Task-based writing 江苏高考英语新题型--读写作文
要求考生根据所给情景用英语写一 篇150个单词左右的短文，情景的 形式包括图表、图画、提纲、信函、 短文等。考生应能：
（1）根据特定的语境准确使用英 语语法，选用适当的词汇； （2）使用一定的句型、词汇，清 楚、连贯地传递信息和表达思想。
“读写任务”其实是“读”和 “写”的有机结合，“读”的 材料是为了后面的“写”提供 情景，同样， “写”也是对 “读”的材料的思考和延伸。
读写任务的写作内容一般分 为两部分，即 TASK 1、SUMMARY; TASK2、OPINION。
Use the first person instead of the third person没有使用第三人称
Use too many original words or sentences from the passage.直接或 过多引用原文
Express opinion too early过早表达观 点!
lack transitional words or statements缺乏过渡词句
Use too many specific details instead of general words.过多细节 而非概括性语言
（1）key points are not complete概括要点不全 （2）Use the first person instead of the third person没有使用第三人称 （3）Use too many original words or sentences from the passage.过多引用原文 （4）Use too many specific details instead of general words.过多细节而非概括性语言 （5）Express opinion too early过早表达观点 （6） lack transitional words or statements缺乏 过渡词句 （7）too many simple sentences句式单调
写作中的难点： 1． 如何迅速、准确地捕捉要 点； 2．如何灵活诠释，避免抄袭的 嫌疑； 3．如何巧妙串连，将要点串成 篇章。
认真审题，巧妙利用opinion， 预测材料内容。读写任务先读 后写。那么“读”的材料肯定 是与要“写”的材料话题是相 同的，至少是相关的。因此， 我们可以利用这一关系来进行 有效的预测。
1. Can we mainly use our own words or the sentences in the original passage? 2. What should be included in the summary? 3. Can we write it in the first person or the third person? 4. Can we express our opinion?
从文体入手，分析文章结构，准确 把握要点，注意区分事实和观点、 重要和次要、普遍与特殊、相关与 不相关、原因和结果等逻辑关系。
What is a summary? 1.A shortened version of the text 2.Main points of the text
3.Written in your own words
A summary is a brief account of the main points of an article in your own words .
Styles of passage
The six elements of a narrative passage:
when where What (event) How (process) why
Hi, I am Mike. I just went through my first year of college. The toughest part on me at first was the general adjustment. I went to a very small high school where my mom was a teacher and she did practically everything for me. But at the college I need to know some basic life skills, such as balancing a check-book, laundry, and the things you have to be able to handle that I never thought of in the high school! It was really tough for me at first and I got badly homesick. Once that first semester was over and I got used to the college life, I love it—good facilities, helpful instructors, and a good library. The student’s Union organizes various parties every week. I also go to cinemas and concerts, and often spend Saturday nights in pubs and clubs. One thing I think is important is to get yourself active in things. I was on dance team in college and met a ton of people that way—it was so much easier to make friends when you had a common ground.
the six elements of a narrative passage
who When/where /What Mike His first year of college
At first: Then: At last:
toughest…adjustment got used to it love the college life
Get himself active in things
Mike shared with us his first year of college life. At first he didn’t adjust himself well _______________________, but after getting active in things for one semester, enjoyed himself . adapted to it and______________ he ____________
A kind man cut a cocoon open in order to lessen the pain of a butterfly when he saw it struggling out of the cocoon, only to find that it could never fly because of his help.
The elements of an argumentation
1.a strong statement of (the topic sentences) opinion. 2.support for the opinion. (supporting sentences) 3. conclusion/suggestions. (the purpose of the passage)
Getting up early has been regard as a good habit since ancient times. Many years ago, people thought that if we went to bed early and get up early, we would be energetic the whole day. So, getting up early is of great importance to us all. In fact, morning is the best time of a day. In the morning, the air is the freshest and people are usually in the best conditions. Many of us may have the experiences that we memorize some things more quickly and accurately in the morning than any other time of the day. If we do some morning exercise or only take a short walk in the morning, we can build our bodies and become much healthier. Also we will have enough time to make a plan and get ready for our work or study of the day if we get up early. However, if we get up late, we will probably have to do everything in a great hurry. Let us remember getting up early is a good habit and try our best to keep it. If we stick to getting up early every day, we will certainly benefit a lot from it.
1. A strong statement of opinion. (the key idea): Getting up early /a good habit /of great importance 2. Support for the opinion (supporting sentences) a better memory a healthier body a better preparation for the day 3. Conclusion/suggestions. a good habit / benefit a lot
The passage says getting up early in the morning is a good habit that will benefit us a lot. It enables us to have a better memory, healthier body and better preparation for the day.
The effects-how The solutions: The conclusion:
The reasonswhy: The effectshow The solutions: The conclusion:
Koalas are unhappy and complaining
Tourists’ taking photos
Being repeatedly awaken
Government ban the practice Be more kind to animals
The passage narrates that koalas who are repeatedly awaken from their deep sleep are unhappy and complaining for tourists taking photos. The author appeals to us to be more kind to animals.
灵活变化表达，适度进行 paraphrase,理清要点之间的逻 辑关系之后，不能简单地照搬 原句,即用自己的话进行改写 ， 做到“雁过不留痕”。
Some useful skills: 1)Use words of similar meanings 同义替换法
2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence正话反说或反话正说法
You will not succeed.= You will fail. You can’t be too careful when driving. = You should be careful when driving. I can’t agree with you more. = I agree with you.
3)Change the part of speech词性转换法
The photo is of importance to me. = The photo is important to me.
4)Change the structure of a sentence句式变 化法
语态变换：Parents should give children more praise. →Children should be given more praise. 简单句变复合句： Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, which will help them learn faster..
削“枝”去“叶”，实行精 “兵”裁“员” 。由于字数限 制，又要涵盖所有要点，用词 必须“能省则省”。
Some useful skills: 1)主谓缩写
they will→they’ll; we are→we’re; can not→can’t
if they’re corrected too much=if corrected too much
She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation. She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.
It must have been about two in the morning when I returned home. I tried to wake up my wife by ringing the doorbell, but she was fast asleep, so I got a ladder from the shed in the garden, put it against the wall, and began climbing towards the bedroom window. I was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said, “I don’t think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.” I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. I immediately regretted answering in the way I did, but I said, “ I enjoy cleaning windows at night.” “So do I,” answered the policeman in the same tone. “Excuse my interrupting you. I hate to interrupt a man when he’s busy working, but would you mind coming with me to the station?” “Well, I’d prefer to stay here,” I said. “ You see, I’ve forgotten my key.” “Your what?” he called. “My key,” I shouted. Fortunately, the shouting woke up my wife who opened the window just as the policeman had started to climb towards me
Arriving home in early morning, the writer failed to wake up his wife by the doorbell. Trying to climb towards the bedroom window, he was found by a policeman. His shouting eventually woke his wife.(35 words)
Advertising can be a service to customers. This is true when advertisements give reliable information about the goods advertised. Such information is needed if the customer is to make a sensible choice when he buys something. It is useful in that it lets him know of the kinds of goods in the shops. Printed advertisements do this job best. Customers can collect them and compare them. They can be taken along to the shops and their statements can be checked against and actual goods in the shops. Some advertisements are not very useful to the customers. Instead of helping the customer to satisfy his real needs, they set out to make him want things. They set out to make us believe that what they advertise will make us cleverer, prettier, more handsome, if only we use it. The voice on TV says, “ Getaway people use XYZ petrol.” The screen shows a picture of petrol pump for a fast expensive car owned by a boy with a pretty girlfriend. They drive off to the wonderful country or a lovely beach. Some people may feel that clever, successful people use XYZ petrol. Some might choose that petrol every time they fill up their cars.
Advertising can be useful when it provides customers with reliable information，while some advertisements are not the case as they are produced only to persuade customers to buy what they don’t need.(31 words)
Students should think now about what extracurricular (课外的) activities they'd like to participate in. Participating in extracurricular activities may help you deepen your physical, creative, social, political, and career interests by bringing you into communication with other like-minded people you didn’t previously know. You can join groups as a way to get support from other students. A club or group can also be a great way to meet people who are different from you. Lots of youth programs bring people together with those who are different as a way to break down the barriers between people. Participating in extracurricular activities helps you in other ways, too. It looks good on college and job applications and shows admissions officers and employers you're well-rounded and responsible. Specific activities help with specific goals. The most basic reason for joining a club or team is that it gives you something better to do than staring at the wall, wandering the hall, or sleeping all afternoon. People who are participating are less likely to pick up bad habits, like smoking or drinking.
The author (The passage) discussed the benefit of extracurricular activities including being a way to improve students’ health, widen their social circle and introduce them to new ideas and people. (30 words)
a.点明写作目的类： The writer tells us…（主题）by showing us an example of…, who/which…（故事情节）. b.作者经历类： In the passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of doing sth, which…… c. 他人经历类： This passage is mainly about sb’s experience of doing sth….
The article gives the view that… should/shouldn’t…（主题）. …..（补充论据）. The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth….. The author argues that…
a. 现象揭示类： This article points out the common phenomenon -----…（主题), which…..（补 充解释）. b. 利弊对比类： The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. A…while B… The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. On the positive side…, but it may also…. c. 研究显示类： The study reveals(揭露) that… The purpose of the report is to show that…
巧用过渡词句和关联词，提升作 文档次。SUMMARY和 OPINION之间要有过渡语句， 才能给人“形合”的感觉。而段 落内部的关联词，可以反映出作 者思路清晰，并增强文章的连贯 性。
记叙文的过渡语 (1)I have a similar experience. (2)I also went through such an experience. (3)This story reminds me of another story that happened to... (4)This story reminds me of a similar experience of...
议论文的过渡语 表示赞同/不赞同 (1)I agree with the statement that... (2)I do/ quite agree with the author... (3)I’m for the writer’s idea that... (4)I fully support the statement... (5)I can’t agree more with ...
(1)I partly / don’t agree with what the writer said/the writer’s view. (2)I’m strongly against the writer’s idea. (3)This opinion sounds right/reasonable, but is hardly practical. (4)Some people argue as if it is a general truth that... But to be frank, I cannot agree with them.
1) 先后次序关系：last but not least; to begin/ start/end with; finally; first of all; afterwards; following this; 2) 因果关系： another important factor／reason of... ; since; as; for; in that...; owing to; due to; in view of; for this reason; as a result of this; therefore;...and so...; consequently; as a result; thus; so that...; in consequence; as a consequence; 3) 转折关系：but; even so; however; though; even though; despite that; in spite of that; regardless of; yet...;and yet; 4) 并列关系： and; also; too; as well as; either...， or...; both...and...
5) (补充)递进关系： furthermore; moreover; further; in this way ; still; not only...but also...; not...but...; in addition (to); additionally, 6) 比较关系： similarly; in comparison with; when compared with; compared with; like...; similarly important; apart from (doing)...; ... rather than...;both…and...; in the same way; not only...but (also). 7) 对照(不同点)：yet; still; for all of that; rather; neither ... nor; although; though; but; however; something is just the other way around; yet; unlike; opposed to; as opposed to ; in contrast (to); on the contrary; different from this; as opposed to this; contrary to; whereas; while; but on the other hand. 8) 举例关系:for example; for instance; in this case; namely; as you know; you may say; like; such as; in particular; including...; for one thing..., for another...; put it simply; It is interesting to note that...
9) 强调关系：in fact; especially; particularly; moreover; naturally; what is more important; in reality; certainly; of course; indeed; in particular; it is certain ／sure that...; to be strict; to be true; in truth 10) 条件关系: if; unless; lest; provided that; if it is the case; in this sense; once...; if possible; if necessary; if so; if not all; if anything. 11) 归纳总结类：generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, in a sense, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude 12) 目的关系：with this object; for this purpose; in order that; in this way, since; so that; on that account ( 由于那个缘 故); in case 13) 重申关系：in other words; that is to say; as I have said; again; once again.
运用较为丰富的句式和高级 词汇，为作文锦上添花。适 时使用非谓语动词结构、 with 短语结构、定语从句、 倒装句型、短语动词等。
1. To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.（使用名词 性从句） What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.
2. Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句)
Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. 3. He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型) It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened. 4. I passed the physics exam because of your help.(用虚拟语气） I couldn’t have passed the physics exam but for your help.
5. She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (使用过去分词) Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab. 6. They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用 V-ing形式) Singing and laughing, they went back to school. 7.I won’t believe what he says. （no matter what状语从句） No matter what he says, I won’t believe.
8.If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. （祈使句 +and…）
Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress.
9．He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句)
No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.
10.We all think he is a great man. (think highly of)
We all think highly of him .
11.As a result the plan was a failure. (turn out)
The plan turned out to be a failure. 12. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. (the more…the more)
The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.
熟记常见表达，争取宝贵 时间，日积月累，胜人一 筹！
表达自己观点 (1)As for me,... (2)In my opinion, ... (3)As far as I am concerned,... (4)From my point of view... (5)I hold the view/belief that... (6)Personally, I believe that... (7)According to my experience, I think that...
提供论据或原因分析 总述原因 (1)There are several reasons that contribute to ... (2)My views are based on the following reasons. 分层论述 (1)On the one hand,... On the other,... 一方面…… 另一方面…… (2)For one thing,... For another... 一则…二则…… (3)To begin with/First of all/First (ly),... Second (ly), ... Besides/Furthermore /What’s more,... Finally/Last but not least... 首先……其次……此外/ 而且……最后……
列举例子 (1)Take... for example. 以……为例吧 (2)For example/instance,... 例如，…… (3)such as比如说，诸如……之类的 引出经历 What impresses me most is that... 我印象最为深的 是…… 分析因果 Thanks to/ Owing to/ Because of...由于/因 为……Consequently/Therefore/Thus/ As a result,... 因此/结果……
引出话题 (1)There is no doubt that... 毫无疑问…… (2)It can not be denied that... 不可否认…… (3)No one can ignore the fact that... 谁也不可忽 视…… (4)From what is mentioned above, we know... 依 上所述，我们知道……
(1)To sum up/In short/In conclusion/ In a word/All in all, ... 总之，?? (2)Taking all the factors into account, we can draw a conclusion that... 考虑到以上因素，我们可以得出这样 的结论：?? (3)From the discussion above, it can be safely concluded that... 根据以上讨论，可以得出如下结论：?? (4)To be brief, we should be aware of the importance of... 总之，我们应当明白??的重要性。 (5)Therefore, it is necessary for us to ... 因此，我们有必 要?? (6)Only /in this way /when we... can we... 只有用这种方 法/当??时，我们才能??