高二单元课文语法填空 Book 5 Unit 1
JOHH SHOW DEFEATS “KING CHOLERA” John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert, indeed, ________ he attended Queen Victoria as her ________ (person) physic
ian. But he became ________(inspire) when he thought about helping ordinary people ________(expose) to cholera. This was the ________(dead) disease of its day. Neither its cause ________ its cure was understood. So many thousands of ________(terrify) people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted ________(face) the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be ________(control) until its cause was found. He became interested ________ two theories that possibly explained ________ cholera killed people. The first suggested that cholera ________(multiply) in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated ________ until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease ________ their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the ________(affect) person died. John Snow ________(suspect) that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak ________(hit) London in 1854, he was ready ________(begin) his enquiry. As the disease ________(spread) quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was ________ severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was ________(determine) to find out why. First he marked on a map the exact places ________ all the dead people had lived. This gave him a ________(value) clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the ________(death) were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16, 37, 38 and 40). He also ________(notice) that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. He had not ________(foresee) this, so he made ________(far) investigations. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They had ________( give) free beer and so had not ________(drink) the water from the pump. It seemed that the water was ________(blame). Next, John Snow looked ________ the source of the water for these two streets. He found that it came from the river ________(pollute) by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the ________(astonish) people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump ________ that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed ________. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas. In another part of London, he found ________(support) evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman, ________ had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it ________(deliver) to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died ________ cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with ________(certain) that ________(pollute) water carried the virus. ________(prevent) this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water
supplies ________(be) examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people ________ polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera" was ________(defeat).
COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONRRY THEORY Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was ________(confuse). Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations ________(lead) to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only ________ you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone ________ his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have ________(punish) him for even suggesting such ________ idea. They believed God ________(make) the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. The problem ________(arise) because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared ________(bright) at times and less bright at others. This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round ________. Copernicus had ________(think) long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer. He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge ________(explain) them. But only his new theory could do that. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked ________ it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete. In 1514 he showed it ________(private) to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory ________(be) revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets ________(go) round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was ________(spin) as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the ________(bright) of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, ________ Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church, ________ he only published it as he lay dying in 1543. Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his theory, ________(say) it was against God's idea and people ________ supported it would be attacked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis ________ which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity, ________ said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. Copernicus showed this was ________(obvious) wrong. Now people can see that there is a direct link ________ his theory and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.