过去完成时 ⑴在 by、by the end、by the time、until、before、since 后 接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句以前发生的动作。如： By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. ⑵表示曾实
现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用 had hoped / planned / meant / intended/thought / wanted / expected 等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示，即：hoped / planned … + to have done。 e.g. We had hoped to meet you at the airport, but…= I hoped to have met you at the airport, but… ⑶在 when 和 before 引导的时间状语从句中 He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. When we got to the cinema ,they had sold out the tickets already. ⑷在直接引语变为间接引语时，宾语从句中若是过去时或现在完成 时，则一般要用过去完成时，这时通常与 already/yet/still/hardly/scarcely/never 等。
He said he had never been to London.他说他从没去过伦 敦。
⑸表示“一……就”的几个句型：Hardly / No sooner / Scarcely had + 主语 + 过去分词 + when / than / before + 一般过去时。 We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. ⑹在 before 或 after 引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时态代替 过去完成时。 After he (had)left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed. ⑺It was/had been +一段时间+since 从句，since 从句用过去 完成时，“自从……以来已经有多久了”。 It was/had been ten years since we had had such a wonderful time.
Eg. He was tired. He had been working since dawn. ⑵过去完成进行时和现在完成进行时的用法是一致的，只不过是把 时间从现在移到了过去。 现在完成进行时：He’s been worrying about her safety. 过去完成进行时：He’d been worrying about her safety. ⑶过去完成时和过去完成进行时的差别是，前者表示动作已完成， 后者表示动作一直在继续（可能还在进行）。 过去完成时（动作已完成）：She had cleaned the kitchen. 过去完成进行时（动作可能还在进行）：She had been cleaning the kitchen.