短暂的事实;而一般现在时强调 动作的长久性或反复性。 He works in a chemical factory. He is working in a chemical factory these days.

I don’t work here, I’m just helping until the secretary comes back. (2) 现在进行时与 always, constantly, continually, all the time, all along, 等频度状语连用,对现阶段经常发 生的动作表示某种感情色彩,如赞叹、惊讶、厌烦、不满等。 She is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay me back. You are continually finding faults with me. (3) 现在进行时表示委婉口气,常与 hope, wonder 等连用。 I’m hoping that you’ll give me some advice. I’m wondering if I may have a word with you. 注意: 下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。 (A) 表示心理状态、 情感的动作: like, love, hate, care, remember, believe, want, mind, wish, agree, mean, need。 (B) 表存在的状态的动词: appear, exist, lie, remain, seem belong to, depend on。 (C) 表示一时性动作的动词: allow, accept, permit, promise, admit, complete。 表示感官的动词: hear, notice, (D) see, feel, smell, sound, taste, look。

(5)现在完成时。(主语﹢have/has ﹢动词的过去分词) 现在完成时表示过去开始发生一直持续到现在的动作,强调对现在的影响。 现在完成时用法注意点: (1)两种意义的现在完成时 a.持续到现在(动词要用延续性动词);时间状语:表示从过去延续到现在并包括现在在内的一段时间状语, 如 lately, recently,up to now,so far,these days, in/over/during the last/past ten days/months/years, etc. I haven’t had enough sleep lately. Great changes have taken place in the past twenty years in China. b. 对现在有影响;时间状语: already, just, ever, never ,before, not yet, etc. Have you ever found out her telephone number? (2) have been to VS have gone to Have been to 表示曾经去过某地,现在人在说话的现场,而 have gone to 表示已经去了某地,现在人不在说 话的现场。 I have been to Beijing for three times. 我曾经去过北京三次。 She has gone to Beijing. 她去北京了。

注意: ①现在完成时除可以和 for、since 引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during / in /over the last(past)few years (months, weeks)、in recent years 等。 ②下列句型中常用现在完成时
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It is (has been) + 一段时间 + since 从句 This(That / It)is the first(second…)time that + 完成时 This(That / It)is the only … + that + 完成时 This(that / It)is the best / finest / most interesting … + that 从句 + 完成时 This is the first time that I have come to Beijing. This was the first time that I had come to Beijing. This is the most interesting film that I have ever seen. (6)现在完成进行时 (主语﹢have/has been ﹢动词 –ing) ① 表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且可能继续持续下去。 The Chinese have been making paper for two thousands years. 中国有 2000 年的造纸历史。(动作还将继续下去) ① 表示在说话时刻之前到现在正在进行的动作。 We have been waiting for you for half an hour. 我们应经等你半个钟头了(人还没到,如同在电话里说的,还会继续等下去). (7)过去完成时考点分析。 (主语﹢had﹢过去分词) 1.表示“过去的过去”,两个动作有明显的先后关系。 He told me that he had made great progress since he came here. Tom returned by plane, but his mother had already died. 2.在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。 By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. The concert had been on for twenty minutes by the time we got there. 3. 动词 expect, hope, intend, mean, plan, suppose, think, want, wish 等动词用过去完成时表示过去本来打算、 希 望、计划作而未做的事。表示曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/ I had intended to attend the party, but was stopped by the heavy rain. 4. 用在表示“一……就”的几个句型中: Hardly/scarcely…when, no sooner…than, Hardly / No sooner + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / + 一般过去时。如: We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. Hardly had the thief seen the police when he ran away. 5. “时间名词 + before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词 + ago”在句中作状语,谓 语动词用一般过去式。如: He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. (8)将来完成时:will/shall+have+过去分词,用于第一人称,will+have+过去分词用于其他人称。表示将
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来某一时刻之前已完成的动作。 By the end of next month we will have learnt 1000 words. (9) 将来进行时:shall/will + be + 现在分词",表示将来某一时刻正在进行的动作。 What will you be doing (at eight) next week? I won’t be free Friday morning. I’ll be seeing a friend off. (10)注意几组时态的区别: 1. 现在完成时与现在完成进行时的用法比较 现在完成时表示动作已完成,侧重结果;现在完成进时既可表示动作在说话时刻之前刚刚结束,也可表 示动作还将继续下去,侧重于动作的持续性、暂时性和未完成的含义。 They have repaired the road. (表示路已修好)

They have been repairing the road. (表示路还在修) The police have been looking into the matter, but they haven’t drawn a conclusion yet. 2. 一般过去时与过去进行时的用法比较 (1) 一般过去时表示在过去某时发生过的动作或存在的状态,侧重动作已完成; 而过去进行时可以表示过去 某个时间正在进行的动作,强调动作在持续,并未完成。 Last year, he wrote a book. Last year, he was writing a book, but hasn’t finished till now. (2) 一般过去时和过去进行时同时出现在句中,表示一个动作发生在另一个动作进行的过程之中时,通常表 示较短的动作用一般过去时,表示较长的动作用过去进行时。其中一个在由 when 或 while 引导的时间状语从句 中。 She broke a glass while she was cooking the dinner. I was running downstairs when I slipped and fell. 3. 现在完成时与一般过去时的用法比较 一般过去时只单纯表示过去发生过的动作或存在的状态,与现在时间没有联系,可和表示确切过去的时间、 地点状语连用。现在完成时表示过去发生过的某动作对现在造成的影响或结果,强调现在的情况,不能和表示确 切的过去时间、地点状语连用。 (1) She has promised to help me. Last week she promised to help me. (2) He has been caught by the police. He was caught by the police at a restaurant. (3) Mr. Black has lived in China for ten years. Mr. Black lived in China for 3 years in the 1990s. 4. 过去完成时与一般过去时:
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过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。 He came up to the door of the house, stood for a while and then entered it. (11)固定句式或结构中的动词时态 1.This/It is the first/second time+that 从句。that 从句中用现在完成时。 如把 is 改为 was,则从句中用过去完成时。 This is the first time I have come here. It was the third time(that)he had made the same mistake. 2.It is/has been+一段时间+since 从句。since 从句中用一般过去时。 如 把 is 改为 was,则从句中用过去完成时。 It is/has been three years since we have had such a wonderful time. It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. 3.was/were about to do...when... 意为“将要做……(这时)突然……”。 I was about to go out when the telephone rang. 真题例析 1. Planing so far ahead ______ no sense—so many things will have changed by next year. A.made B.is making C.makes D.has made

2. I wasn’t sure if he was really interested or if he ______ polite. A.was just being B.will just be C.had just been D.would just be

3. When Alice came to, she did not know how long she ______ there. A.had been lying B.has been lying C.was lying D.has lain

4. If you don't like the drink you______just leave it and try a different one. A. ordered B. are ordering C. will order D. had ordered

5.Experiments of this kind ______ in both the U.S. and Europe well before the Second World War. A. have conducted B. have been conducted C. had conducted D. had been conducted

6.Tom ______ in the library every night over the last three months. A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working

7.——That must have been a long trip. ——Yeah, it ______ us a whole week to get there. A. Takes B. has taken C. took D. was taking

8.——Bob has gone to California. ——Oh, can you tell me when he ______ ? A. has left B. Left C. is leaving D. would leave
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9.In the last few years thousands of films ______ all over the world. A.have produced B. have been produced C. are producing D. are being produced

10.On her next birthday, Ann ______ married for twenty years. A.is B.has been C.will be D.will have been

11.I’m sure you will do better in the test because you ______ so hard this year. A. studied B. had studied C. will study D. have been studying

12.A lot of people often forget that oral exams ______ to test our communicative ability. A. design B. are designed C. are designing D. are being designed

13.(When I got on the bus, I_____I had left my wallet at home. A. was realizing B. realized C. have realized D. would realize

14.She was surprised to find the fridge empty; the child _____ everything! A. had been eating B. had eaten C. have eaten D. have been eating

15.——I hear you ____ in a pub. what’s it like? ——Well, it’s very hard work and I’m always tired, but I don’t mind. A.are working B.will work C.were working D.will be working

16.——Tommy is planning to buy a car. ——I know. By next month, he_______enough for a used one. A. saves B .saved C.will save D. will have saved

17.Last month, the Japanese government expressed their thanks for the aid they ______ from China. A.receive B.are receiving C.have received D.had received

18.——I didn’t ask for the name list. Why ______on my desk? ——I put it there just now in case you needed it. A. does it land B. has it landed C. will it land D. had it landed

19. The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant______in his place but, luckily, everything was going on smoothly. A. gave B. gives C. was giving D. had given

20.All visitors to this village _________ with kindness. A. treat B. are treated C. are treating D. had been treated

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