CHAPTER 14 HUMAN FACTORS AND MOTIVATION MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS. Choose the best answer. 1. Individuals and employees have multiple roles in the society. They include all, except one: A. Co
nsumers of goods and services. B. Members of families and schools. C. Members of political parties. D. None of the above. Answer: D 2. In consideration about the “whole person”, we look at the person holistically and this will include all separate and distinct characteristics. Which one of the following is not a separate and distinct characteristic of a “whole person”? A. Position and title. B. Knowledge. C. Attitude and skills. D. Personality traits. Answer: A 3. Motivation is a general term for: A. Drives. B. Desires and wishes. C. Needs. D. All of the above. Answer: D 4. The traditional assumptions about Theory X include all except one of the following: A. Human beings dislike work. B. Most people must be coerced. C. The average human beings seek responsibility. D. Human beings prefer to be directed and wish to avoid responsibility. Answer: C 5. The traditional assumptions about Theory Y include all except one of the following: A. The average human beings dislike work. B. The average human beings seek and accept responsibility. C. Work is as natural as play.
Under the conditions of modern life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized. Answer: A 6. When does a particular “need” under Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs stop motivating an individual? A. It does not apply since individuals continually get motivated. B. When that particular need is substantially satisfied. C. When the individual has achieved self-esteem. D. When that particular need and desires are partially satisfied. Answer: B 7. A good example of safety need is: A. Affection and concern. B. Achieving one’s potential. C. Power. D. A savings account. Answer: D 8. Which one of the following developed the theory that people are motivated by existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs? A. Clayton Alderfer. B. Abraham Maslow. C. Frederick Herzberg. D. Victor H. Vroom. Answer: A 9. Which of the following factors would be a motivator according to Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory? A. Status. B. Recognition. C. Salary. D. Working conditions. Answer: B 10. Which of the following factors would be a maintenance factor according to Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory? A. Challenging work. B. Interpersonal relations. C. Advancement. D. Growth in the job. Answer: B
11. Who developed a substantially more complete model of motivation, built on expectancy theory? A. Clayton Alderfer. B. Abraham Maslow. C. Frederick Herzberg. D. Porter & Lawler. Answer: D 12. __________________ refers to the subjective judgment of an individual about the fairness of the reward he gets, relative to the inputs. A. Needs theory. B. Goal setting. C. Equity theory. D. Expectancy theory. Answer: C 13. Under the goal setting theory of motivation, for objectives to be meaningful, they must have all except one of the following properties: A. Clear. B. Attainable. C. Hygienic. D. Verifiable. Answer: C 14. McClelland’s Needs Theory of Motivation focused on three needs identified as: A. Power, affiliation, achievement. B. Power, attention, friendship. C. Affiliation, friendship, acceptance. D. Achievement, power, acceptance. Answer: A 15. The lure of money and power can lead to inappropriate and illegal actions. One case study of this is based on the true story of ______________________. A. Nick Leeson. B. Ivan Maslow. C. Ivan Boesky. D. Jack Welch. Answer: C
16. Which of the following is not an extrinsic reward? A. Benefits. B. Accomplishment. C. Money. D. Status symbols. Answer: B 17. ______________________ means building into jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement. A. Job enrichment. B. Job enlargement. C. Job rotation. D. Job sharing. Answer: A 18. Job enrichment is limited by A. Technology B. Cost C. Low interest among workers D. All of the above Answer: D 19. Making job enrichment effective involves several approaches. They include: A. Organizations should understand what people want. B. The program must show how workers will benefit. C. People should be involved or consulted and be allowed to offer suggestions. D. All of the above. Answer: D 20. According to the case “Managing the Hewlett-Packard Way: Will It Continue?” who said, “Men and women want to do a good job, a creative job, and that if they are provided the proper environment, they will do so?” A. Carly Fiorina. B. William (Bill) Hewlett. C. David Packard. D. Edward Lawler. Answer: B
21. According to the case “Managing the Hewlett-Packard Way: Will It Continue?” the merger, which was opposed by the majority of HP’s employees, was approved but not without challenge by Walter Hewlett, the son of co-founder William Hewlett. What prediction did the critics make about the HP way? A. Will be continued. B. Can be continued with great efforts. C. Cannot be continued. D. None of the above. Answer: C
TRUE or FALSE. Mark each statement as true (T) or false (F). If the statement is false, or partly false, mark (F), write the correct version of the statement and discuss it. 22. Management and leadership are the same thing. Answer: F T Management and leadership are not the same thing. Although it is true that the most effective manager will almost certainly be an effective leader and that leading is also an essential function of managers, there is more to managing than just leading. Managing involves doing careful planning, setting up an organization structure that will aid people in achieving goals, and staffing the organization structure with people who are as competent as possible. Managing also involves the measurement and correction of people’s activities through controlling. Leading, is a function of management, and perhaps the most important function at that. All other managerial functions would accomplish little if managers do not know how to lead people or understand the human factor in their operations to bring about the desired results. 23. Because people are different even if they act in the same role, there is no average person. Yet, the assumption in organizing enterprises is often that there is. Answer: T 24. The concept of individual dignity states that the dignity of people should yield to the achievement of results. Answer: F T The concept of individual dignity means that people must be treated with respect, no matter what their position in the organization is. The president, vice president, manager, first-line supervisor, and worker all contribute to the aims of the enterprise. They have different abilities and aspirations, but each is unique and all are human beings who deserve to be treated as such. 25. Working life of the remaining managers after a major downsizing is enriched by more meaningful jobs. Answer: F T The reality is, after a major downsizing, many managers feel that they are overworked and that their contributions go unappreciated. The restructuring of organizations has resulted in great job insecurity and low morale. The bitterness and alienation of many lower-level managers affect morale and productivity. Companies cannot be competitive unless employees are committed to enterprise goals. To elicit this dedication requires corporate
concern for the individual, recognition of his or her dignity as a human being, and reasonable job security with an opportunity for personal growth and development. 26. Theories X and Y are not on opposite extremes of a continuum scale. Answer: T 27. Maslow’s concept of a hierarchy of needs has been researched considerably and is supported by collected data. Answer: F T Maslow’s concept of a hierarchy of needs has been researched considerably and collected data did not provide strong evidence of a hierarchy. Edward Lawler and J. Lloyd Suttle found little evidence to support Maslow’s theory but noted that there are two levels of needs – biological and other needs, and that the other needs would emerge only when biological needs are reasonably satisfied. They found further that for people at the higher level, the strength of needs varies with individuals. Another study by Douglas T. Hall and Khalil Nougaim, did not find strong evidence of a hierarchy but found that as managers advance in an organization, their physiological and safety needs tend to decrease in importance, while their needs for affiliation, esteem, and self-actualization tend to increase in importance. 28. An observation by Martin Luther when he said, “Everything that is done in the world is done by hope” is the ancient expression of Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation. Answer: T 29. Individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment, and by praise for their performance. Punishment for poor performance produces negative results. Answer: T 30. Entrepreneurs show very high drive in need-for-achievement and fairly high drive in need-for-power, but show quite low drive in need-for-affiliation. Managers of enterprises, in comparison, do not show as high drive in needfor-achievement and power, and also do not show as low drive in need for affiliation. Answer: T
31. Managers can use any technique they choose to effectively motivate any one. Answer: F T Motivation must be considered from a system and contingency point of view. Given the complexity of motivating people with individual personalities and different situations, the risk of failure exists when any single motivator or group of motivators, is applied without taking into account the variables.