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2014高考英语语法之动词时态和语态


2014 年高考英语第二轮热点专题复习——动词的时态和语态
内容解读 1.高考考查的八种动词时态是:①一般现在时;②一般过去时;③一般将来时;④现在进行时;⑤过去进行时; ⑥现在完成时;⑦过去完成时;⑧过去将来时。 2.容易混淆的三组动词时态是:①一般过去时和现在完成时;②一般过去时和过去完成时;③过去完成时与现在 完成时。 3.各种时态及含情态动词的被动形式和应用。

能力解读 1.了解动词时态的时、体概念; 2.了解常考八种时态的基本用法并能够在真实的情景中恰当使用八种时态进行交际; 3.能够区别容易混淆的时态的用法; 4.掌握各种时态及含情态动词的被动语态的形式和应用; ①分清动词的词性,熟悉并掌握常见的不及物动词 happen, take place, occur, exist 等,它们不能用被动语态; ② 分清主语与谓语之间的关系; ③ 变被动语态的动词一般为及物动词,但有些不及物动词与介词所形成的短语动词也可有被动形式,此时,变被 动语态后介词不能丢; ④ 熟悉并掌握主动形式表被动意义的情况。 规律方法 1.试题的立意由简单直接的“结构立意” (如状语从句、宾语从句等)转向了“情景立意” 。试题创设的语境明确, 交际情景(对话形式占有一定比例)多是发生在学生学习或日常生活中的真实情况。这样的情景设置实质上是对语法 知识、语义理解和语言交际能力的综合考查,体现了高考试题由“知识立意”向“能力立意”转变人命题原则。 2.题干中的有效信息由“外显的”转向“隐藏的” 。 3.试题的设问多以中学生普遍感到难以把握的几组时态来相互干扰。 命题趋势 毫无疑问,对于动词时态的考查仍交进高考的测试重点。试题将继续呈现“情景立意”和“能力立意”的原则, 即在考查固定句式中的时态和语态的同时,注重在上下文中考查时态和语态,注重在语境中考查时态和语态。 突破方法 1.学习动词的时态和语态时,切不可脱离实际运用的语言,一味死记硬背语法规则的条条框框。了解了八种时态 的一些常见规则之后,要留心以英语为母语者在实际生活中是如何使用各种时态的语态的。其实,教材中每单元第一 课的情景对话,是领司时态用法真谛的最佳语言材料。 2.答题时,研读题干,搜索出尽可能多的“时间参照信息” ,尤其是动词冗余信息中的时间信息。如第 10 题目中 的 haven’t said, Do, I’m, sooner, think, it’s 等, 这些表达中都含有时间信息, 发现和有效利用这些信息是解决问题的关键。

3.解决时态和语态问题,要遵循如下解题思路: ① 这个动作可能发生在什么时间?题干句中可参照的时间信息有哪些? ② 这个动作处于什么状态,是进行中,还是已结束(完成)?限制或修饰这个动作的状语信息有哪些? (第 4 题中的 rapidly 是个很关键的信息词) ③ 这个动作与主语的关系,是主动还是被动? 只要全面细致地考虑了这些问题的答案,试题的正确答案也就水落石出了。

知识清单 清单一 动词的时态 一、时态的概念 时态是一种动词形式,它是“时”和“体”的组合。 “时”有现在、过去、将来、过去将来之分; “体”有一般、 进行、完成、完成进行之别。动词的动作可发生于四种不同的时间,表现四种不同的“体” ,每一种“时+体”就构成 一种时态。所以英语动词共有(4×4)十六种时态,高中英语教学大纳中要求掌握的只有八种:一般现在时,一般过 去时,一般将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,现在完成时,过去完成时,过去将来时。另外现在完成进行时,过去 完成进行时和将来完成时也比较常用。 二、一般体、进行体、完成体的含义 一向指某动作既不正在进行又不确定完成与否的一种广泛意义上的方式。进行指一种持续性的、未完成的动作。 动词的进行时还伴有其他一些意义,如:有限度的延续性、感情色彩、同时性、描述的生动性、强调性等。完成则表 示动作发生在某个时间以前,但动作发生的时间总是未经明确指出的。通过例句体会它们的含义差别: The teacher writes his own notes. (现在习续性动作) The teacher is writing his notes now. (暂时的还在进行的动作) The teacher has already written his notes. (现在已经完成的动作) Xiao Wang comes late often. (现在经常性的动作) Xiao Wang is always coming late. (带有不满的色彩) I read a book yesterday evening. (在过去时间的动作) I was reading a book yesterday evening. (过去时间未完成的持续动作) I have read the book. (现在已经读完那本书了) She is always finding fault with others. 她总是挑剔别人的毛病。 He is constantly leaving things about. 他总是丢三拉四。 I am hoping you can come and have supper with us. 我正希望您能来和我们一起吃晚饭。 (比如 I hope…语气更委婉) She has been saying that twenty times. 这话她已经说了 20 遍。 三、一般过去时和现在完成时的用法区别

1.一般过去时所表示的一个或一段过去时间是可以具体确定的,与其他时间没有牵连。它所表示的事情纯属过去 与现在情况没有联系。现在完成时表示的事情发生在不能具体指出的现在以前的过去产某个或某段时间。它所表示的 事情与现在情况有关系,是过去事情在现在产生的结果或对现在的影响。 2.一般过去时常用的状语有 yesterday, last night, two days (months, weeks) ago, at that time 等;现在完成时常用的 状语有 already, just (刚刚), yet, never, before 等;表示从过去延续到现在并包括现在在内的一段时间状语有:today, now, lately, recently, in the last / past few days / years (在过去的这几天/年里)。since then, up to now, so far (至今)等。 3.比较下面几组句子,体会两种时态的不同: He served in the army from 1952 to 1954. (这是过去的一件事) He has served in the army for 5 years. (现在他仍在军中服役,他是个军人) He wrote many plays when he was at college. 他上大学的时候,写了许多剧本。 (写剧本是他过去的事) He has written many plays. 他写了许多部剧本。 (这意味着他是剧作家) I saw Hero last year. 去年我看了《英雄》这部电影。 (看《英雄》的时间是去年,与现在时间无关) I have seen Hero before. 我以前看过《英雄》这部电影。 (强调现在还知道这部电影的内容。以前看过,但“以前”是表示一个与现在有联 系的过去时间,而不是一个确定的与现在无关的过去时间。 ) 四、一般过去时和过去完成时的用法区别 1. 一般过去时是对现在说话时刻而言的, 过去完成时则是对过去某一时刻而言。 两种时态建立的时间参照点不同, 对过去完成时来说,这一个时间参照点十分重要,它是过去完成概念赖以建立的基础,也是和一般过去时相区别的重 要标准。 2. 过去完成时的时间状语常用 by 和 before 引导的短语表示, 如 by that time, by the end of…, before 2000, by the time +句子等。 五、过去完成时与现在完成时的用法区别 1.两种时态都常与一段时间和状语连用,但现在完成时表示的是延续到现在或同现在有关的动作(句中不可有表 示过去特定时间的状语) ,而过去完成时表示的是在过去某时之前已经完成或延续到过去某时的劝作(句中有表示过去 特定时间的状语) 。 2.比较下面的说法 She had been ill for a week before she came back. 她在回来之前就生病一个星期了。 (回来发生在过去某一时间,发病发生在过去的过去) She has been ill for a week.

她生病一个星期了。 (现在仍在生病) 六、动词时态的一些典型用法 1.在 if, unless, even if 引导的条件状语从句中,在 when, before, until (till), as soon as, the moment, once 引导的时间 状语从句中,在 no matter what /who / which / when / where / how 或 whatever, whoever, whichever, whenever, wherever, however 引导的让步状语从句中,如果主句是将来时(往往出现 will / shall / can / must )或主句是祈使句,从句用一 般现在时表示一般将来时。如: ① I’ll go with you as soon as I finish my work. ② The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she arrives. ③ — Can I join your club, Dad ? — You can when you get a bit older. ④ If city noises are not kept from increasing, people will have to shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. ⑤ Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 2.would 与 used to ① would 与 used to 都可用来表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作,常常可以换用。如: When we were boys we used to / would go swimming every summer. 小时候,每天夏天我们都要去游泳。 He used to . would spend every penny he earned on books. 过去他通常把挣来的钱全花在买书了。 ② would 之后要接表示动作的动词,不接表示认识或状态的动词,而 used to 则无此限制。如: I used to like football when I was at middle school. He used to be nervous in the exam. ③ would 表示反复发生的动作。如果某一动作没有反复性,就不能用 would, 只能用 used to。如: And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were gone, Mother would disappear into he sewing room to practice. 从那天起,只要碗盘撤掉、饭桌清理干净,妈妈就马上躲进做针线活的房间练习起来。 (具有反复性) I used to live in Beijing. 我过去住在北京。 (没有反复性) ④ used to 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态,现在已经结束(含有较强的“今非昔比”的意思) ,would 则 只表示说话者对过去一种回想心情,有可能再发生。如: People used to believe that the earth was flat. 过去,人们总以为地球是扁平的。 (现在已不再这样认为) He would go to the park as soon as he was free.

过去他一有空就去公园。 (现在有可能再去) 3.be +动词不定式 ① 表示按计划或安排要做的事。例如: When are you to leave for two days to New York ? 你什么时候去纽约? She is to get married next month. 她下个月结婚。 这种结构也可用于过去。 was / were to do sth. 表示曾经计划要做某事, 但不表明计划是否被执行, 或表示 “命运 (即 使中注定要发生的事) ” ,而非计划;was / were to have done sth. 表示未曾实现的计划。例如: I felt excited because I was soon to leave home for the first time. 我感到很激动,因为我很快就要首次离开家了。 We were to have told you, but you were not in. 我们本来想告诉你的,但是你不在家。 ② 表示“指令” ,相当于 should, ought to, must, have to。例如: You are to report to the police. 你应该报警。 What is to be done ? 应该怎么办呢? This medicine is to be taken three times a day. 这种药一天要服三次。 The books in this room are not to be taken outside. (The books in this room mustn’t be taken outside.) 这个室内的书籍不 得带出室外。 ③ 表示“想,打算” ,相当于 intend, want。例如: If we are to be there before ten, we’ll have to go now. 如果我们想在十点前到,我们现在就得走。 ④ 用于第一人称疑问句,表示征求对方意见。例如: Am I to go on with the work ? 要我继续这项工作吗? What are we to do next ? 我们下一步该怎么办? ⑤ 在与 be 连用的结构中,see, find, congratulate 的不定式被动式有特殊的用法。例如: The news is to be found in the evening paper. 这条消息可以在晚报上见到。 He is nowhere to be seen. 在哪里也见不到他。 You are to be congratulated. 应当向您表示祝贺。 4.瞬间动词又叫非延续性动词,还叫终止性动词。瞬间动词可以有现在完成时态,但不可以接一段时间,若要接 一段时间,须要做一些相应的变换。瞬间动词在完成时态中的否定式可以接一段时间。 × He has come to Beijing since last year. √ He has lived in Beijing since last year.

× He has joined the army for 3 years. √ He has served in the army for 3 years. √ He joined the army 3 years ago. √ He has been a soldier for 3 years. √ It is 3 years since he joined the army. √ He has joined the army. 他已参军了。 常见的瞬间动词有:come, go, get to / reach / arrive at, leave, buy, sell, open, close, get up, join /take part in, begin /start, return / give, borrow / lend, become / turn, bring /take, give, die, finish /end, receive /hear from, marry, break, lose, jump 等。 5.语境中的过去时,往往表示“刚才,刚刚”之意,暗示现在已“不再这样” 。如: ① — Come on in, Peter. I want to show you something. — Oh, how nice of you ! I never thought you were going to bring me a gift. ② Your phone number again ? I didn’t quite catch it. ③ — Nancy is not coming tonight. — But she promised ! 6.表示愿望、打算一类的词,如:hope, expect, mean, intend, want, think, suppose, want 等,其过去完成时表示过 去未增实现的愿望或意图。如: I had hoped to see more of ShangHai. 我本希望在上海多看看。 (但未能如愿) I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at the moment. 我本想去帮你的,但当时确实太忙了。 I had thought you would come tomorrow. 我愿以来你明天才来呢。 7.某些固定句式中的动词时态是固定的、约定俗成的。 ① This / It is the first / second…time + that 从句。 that 从句一般用现在完成时, 如果把前边的 is 改为 was, 则 that 从 句用过去完成时。如: This is the first time I have come here. It was the third time (that) he had made the same mistake. ② It is / has been + 一段时间 + since 从句。since 从句中用过去完成时。如: It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. ③ be about to do…when…意为“即将??(这时)突然??” 。如: I was about to go out when the telephone rang. ④ be (was /were) + doing… when… 意为“正在干??(这时)突然??” 。如

They were reading when Tom shouted in pain. ⑤ Hardly had…done…when… ; No sooner had…done…than… when 和 than 从句里用一般过去时,表示“刚刚??就??” 。如: Hardly (No sooner) had I got home when (than) the rain poured down. 我刚到家大雨就倾盆而下。 ⑥ It + be + 一段时间 + before 从句 这个句式分两种情况:如果主句用将来时,则从句用一般现在时表将来时,意为多长时间以后即将发生某事;如 果主句用过去时,从句也用过去时,意为多长时间后发生了某事。如: It won’t be long before he succeeds. ( = He will succeed soom.) It was ten years before they met again. ( = They met again ten years later. ) 8.高考对于进行体的常考点 ① 一个长动作作为背景,被一个短动作打断,长动作往往用进行体,短动作用一般体。如: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. The students were writing busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she had left in the office. Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking. As she was reading the newspaper, Granny fell asleep. The reporter said that the UFO was traveling east to west when he saw it. ② 表示动作的未完性、暂时性。如: — Have you moved into the new house ? — Not yet. The rooms are being painted. I don’t really work here; I am just helping out until the new secretary arrives. Shirley was writing a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it. Selecting a mobile phone for a personal use is no easy task because technology is changing so rapidly. ③ 表示计划、安排要做的事。如: I’ve won a holiday for two days to Florida. I am taking my mum. — What were you doing when Tony phoned you ? — I had just finished my work and was starting to take a shower. ④ 表示现在或当时发展中的或正在进行的情况。如: I don’t think Jim saw me; he was just starting into space. I first met Lisa 3 years ago. She was working at a radio shop at the time. — Is this raincoat yours ? — No, mine is hanging there behind the door. — Oh, I’m terribly sorry, I wasn’t noticing.

— Hey, look where you are going !

清单二 主动和被动 一、注意短语动词和含有情态动词的被动语态 That old man was often laughed at. 那位老人常受人嘲笑。 The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人请大夫去了。 Time must be made good use of. 时间一定要充分利用。 The plan will be given up. 那计划就要被放弃了。 Bad habits have been done away with. 坏习惯已经改掉了。 (在被动结构中,切不可丢掉后面的介词或副词,关于这类及物性质的短语动词请看专题五) He must be prevented from going. 必须阻止他去。 The plan ought to be put into practice as soon as possible. 计划必须尽早执行。 (谓语结构是:情态动词+be +过去分词) 二、get + 过去分词可以表示被动,此结构比较口语化,如: She got married last week. 她上周结婚了。 The patient got treated once a week. 那位病菌人一周得到一次治疗。 He fell off the car and got killed. 他从车上摔下来,摔死了。 三、主动形式表被动意义 1.系动词 look, sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, turn, stay, become, fall, get, grow, keep + 形容词/名词 构成系表结构。如: The steel feels cold. His plan proved (to be) practical. It has gone bad. 2.表示开始、结束、运动的动词。如 begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move 等。 Work began at 7 o’clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day. 3.表示主语的某种属性特征的动词。如 read, write, act, iron, cut draw, drive, sell, wash, clean, wear, open, cook, lock,

shut, dry, eat, drink。这类动词一般不单独使用,常用一个修饰语。如: This coat dries easily. 这种外衣容易干。 Nylon cleans easily. 尼龙容易洗干净。 The door won’t lock. 这门锁不上。 Food can keep fresh in a fridge. 食物在冰箱里能保鲜。 Your speech reads well. 你的演说讲得好。 This material has worn thin. 这个材料已经磨薄了。 His book does not sell. 他的书没有销路。 Your pen writes smoothly. 你的笔好写。 This lock won’t catch. 这锁锁不上。 The match won’t catch. 火柴擦不着。 The plan worked out wonderfully. 这计划制定得很好。 The recorder won’t play. 这录音机不转。 The engine won’t start. 引擎发动不起来。 This knife cuts well. 这把刀子很快。 The cloth washes well. 这布很耐洗。 4.少数动词用于进行时,其主动形式表示被动含义。如 print, cook, fry, hang, build, make。 如: The books are printing. 这本书正在排印中。 The neat is cooking. 肉在煮。 5.介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用,含被动之义,其意义相当于该名词相应的被动形式,名词前一般不用 冠词。 常见的有: under control (受控制), under treatment (在治疗中), under repair (在修理中), under discussion (在讨论中), under construction (在施工中),beyond belief (令人难以置信),beyond one’s reach (鞭长莫及),beyond one’s control (无法 控制),beyond our hope (我们始料不及),for sale (出售),for rent (出租),in print (在印刷中),in sight (在视野范围内), on sale (出售),on show (展出),on trial (受审),out of control (控制不了),out of sight (超出视线之外),out of one’s reach (够不着),out of fashion (不流行)。如: The building is under construction (is being constructed). The rumor is beyond belief ( = can’t be believed ). His honest character is above all praise. ( = His honest character cannot be praised enough.) That house is for sale. ( = That house is to be sold.) The book is not yet in print ( = is not yet printed ).

Today some treasures are on show in the museum ( = are being showed). The plane was out of control (can’t be controlled). He took two days off within the teacher ’s permission. 6.不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语: fit, have, wish, cost, agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to 等。如: This key just fits the lock. Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

小试牛刀
1. Hundreds of jobs ______ if the factory closes. A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose

2. I’ve won a holiday for two days to Florida. I ______ my mum. A. am taking B. have taken C. take D. will have taken

3. A new cinema ______ here. They hope to finish it next month. A. will be built B. is built C. has been built D. is being built

4. Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology ____ so rapidly. A. is changing B. has changed C. will have changed D. will change

5. I _____ Ping –pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A. played B. will play C. have played D. play

6. Visitors ______ not to touch the exhibits. A. will request B. request C. are requesting D. are requested

7. John and I _____ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we _____ each other a couple of times before that. A. had been; have seen B. have been; have seen C. had been; had seen D. have been; had seen 8. This is Ted’s photo. We miss him a lot. He ______ trying to save a child in the earthquake. A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing

9. — How are the team playing ? — They are playing well, but one of them _____ hurt. A. got B. gets C. are D. were

10. — You haven’t said a word about my new coua, Brenda. Do you like it ? — I’m sorry, I _____ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you. A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say C. won’t say D. didn’t say

11. I wonder why Jenny ____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. A. hasn’t written B. doesn’t write C. won’t write D. hadn’t written

12. My uncle ______ until he was forty –five. A. married B. didn’t marry C. was not marrying D. would marry

13. — When will you come to see me, Dad ? — I will go to see you when you _____ the training course. A. will have finished B. will finish C. are finishing D. finish

14. — How long _____ at this job ? — Since 1990. A. were you employed C. had you been employed B. have you been employed D. will you be employed

15. With the rapid growth of population, the city _____ in all directions in the past five years. A. spreads B. has spread C. spread D. had spread

16. The silence of the library _____ only by the sound of pages being turned over. A. has been broken B. breaks C. broke D. was broken

17. All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness _____. A. has grown B. is growing C. grew D. had grown

18. Why don’t you put the meat in the fridge ? It will _____ fresh for several days. A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed

19. — Sorry, Joe, I didn’t mean to … — Don’t call me ―Joe‖. I’m Mr Parker to you, and _____ you forget it ! A. do B. didn’t C. did D. don’t

20. At this time tomorrow _____ over the Atlantic. A. we’re going to fly B. we’ll be flying C. we’ll fly D. we’re to fly

21. The news came as no surprise to me. I _____ for some time that the factory was going to shut down. A. had known B. knew C. have known D. know

22. I thought Jim would say something about his school report, but he ______ it. A. doesn’t mention B. hadn’t mentioned C. didn’t mention D. hasn’t mentioned

23. No one in the department but Tom and I _____ that the director is going to resign.

A. knows

B. know

C. have known

D. am to know

24. Although he has lived with us for years, he ______ us much impression. A. hadn’t left B. didn’t leave C. doesn’t leave D. hasn’t left

25. how can you possibly miss the news ? It _____ on TV all day long. A. has been B. bad been C. was D. will be

26. — Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on. — Where was I ? — You _____ you didn’t like your father ’s job. A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying

27. I arrived late; I _____ the road to be so iey. A. wouldn’t expect B. haven’t expected C. hadn’t expected D. wasn’t expecting

28. I ______ while reading the English textbook. Luckily, my roommate woke me up in time ! A. had fallen asleep B. have fallen asleep C. fell asleep D. fall asleep

29. Let’s keep to the point or we ______ any decisions. A. will never reach B. have never reached C. never reach D. never reached

30. My mind wasn’t on what he was saying, so I’m afraid I _____ half of it. A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed

31. — What’s that terrible noise ? — The neighbors _____ for a party. A. have prepared B. are preparing C. prepare D. will prepare

32. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy _____ going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. A. had considered C. has been completed B. has been considering D. is going to consider

33. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____ by 2006. A. has been completed C. will have been completed B. has completed D. will have completed

34. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. A. was B. were C. had been D. would be

35. — What were you doing when Tony phoned you ? — I had just finished my work and _____ to take a shower. A. had started B. started C. have started D. was starting

36. The first use of atomic weapons was in 1945, and their power _____ increased enormously ever since.

A. is

B. was

C. has been

D. had been

37. The crazy fans ______ patiently for two hours, and they would wait till the movie star arrived. A. were waiting B. had been waiting C. had waited D. would wait

38. She _____ her hairstyle in her hometown before she came to Chongqing for a better job. A. would change B. has changed C. changed D. was changing

39. All the employees except the manager _______ to work online at home. A. encourages B. encourage C. is encouraged D. are encouraged

40. — You were out when I dropped in at your house. — Oh, I ________ for a friend from England at the airport. A. was waiting B. had waited C. am waiting D. have waited

41. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book ______ 50 million. A. have reached B. has reached C. are reaching D. had reached

42. The discussion _______ alive when an inter esting topic was brought in. A. was coming B. had come C. has come D. came

43. Because the shop ________ , all the T –shirts are sold at half price. A. has closed down B. closed down C. is closing down D. had closed down

44. More patients _______ in hospital this year than last year. A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated

45. Sales of CDs have greatly increased since the early 1990s, when people ______ to enjoy the advantages of this new technology. A. begin B. began C. have begun D. had begun

46. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you _____ advertisements showing happy families. A. will often see B. often see C. are often seeing D. have often seen

47. — I hear Jane has gone to the Holy Island for her holiday. — Oh, how nice ! Do you know when she _______. A. was leaving B. had left C. has left D. left

48. He kept looking at her, wondering whether he ________ her somewhere. A. saw B. has seen C. sees D. had seen

49. — George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to their wedding ? — No, I ______. Did they have a big wedding ? A. was not invited C. hadn’t been invited B. have not been invited D. didn’t invite

50. It is said in the book that Thomas Edison (1874–1931) _______ the world leading inventor for sixty years. A. would be B. has been C. had been D. was

51. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people _____ to eat more fruit and vegetables. A. persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded

52. — The window is dirty. — I know. It ______ for weeks. A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned

53. — Has Sam finished his homework today ? — I have no idea. He ______ it this morning. A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done

54. I _____ you not to move my dictionary –now I can’t find it. A. asked B. ask C. was asking D. had asked

55. According to the art dealer, the painting ______ to go for at least a million dollars. A. is expected B. expects C. expected D. is expecting

答案与解析
1.B 此题是在 if 引起一个状语从句中,从句用现在时,主句中用一般将来时,而且句意为被动,故 B 最佳。 2、A 这晨用 take 的进行时表将来的含义。 3、D 由后一句可知这项工程还没有完成,故应在建设之中,而且是被动语态,故选 D。 4、A 题干中主句为 Selecting a mobile phone ?is no easy task,谓语动词表示了一种“含此刻在内的广泛意义上的现 在时间” ,使用的是一般现在时态(?is no easy task);后面的状态从句(because?)中则说明原因为“技术更新变化迅 速” ,应采用现在进行时: (technology)is changing(so rapidly).现在进行时态在此表示了一种“持续变化”的状态,体 现了“变化、趋势、发展和进展” (Collins COBULLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR) ,类似用法又如:His handwriting is improving. World energy demand is increasing at a rate of about3% per year.

5、D 题干后的分句(but?)为转折语气, 并在句中使用了现在完成时态(I haven’t had time to play),表示自从 new year 以来一直没有打过乒乓球, 由此可以排除选项 B (will play) 、 C (have played) .由此推断前一人句中所说状态为 “含 此刻在内的广泛意义上的现在时间” ,则空中应该使用一般现在时态表达这一时间概念。 6、D 句意为:参观者被要求不触摸展品。所以应该用被动形式。 7、D 第一空为现在完成时,与一段时间状语连用(for eight years);第二空:在一次晚会上认识之前就见过,上是 “过去的过去”的一个动作,帮选 D。 8、C 从上下文可知,Ted 已经死了,属于过去发生的事情, 对于动词 kill 来讲,应是被动关系,故选 C。

9、A 由题中所设语境可知,一句队员受伤应是过去的动作,故选 A。 10、D 从对话题干所设语境看,此处谈论的是过去所没有发生的事(you haven’t said a word?)此对话中,Brenda 为自己没能对朋友所穿新衣早加赞赏向对方表示歉意; sooner(=at an earlier time)作为附加状语传达了十分重要的时间信 息。 此处仍应使用表示过去行为的简单过去时,与后面句子中的现在时态(I certainly think?)形成对照。其余选项所 给时态?hasn’t written us recently。 11、 A 前句中 recently 与事句中动词民用的语气为重要提示: We should have heard from her by now.=We haven,t heard from her by now 此处讨论最近该发生而没发生的事,用现在完成时态:?hasn’t written us recently. 12、B marry 是终止性动词,用在此 not?until 句型中表示“我叔叔直到四十五岁才结婚。 ” 13、D when 从句中通常用一般现在时形式表将来时间。 14、B 答语中的 since1990 是关键信息。 15、B 时间状语 in the past five years 与现在时间有关。 16、D 图书馆的安静被打破,故须用被动语态;情景中找不出与现在有关的时间信息,故 A 是错误的。 17、C grow 与 as 从句里的 wait 发生。 题干前半句为时间状语,提供了极为重要的时间线索:All morning as she waited?,表示了过去的一段延续时间,本空之中动词所表示的行为(her nervousness “grow” )与此同时进行。此处 仍应使用一般过去时。 本题中与现在时间相关的两个选项(A. has grown B is growing)很容易排除;D 项(had grown)过去完成时态,应用 于表示过去特定时间之前的行为,与语境不符,也可排除。 18、B stay 这晨是系动词的用法,不用被动形式。 根据本题设空之后所执着续的形容词 fresh 判断,选项所给动词 stay 为系动词( =to continue or remain in a place ,position or condition——COLLINS NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY), 因此,很容易排除 A 项(系动词不可能使用 权用被动语态) ;从句意看,说话人向对方提出建议(Why don’t you??) ,然后阐明依据(the meat will?) ,应该是 stay 的一般形式,而不会是进行式(C 项 be staying)或完成式(D 项 have stayed) 。 stay 的这一用法在中学教材里不大见到,因而本题对于一些缺乏阅读并死记语法的考生会有一定难度。 19、D 注意 Mr Parker 这里针对的是“Sorry , joe”这件事,而不是“ I didn’t mean to?”那件事。而前者正是“此 时此刻”发生的,故应用一般现在时。句意:你应称呼我帕克先生,你不是忘了吧!题干选材为大小对话形式,语境 完整,前者向 Joe 道歉,后者(joe 本人)拒不接受道歉,认为称呼自己为 Joe 是: “套近乎” 。提醒并警千对方,语气 非常严厉。 D on’t you forget it!=Don’t forget it! 此处理解语义需要考虑到文化背景:不同对象与关系的称呼是不同的,要求别人称呼自己 Mr?,说明要将与对方 的关系拉开,或者认为在此场合应该如此称呼。由此而知,设空中为否定语义。然后从时间情况考虑,应为此时此刻 对别人提出的要求,选择 D 项。

表示指令和要求的祈使句有时可以保留主语(Directives with a subject),这类主语一般都是第二人称,表示说话人 的强烈不满。 20、B at this time tomorrow 指明的是将来的某一具体时间,故用来将进行时。 21、A 在The news came 之前我就已经知道,故用将来进行时。 22、C but 连接的并列句,时态与 thought 一致。

23、A 句子的主语是 no one,谓语动词应当用单数。 24、D although 从句中的 has lived 是非常重要的时间住处说话的人的意思是:虽然他与我们一起生活多年(从过 去到现在) ,但他没有给我们留下多少印象。所以,这里使用 C 项是不恰当的。 25、A 根据 can 的形式(而不是 could)可以判断,这里并不是谈论纯粹的过去或过去的过去,但显然也不是将来 时间。 26、C 语境中暗含着一个时间信息:当我打断你说话的时候。 27、C arrive 是关键信息: (我在出发之前)没有预料到路会这么滑。这里谈论的显然是过去(started)的过去(had expected). 28、C 根据 woke(wake 的过去式)可以判断,这里谈论的与“现在”无关,因此可以排除 B 和 D 两项。I 是在读书 期间睡着的(while reading),而不是在之前睡着的,所以 A 项也是不恰当的。 29、A 句意:请不要偏离话题,不然的话,我们就不会取胜得决定。祈使句与 and 或 or 连用是常见的说法,又 如:Turn left and you will find the bookstore.向左转,你就会找到那个书店里。Listen to me or you will never succeed.听我 的话,否则,你不会成功的。同时在谈到 will do 和 be going to do 表示将来的区别时,will 表意愿和既时的将来,而后 者表示计划的或有迹象的将来。例如: Give him the big apple or he oil not allow us to go with him. —Why didn’t you come to my birthday party? —I was going to ,but my wife returned. 30、D 句意: (当时)我并没有注意他说的话,所以(现在)我觉得他讲的话一半我没有听到。题干句中透圳出时 间信息的三个地方:wasn’t ,was saying 和 I’m afraid 是做出选择的重要依据。 31、B 根据题意先排除 D 项,因为回答方要说明书现在的情况;A 项 have prepare 说明已经准备好,C 项 prepare 是目前的习惯性动作,B 项瑞在进行时表示动作的示完性。因此 B 项为最佳答案。 32、B 句意:因为 Lucy 失业了,所以她在考虑重返校园,但她现在还没决定。根据题意说话者在说现在的情况, 因此排除了 A、C、D 三项,B 飞行员现在完成进行时,表示现在的事,进行时强调“考虑”这个动作的“未完性” , 所以是最佳答案。 33、C 句意:北京市市长说所有北京奥林区克建筑将于 2006 年完成。此题考查英语动词的语态和时态,很显然本 题应该用被动语态,因此排除 B、D 根据时间状语 by2006,应选择将来完成时,因此选 C。 34、A 本题考查时态及主谓一致两个语未能项目。根据主谓一致原则,应排除 B 项,因为本句的主语是 the teacher,

为单数第三人称;此外根据时间状语从句 when the earthquake struck 很容易看出答案是 A 项. 35、D 问句部的是过去的事情,所以应首先排除 C 项,因为 C 项是现在时;问句部的是当一天和尚撞一天钟 Tony 给你打电话时你在干啥,所以答语用过去进行时表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作非常恰当。 36、C 根据 “they would wait?”可知,他们当时还在等,用过去完成时强调“等待”这一动作从过去开始,一 直延续到过去,而且还要延续下去。 38、C 根据连词 before 和该从句中的 came, 应该选过去时态,而排除其他选项。 39、 D 句子的主语是 all the employees,所以谓语动词应当复数: encourage sb. to do sth.鼓励某人做某事, 结合句意, 显然应当用被动语态。句意:所有廖雇员(除经理之外)都被提倡在家在线工作。 40、A 本题考查了主谓一致。此题的前半部分使用现在完成时,中间使用 that is 作为插入语,连接前后两句话, 因此选项 AO GHDQTWPV。 42、D、come alive 活过亚,充满生机,时态就与从句保持一致。 43、C close down(企业,工厂)关闭,此处是不及物的。句意:因这家商店即将关闭,所有的 T 恤衫都以半价出 售。 44、D 病人被治疗,又有时间 this year,应用现在完成时的被动语态。 45、B 因 when 引导的是一个非限制性的定语从句,其先行词是 1990s,指过去的一个时间,故应用过去式 began. 46、A 此处 will 为情态动词,而非将来时态的助动词。句意为:打开报纸或杂志,你肯定会经常看到?? 47、D 因上文说过,Jane 已经走了(has gone),所以离开这一动作、应是过去基本一时间发生的。 48、D 此句的意思是:他一直看着她,不知是否在什么地方见过她。句中的 kept looking at her 这一动作应是过去 某一时间发生的。 49、C 过去完成时的被动式,婚礼举行是 last week, 我有被邀请是在婚礼举行之前,所以是过去的过去。在动词 的时态和语态考题中,老先生应该道德根据语言环境判断是主动还是被动以缩小选择范围,然后再判断动词的时态形 式。 50、D 爱迪生已经于 1931 年去世,所以“爱迪生是世界上最重要的发明家”是一个纯过去的叙述,与现在时间没 有关系。 51、D 根据选项中 persuade 这个词是及物动词这一点,就可以排除 A 和 B,因为我们经常说 persuade sb, to do sth 然而题干中没有它的宣宾语,所以应该用被动语态。主句为将来时,if 从句应该用现在时表示将来。 52、D 根据题意,窗户就被擦,应该用被动语态,所以排除 A、B 两 C、D 两项是全是被动语态,但时态不一致。 一般过去进和现在完成时的区别恰恰是中学生的一项难点。一般过去时表示过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在 的状 态,对现在无任何影响;而现在完成时跨在两个时间之上,一是过去,一是现在。它的动作发生在过去,但对现在有 影响, 而这种影响却往往是说话者的关注所在, 所以这个意义上的现在完成时一般后面不加时间状语。 如: I have finished reading this book ,so I can return it.另外,现在完成时还表示一个动作或行为开始于过去,持续到现在甚至到将来,本用 法就是该题所考查的内容。即窗户从过去某一时间以现在一直未擦过,所以很脏。

53、C 根据后面时间状语 this morning 可判断为过去时,排除 B;进行体表示“示完成性,暂时性,感情色彩” 。 结合上句,不知道 Sam 是否做完,所以 C 项是最佳答案。 54、A 根据题意,应是过去的事,因此应该用过去时,排除 B 项,C 项过去进行时表示过去“未完成性” ,D 项 had asked 表示过去的过去,都不符合本题要求。本题表示:过去我(反复)告诉你不要动我的词典, (但你动了词典)现 在(我)找不着了。 55、A 此句中 the painting 和谓语 expect 为被动关系,句意为:据那位艺术品经营商讲,这幅画有望增值至少一百 万美元。类似的结构有:It’s said’/reported/known/understood?that 从句,有消息说,有报道,不言而喻等。同义转换为 sth. is said/ reported/known+不定式。例如:It’s said that she has been studying abroad for two years.=She is said to have been studying abroad for two years. It’s reported that Jay Zhou is reported to hold a solo concert in Beijing next month.

自我检测(一)
1. When Mark opened the door, he saw a woman standing there. He ____ her before. A. never saw B. had never seen C. never sees D. has never seen

2. I can’t see any coffee in this cupboard. ______ ? A. Has it all been finished C. Has it all finished B. Was it all finished D. Did it all finish

3. the hero’s story _____ differently in the newspapers. A. was reported B. was reporting C. reports D. reported

4. The coffee is wonderful ! It doesn’t taste like anything I _____ before. A. was having B. have C. have ever had D. had ever had

5. — Did you tell Julia about the resulh ? — Oh, no, I forgot. I ______ her new. A. will be calling B. will call C. call D. am to call

6. He ______ more than 5,000 English words when he entered the university at the age of 15 . A. has learned B. would have learned C. learned D. had learned

7. Scientists think that the continents ______ always where they ______ today. A. aren’t; are B. aren’t; were C. weren’t; were D. weren’t; were

8. — Why did you leave that position ? — I _____ a better position at IBM. A. offer B. offered C. am offered D. was offered

9. By the time Jane gets home, her aunt ______ for London to attend a meeting. A. will leave B. leaves C. will have left D. left

10. More than a dozen students in that school ______ abroad to study medicine last year. A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent

11. Professor Smith, along with his assistants, _______ on the project day and night to meet the deadline. A. work B. working C. is working D. are working

12. — What’ wrong with year coat ? — Just now when I wanted to get off the bus, the man next to me ______ on it. A. sat B. had sat C. had been sitting D. was sitting

13. — What are you going to do this afternoon ? — I am going to the cinema with some friends. The film _____ quite early, so we _____ to the bookstore after that. A. finished; are going B. finished; go C. finishes; are going D. finishes; go

14. Millions of pounds’ worth of damage _______ by a storm which swept across the north of England last night. A. has been caused B. had been caused C. will be caused D. will have been caused

15. Years ago we didn’t know this, but recent science _______ that people who don’t sleep well soon get ill. A. showed B. has shown C. will show D. is showing

16. The policeman’s attention was suddenly caught by a small box which ______placed under the Minister ’s car. A. has been B. was being C. had been D. would be

17. Father _______ for London on usiness upon my arrival, so I didn’t see him. A. has left B. left C. was leaving D. had left

18. — If the traffic hadn’t been so heavy, I could have been back by 6 o’clock. — What a pity ! Tina _____ here to see you. A. is B. was C. would be D. has been

19. Since I won the big prize, my telephone hasn’t stopped ringing. People _____ to ask how I am going to spend the money. A. phone B. will phone C. were phoning D. are phoning

20. When the old man ______ to walk back to his house, the sun ______ itself behind the mountain. A. Started; had already hidden C. had started; was hiding B. had started; had already hidden D. was starting; hid

21. He was hoping to go abroad but his parents ______ that they won’t support him unless he can borrow money from the bank. A. were deciding B. have decided C. decided D. will decide

22. — Hurry up ! Alice and Sue are waiting for you at the school gate. — Oh ! I thought they _____ without me. A. went B. are going C. have gone D. had gone

23. My brother is an actor. He ______ in several films so far.

A. appears

B. appeared

C. has appeared

D. is appearing

24. — Are you still busy ? — Yes, I ______ my work, and it won’t take long. A. just finish B. am just finishing C. have just finished D. am just going to finish

25. The manager had fallen asleep where he ______ , without undressing. A. was laying B. was lying C. had laid D. had lied

26. They _____ on the program for almost one week before I joined them, and now we _____ it as no good results have come out so far. A. had been working; are still working C. have been working; have worked B. had worked; were still working D. have worked; are still working

27. The country life he was used to ______ greatly since 1992. A. change B. has changed C. changing D. have changed

28. Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside. ______ in the clothing industry. A. is working B. works c. work d. worked

29. Susan decided not to work on the program at home because she didn’t want her parents to know what she ______ . A. has done B. had done C. was doing D. is doing

30. Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which ______ the Pacific, and we met no storms. A. was called B. is called C. had been called D. has been called

答案与解析
1 由过去时态构成的句子语言环境可以看出,应首先排除 C、D 两个选项。再由句子中的 before 可以看出是说在那 之前从没见过她,所以用过去完成时表示“地去的过去” ,即那之前的一段时间的情况。一般过去时只表示过去某个时 间点发生的动作或存在的情况。又如:He wrote a letter to her yesterday, but he had never even talked with her before. 2、A 句子的语言环境为现在时,意思为:我看不到碗柜里有咖啡,它全(被)喝光了吗?it 指 coffee,不是过去某 个时间点的情况,所以不用过去时。比较:I have had my breakfast. I am not hungry now. I had it ten minutes ago in the canteen. 3、A 句意:那位英雄的故事和在报纸上报道的不一样。根据句意可判断英雄的事迹被报道为过去的事,所以用过 去时的某个体,排除 C 项;B、D 两项为主语语态,不符合题干要求。 4、C 句意:这咖啡的味道太妙了!它与我所品尝过的都不一样。 5、B will 作为助动词在此句中表示临时决定。 6、D 由时间 状语从句的时态可以得知,主句中的时态应为过去时态,又因为主句动作在从句动词所表示的动作 之前完成,因此应选择过去成时。

7、C 由第二个空的时间状语 today 可知第二个空应使用现在时态,故淘汰 B、D 两项,又因为句子内容是在把不 同时期的 continents 的位置进行对比,因此,应选择 C 项。 8、 D 由上文提问的时态可以判断出下文中的答语也要针对过去的情况, 因此淘汰 A、 C 两项。 又因为主语 I 是 offer 动作的承受者而不是动作的执行者,因此,选择 D 项,淘汰 B 项。 9、C by 短语常与完成时连用,这里面的 gets home 是用现在表将亚,实际上是指明一个将亚的时间,不失为主句 用将亚完成时。意思是:到 jane 到农的时候,她的姑姑已经离开家去伦敦参加一个会议了。 10、B 由句中 last year 可判断,此句应为一般过去时,排除 C、D 项。由 send sb .to dl sth. 变为被动语态,便成了 sb.is sent to do sth.故 B 正确。 11、C 现现在进行时可以表示目前这一阶段下在进行的动作。句意:史密斯教授和他的助手们为了如戎完成这一 项目,一直在夜以继日地工作着。由此可排除 A、B 项。―A ,with/along with /together with/but B‖作主语时,谓语动词与 A 保持一致,故 C 项正确。 12、D 注意题干中的时间状语。 Just now“刚才”是一个大概时间,后面的 when 从句指出具体时间“当我想下车 时。 ”这时正在发生的事性是, “ 这旁边的一个人正坐在我的衣服上。 ”when 时间状语从句中的谓语盍词和主句中的谓 语盍词,哪一个是延续性动词,就把该动词处理成进行时态。如:When I was reading ,he came in.所以这里应选 D。如 果只注意到 just now 就会误认为句子是过去时而选 A。 B 是过去完成时, C 是过去完成进行时, 而 sit 没有发生在 get off 之前,所以谈不不上过去完成。 13、 C 对话中两个人在谈论下午打算做的事, 答语中已经出现了 be going to?结构, “我打算和几个朋友去看电影。 ” 第二个空在谈看电影之后打算去书店,仍用 be going to?结构,故排除 B、D 两项,而电影的放映时间是确定的,所以 用一般现在时,故选 C。 14、A 题意:昨晚一场横扫英格半北部的风暴已经造成了几百万英镑的损失。四个选项都使用了被动式,因为句 子主语 damage 和谓语动词 cause 之间是被动关系。Last night 指风暴发生在昨晚,而损失不呆能在风暴之前,所以排除 B 项过去完成时。C、D 两项中的 will 表示将来,应和 tomorrow ,next week 等将来时间状语连用;损失是截止到目前为 止的结果,所以应使用现在完成时,强调对现在造成的影响,故选 A。 15、B 句意:几年前,我们不知道这一点,但最近科学(研究)已经表明,睡眠不好的人很容易得病。 16、C which had been placed under?是定语从句,其谓语所表示的动作 placed 发生在 caught 动作这前,所以用过 去完成时态,选 C。 17、 D 句意: 当我到达时, 父亲已因公差了, 因此我没见到他。 本题考查老先生对时态的掌握。 其住处点在 my arrival 及 didn’t see 根据信息点判断父亲出公差是过去的事情,排除 A 项(现在时) ,然后从没有见到父亲是在 my arrival 及 didn’t see him 之前,需用过去完成时,故 D 项为正确答案。 18、B 从上文内容中的 hadn’t been, could have been 可知双方谈论的是过去的事情,所以选 B。 19、D 从上文中的“hasn’t stopped‖可知谈论的是近期发生的事情,可排除、B、C 两项。一般现在时表示经常性、 习惯性的动作,由此可排除 A 项。现在进行时表示目前这段时间正在进行的动作(尽管此时此刻该动作并不进行) ,故

D 项正确。 20、A 此题考查的是时态问题。此题意为:当老人开始往家走时,太阳已经下山了。太阳落山的动作发生在开始 往家走之前。故选 A。B C D 的时态与句意不符。 21、B 此题考查的时态问题。前一句的时态虽为过去进行时,但 but 为转逝连词,从 that 从句中的将来时可断定他 的父母现在已经决定不支持他,故选 B。 22、D 过去完成时态,表示此动作发生在主句动作 thought 之前。 23、C so far—— by now(到目前为止) ,和现在完成时连用,故选 C。 24、B。根据 it won’t take long 可知,工作还滑做完,故排除 C 项现在完成时。B 项使用现在进行时表将要,故 选 B。 25、B 句意为:经理没脱衣服,就在他躺着的地方睡着了。A 正在放置;C 已经放置;D 已说谎。 26、A 此题考查的是时态问题。从 before 引导的从句中的过去时态可知主句的时态应为过去完成时。故排除 C、 D。从意思上可以看出他们一直工作了一周,强调动作的连续,同进 now 也提示出后面应用现在进行时。故答案为 A。 27、B 此题考查的是当 since 引导时间状语时,主句就为完成时,淘汰 A、C。又因主语 life 为单数淘汰 D 项,故 选 B。 28、C 句子的主语是复数句词 women,故 A 和 B 两项单数的谓语动词不对;再由时间状语 Nowadays 可知说的是现 在,D 项时态不对;C 项时态和数均正确。 29、C 整个句子是基于过去时态,A 和 D 两项为现在时态显然不对。再由句意“Susan 决定不在家里??,因为刀 子不想让父母知道她下在做什么”可知还没有做完,故 C 项正确,进行体未完性、暂生的特点。 30、B 现在“this open sea‖仍然被称作“the Pacific‖,属客观事实,故用一般现在时。

自我检测(二)
1. By the time you arrive in London, we ______ in Europe for two weeks. A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will have stayed D. have been staying

2. — I say, Harry, What did you say to the laid –off worker just now ? — Nothing, I ______ to myself. A. had only talked B. am only talking C. have just talked D. was just talking

3. — Is the meeting held in Room 302 or 303 ? — It should be 302. But I hear that it _____ till tomorrow. A. was put off B. will put off C. has been put off D. is put off

4. — Have you seen Michael recently ? — Yes, in fact I saw him this morning. I ____ him for two years. A. haven’t seen B. hadn’t seen C. didn’t see D. don’t see

5. Tom’s father had not spoken to him since his marriage, because he considered Tom ______ a mistake in marrying so young a girl. A. had made B. made C. would make D. was making

6. — Well, that was really a good meal. I _____ you were a really good cook. — Thank you. A. didn’t know B. don’t know C. haven’t known D. hadn’t known

7. Mrs. White became a teacher in 1985. She _____ for twenty years by next summer. A. will teach B. would have taught C. has been teaching D. will have been teaching

8. — It is around 100 years, known to us all, ______ the first modern Olympic Games was held. — It really is. But were _____ ? A. that; was that B. since; was it C. after; is that D. when; is it

9. The two friends _____ on the Internet for three hours, and they would go on till the next morning. A. had been chatting B. had chatted C. were chatting D. has been chatting

10. let’s go out now. It _____ any more. A. didn’t rain B. doesn’t rain C. won’t rain D. isn’t raining

11. The time is not far away when mobile phones _____ widespread in China’s vast country –side. A. will become B. become C. shall become D. have become

12. — I’m sorry, I thought the remark would amuse you. — It _____. A. wouldn’t B. won’t C. doesn’t D. hadn’t

13. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You _____ too many classes. You _____ two classes just last week. A. have missed; missed C. had missed; have missed B. missed; missed D. will miss; have missed

14. Since you weren’t at the meeting, we _____ the decision without you. A. made B. had made C. were making D. would made

15. Long ago, the CLA and other US intelligence officials concluded that Bin Laden _____ the day –today leader of the terrorist organization he founded over 10 years ago. A. was stopped being C. have stopped being B. had stopped to be D. had stopped being

16. About 170 people _____ and dozens more _____ after a flood hit an Indonesian town last week. A. were killed; are still missing B. have been killed; were still missing

C. are killed; are still missing

D. had been killed; were still missing

17. — Guess what the exam result was. I turned out to be the first ! — How nice ! I’m sure you _____ a sleepless night. A. have B. had C. would have had D. will have had

18. I ______ with my uncle and aunt because my parents have gone abroad for a holiday. A. stayed B. am staying C. have stayed D. was staying

19. In such a fierce competition, a person has to make every effort if he ______ . A. has succeeded B. is to succeed C. would succeed D. will succeed

20. I _____ a novel written by Ernest Heming –ways last night, and another night I’ll finish it. A. read B. have read C. had read D. was reading

答案与解析
1、C by the time 引导的时间状语从句中使用了一般现在时表将来,主句应用将来时,因此排除 B 、D。句意:当 你到达伦敦时,我们将已经在欧洲逗留两周了。由此判断应用将来完成时表示将来某一时间或动作发生之前已经完成 的动作。故选 C。 2、D 语境中给予的时间信息:你刚才和那个被解雇了的工人说了些什么?显然双方在谈论过去的情况,只有 D 符 合。过去进行时表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作;我当时在自言自语。 3、C meeting 与 put off 之间应为被动关系,故排除 B 项。语境中的时间提示为现在时,故排除 A 项。句意:我听 说会议已经被推迟到明天了。说明推迟会议这一动作发生在我听说之前,对现在造成影响,并且还要延续下去,故应 用现在完成时表达,排除 D 项。 4、B 语境中的时间信息为:今天早晨我见过他。暗示了一过去时间,故选取过去完成时而不能用现在完成时,指 “指在今天早晨以前我有两年没有见过他了。 ” 5、A 此句改编自 David Copperfield.句意:自 Tom 结婚以来,他的父亲就没再和他说过话,因为父亲认为 Tom 不 该娶太年轻的姑娘。显然, “Tom 犯错”发生于“父亲认为”这一过去动作前,故应选择过去完成时。 6、A “不知道”是对话之前的动作,表示过去。句意:那顿饭真不错。我以前不知道(现在知道了)你的确是位 好厨师。 7、D 语境中的时间信息:by next summer 到明年夏天,提示该题应为将来时,故排除 B、C。 根据句意:怀特 夫人自 1985 年成为教师,到明年夏天就将教书法家 20 年了。因此,只有将来完成进行时才能表示这个将来某时前一 直进行的动作。故选择 D。 8、B 考查句型 It +be +some time +since 从句,表示“自从??以来已经多长时间了。 ”本句意思为:众所周知, 自从第一届现代奥林匹克运动会举办以来大约一百年了。既然是一百年前举办的,第二句当然要用一般过去时——是 在哪儿举办的?比较:It is around 100years ago that the first modern Olympic Games was held.

9、A 句意:这两个朋友已经上网聊天 3 个小时了,而且还将继续到第二天早上。这个过去的过去一直在进行并且 将延续到动作当然应该用过去完成进行时来表达。 10、D 前句为后句时态的重要提示:咱们现在出去吧。表示说话人正在谈论此该的情况,故排除 A、C。一般现 在时和现在进行时的区别为:It doesn’t rain any more.(永久性) It isn’t raining any more.( 暂时性),显然,使用一般现在 时是不符合事实的,帮排除 B。 11、A 该题易误选 B,将 when 引导的从句误看作时间状语从句,谓语动词用一般现在时表示将要发生的动作。但 本句中的 when 引导的是定语句,故用一般将来时表示将要发生的动作,will become 符合题意。 12、 C thought 可以用于比较客气或尊敬的口气, 这里的过去时具有现在时的含义, 或表示 “试探性” 的态度: I thought you might like some flowers in your room. 我想你可能喜欢在屋里放些花。 I thought 还常表示原来想的事同实际情况不 一致,或尚未不知是否一致:I thought that the ball had rung.我原以为钟已经响了(其实未响) 。该题应为后一种用法, 句意:——对不起。我原以为这一评论会让你开心。——(事实上)我现在并未开心。 13、A 根据第二空的时间状语 last week 可知谓语动词应为一般过去时,故排除 C、D。句意:这个学期剩下的时 间你不要旷课了。你已经旷了许多节课了。由此判定应用现在完成时表示这个从过去到说话的现在为止的一段时间内 重复发生的动作。 14、A 句意:既然你没有参加会议,我们就在你不在声和情况下作出了决定。由此可知 since 引导原因状语从句, 主句的时态和从句一致,故选择 A 项。 15、D 句意:很久以前,美国中央情报局面等的情报官员推断,本.拉登已经终上了对他十多年前他创立的恐怖组 织的日常领导工作。因为主句时态为一般过去时,而从句动作发生在它之前,故需用过去完成时,且用主动语态,排 除 A、C。stop to do 停下来去做(别一件事) ;stop doing 停止做某事。因此选择 D。 16、A 上周洪水袭击了印尼一座城市之后,大约 170 人死亡,由此排除 C、D 第二空;至今仍有多人失踪。排除 了 B 项。 17、B 根据语境,答话者认为前者因为考试结果还没出来,昨晚度过了一个眠之夜。相当于说:I’m sure you had a sleepless night last night. 18、B 语境中的时间信息:because my parents have gone broad for a holiday(因为我的父母出国度假去了)。由此判定 说话人在谈论目前的情况,故排除 A、D。我现在和我的叔叔婶婶住在一起,所以应使用现在进行时来表示现阶段正在 发生的动作,强调它的暂时性。 19、B 句意:在如此激烈的竞争下,一个人要想成功,就必须竭尽全略。If 条件句中可用 be to 结构表示按事态发 展,最终会??,或注定会??。 20、D 昨天晚上我在读海明威写的一部小说。Last night 为过去时间状语,排除 B、C。逗号后面的句子暗示了小 说燕示读完,过去进行时表示示完性,一般过去时表示完成性,故选择 D。


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高考动词时态语态 | 高考动词的时态和语态 | 动词时态和语态 | 动词的时态和语态 | 动词的时态和语态ppt | 动词时态语态单句改错 | 动词时态语态 | 动词时态语态填空题 |