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《英语语言学》练习题


《英语语言学》练习题
1.第 20 题 Which of the following underlined parts is NOT an inflectional morpheme(屈折语素)? A. teeth B. speaking C. taken D. chaos 答案: D 2.第 21 题 Which of the following best descr

ibes the relations between ―Alice‘s brother is in UK. ‖ and ―Alice has a brother. ‖? A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 答案: D 3.第 22 题 Which of the following is a representative? A. You‘d better go to see a doctor. B. I promise to buy you something when I come back. C. I now declare the meeting close. D. I have never seen the man before. 答案: D 4.第 23 题 Which of the following is a commissive? A. I‘m really sorry to hear that. B. I will bring you the book tomorrow without fail. C. You‘d better go and see her. D. I now declare the meeting open. 答案: B 5.第 24 题 How many arguments are there in ―I‘m not feeling very well‖? A. no B. one C. three D. five 答案: B

6.第 25 题 ?I like both Chinese and western food‘ is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 答案: C 7.第 26 题 The design features of human language include the following features EXCEPT____. A. duality of structure B. genetic feature C. arbitrariness D. displacement 答案: B 8.第 27 题 Which of the following underlined parts is a free morpheme? A. understandable B. eastward C. otherwise D. without 答案: D 9.第 28 题 The Great Wall belongs to ____ culture. A. material B. spiritual C. folk D. none of the above 答案: A 10.第 29 题 The first consonants the child can make are made with the lips and they are ____. A. [p, b, n] B. [p, b, m] C. [t, d, n] D. [t, d, m] 答案: B 11.第 30 题 Instances of mother tongue interference can be found at the level of ____. A. pronunciation B. syntax

C. vocabulary D. all of the above 答案: D 12.第 31 题 Which of the following is an example of overgeneralization(过度法则化)? A. eyes B. ears C. sheep D. foots 答案: D 13.第 62 题 How many morphemes are there in the word ―disorderly‖? A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five 答案: B 14.第 63 题 Which of the following underlined parts is a derivational morpheme (派生语素)? A. larger B. data C. trainee D. Kate‘s 答案: C 15.第 64 题 Which of the following word does NOT belong to the open classes (开放类)? A. hate B. able C. the D. rapidly 答案: C 16.第 65 题 ―Why don‘t you ask Mary for help?‖ is an instance of ____. A. representatives B. expressives C. directives D. commissives 答案: C

17.第 66 题 Which of the following is a directive? A. Your money or your life! B. You are fired! C. The earth is round. D. Thank you very much. 答案: A 18.第 67 题 Which of the following underlined parts is the complement (补语) of the phrase? A. a book on biology B. play basketball C. a rainy day D. dance happily 答案: B 19.第 68 题 Which of the following best describes the relations between ―The police stopped the minors from drinking‖ and ―The minors were drinking‖? A. The former is synonymous with the latter. B. The former is inconsistent with the latter. C. The former entails the latter. D. The former presupposes the latter. 答案: D 20.第 69 题 ?She sings very well‘ is a ___-place predication. A. no B. one C. two D. three 答案: B 21.第 70 题 Language acquisition refers to the child‘s acquisition of his ____. A. first language B. second language C. foreign language D. target language 答案: A 22.第 71 题 If the child calls all men ―Daddy‖, then we may say the child has ____ the meaning of the word ―Daddy‖.

A. overgeneralized B. overextended C. overused D. overstressed 答案: B 23.第 72 题 Which of the following sentences is an example of overgeneralization? A. Jane told me to give up smoking. B. Jane asked me to give up smoking. C. Jane advised me to give up smoking. D. Jane suggested me to give up smoking. 答案: D 24.第 73 题 Which side(s) of muscles of ours does our left brain control? A. both left and right B. left C. right D. sometimes left, sometimes right 答案: C 25.第 32 题 N. Chomsky is an American linguist. 答案: 正确 26.第 33 题 Details of language system are genetically transmitted. 答案: 错误 27.第 34 题 [k], [g] and [n] are velar sounds (舌根音). 答案: 错误 28.第 35 题 The word ?boy‘ is a free morpheme. 答案: 正确 29.第 36 题 The word ?unsad‘ is acceptable in English. 答案: 错误 30.第 37 题 The expression 'It' s me' is Not acceptable in English.

答案: 错误 31.第 38 题 The term 'diglossia' (双言制)was first used by Ferguson in 1959. 答案: 正确 32.第 39 题 A typical example of a bilingual community is an ethnic ghetto where most of the inhabitants are either immigrants or children of immigrants. 答案: 正确 33.第 40 题 The word 'quake' is the result of back-formation (逆构词法). 答案: 错误 34.第 41 题 The use of the expressions 'to update', 'to host' and 'to check up' indicates the influence of American English. 答案: 正确 35.第 42 题 The deletion of the link verb 'be' as in 'You crazy' is typical of the syntax of Black English. 答案: 正确 36.第 43 题 A prominent phonological feature of Black English is the deletion of the consonant at the end of a word, as in 'desk' [des]. 答案: 正确 37.第 44 题 Received Pronunciation in British English is a dialect of London that is representative of standard English. 答案: 错误 38.第 45 题 The word 'dog' often conjures up different images in the US and Hong Kong. 答案: 正确 39.第 46 题 People in the West End in London speak differently from the East Enders. 答案: 正确 40.第 47 题 It is proper in English to say 'no, no' in response to such a praise as ' You' ve made good progress. '

to show one' s modesty. 答案: 错误 41.第 48 题 You can never ask an English native the question of his name or age. 答案: 错误 42.第 49 题 In English, the word 'blue' is associated with unhappy feelings. 答案: 正确 43.第 50 题 If you were a Cantonese and talked to a person from Shanghai, then you were having intercultural communication. 答案: 错误 44.第 51 题 The behaviourist view of LA was not prevalent until the 1960s. 答案: 错误 45.第 52 题 The sounds [z] and [∫] are among the consonants that are supposed to be acquired with most difficulty by a child. 答案: 正确 46.第 53 题 If a child calls every man ' Daddy' , then he is over-extending the meaning of the word ' Daddy' . 答案: 正确 47.第 54 题 A target language is always a foreign language. 答案: 错误 48.第 55 题 The human brain is divided into two sections, the brain stem and the cerebrum. 答案: 正确 49.第 56 题 If you scratch your nose with your left hand, it is the right hemisphere that has controlled the actions. 答案: 正确 50.第 57 题 The test where subjects are played two different words or sounds twice, one into each ear, is called

dichotic listening (双听技术). 答案: 正确 51.第 58 题 Broca' s aphasics (失语症) show that a patient who cannot pronounce the word spoon will also not be able to write it correctly. 答案: 正确 52.第 59 题 Errors people make in spontaneous speech often involve a phonological feature such as voicing. For example, people sometimes say 'pig' instead of 'pick' . 答案: 正确 53.第 60 题 'The shooting of the man' is ambiguous. 答案: 正确 54.第 74 题 Chomsky regards competence as an act of doing things with a sentence. 答案: 错误 55.第 75 题 Displacement of language means language use in a far-away place. 答案: 错误 56.第 76 题 ?Teach-in‘ is a compound word. 答案: 正确 57.第 77 题 The –s in ?works‘ of ?He works hard.‘ is a bound morpheme (粘着语素). 答案: 正确 58.第 78 题 The prefix a- in ?asexual‘ means ?without‘. 答案: 正确 59.第 79 题 Hyponymy (上下义关系) is a relation of exclusion of meaning. 答案: 错误 60.第 80 题 The words ?lead‘(领导) and ?lead‘(铅球) are homographs (同形异义词). 答案: 正确

61.第 81 题 The words ?buy‘ and ?purchase‘ are dialectal synonyms. 答案: 错误 62.第 82 题 Pragmatics (语用学) is a linguistic branch that developed in the 1890s. 答案: 错误 63.第 83 题 Course in General Linguistics was published in 1889. 答案: 错误 64.第 84 题 Context refers to the relation between lines or paragraphs of a text. 答案: 错误 65.第 85 题 If I said to you, 'It' s very stuffy here.' , then my illocutionary act(行事行为) may be asking you to switch on the air-conditioner. 答案: 正确 66.第 86 题 If Smith said to you in a supermarket, 'I am thirsty now, but I have no money with me' , then his perlocutionary act (取效行为) is your buying him a coca-cola. 答案: 正确 67.第 87 题 According to Austin, 'I bet you sixpence it will be fine this evening.' is a performative (施为句). 答案: 正确 68.第 88 题 'We have never met before.' is a representative. 答案: 正确 69.第 89 题 'I will return the book to you soon.' is an expressive. 答案: 错误 70.第 90 题 'I love thee not.' before the 16th century, has now become 'I do not love you.' This means the change in negation rule. 答案: 正确

71.第 91 题 The word 'fridge' is a loan word. 答案: 错误 72.第 92 题 The task of a linguist is to discover the nature and rules of the underlying language system 答案: 正确 73.第 93 题 Linguistics is generally divided into general and specific linguistics. 答案: 错误 74.第 94 题 General linguistics deals with the general aspects of language application. 答案: 错误 75.第 95 题 General linguistics does not study theories of language. 答案: 错误 76.第 96 题 Phonology (音系学) studies how a sound is produced. 答案: 错误 77.第 97 题 Syntax (句法) is the study of the rules of words. 答案: 错误 78.第 98 题 Semantics (语义学) is the study of word meaning. 答案: 错误 79.第 99 题 Applied linguistics means the language application to specific areas. 答案: 错误 80.第 100 题 Modern linguistics aims at prescribing models for language users to follow. 答案: 错误 81. 第 101 题 F. de Saussure was a Swiss linguist. 答案: 正确

82.第 102 题 Performance is the focus of Chomsky‘s linguistic study. 答案: 错误 83.第 103 题 Arbitrariness of language means language can be used freely. 答案: 错误 84.第 104 题 Phonetic similarity, not phonetic identity, is the criterion with which we operate in the phonological analysis of languages. 答案: 正确 85.第 105 题 Linguistics is the systematic study of language. 答案: 正确 86.第 106 题 Morphology (形态学)is the study of sentences. 答案: 错误 87.第 107 题 Diachronic linguistics (历时语言学) is also called historical linguistics. 答案: 正确 88.第 108 题 The word 'videophone' is an acronym (首字母缩略词). 答案: 错误 89.第 109 题 UNESCO is a blend (混合词). 答案: 错误 90.第 1 题 Instrumental motivation 答案: Instrumental motivation occurs when people learn a foreign language for external goals such as passing exams, financial rewards or furthering a career, etc. 91.第 2 题 Deletion rule (删除规则) 答案:

The deletion rule is a phonological rule that tells us when a sound is to be deleted although it is orthographically represented. For example, [g] deletion occurs before a final nasal consonant, as in ?signature‘.

92.第 3 题 Matrix clause (主句从句) 答案: Matrix clause is a construction in which the complement phrase is embedded, as shown below: She reads books that are interesting. 93. 第 4 题 Subcategorization (子范畴) 答案: Subcategorization is the information about a word‘s complement that is included in the head, as in: a story about the student. 94.第 5 题 Aphasia (失语症) 答案: Aphasia refers to the partial or total loss of language due to brain damage. 95.第 6 题 Utterance meaning (语句意义) 答案: Utterance meaning is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication, or in a context. 96.第 61 题 Linguistic relativity (语言相对主义) 答案: Linguistic relativity refers to the fact that different languages offer people different ways of expressing the world around, and they think and speak differently. 97.第 110 题 Denotative meaning (外延意义) 答案: Denotative meaning is the meaning that can be found in a dictionary.

98.第 111 题 Perlocutionary act (取效行为) 答案: Perlocutionary act is the act performed by or resulting from saying something, the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance; it is the act performed by saying something. 99.第 112 题 Blending 答案: Blending refers to the formation of a word by combining parts of other words, e. g. smog—smoke + fog; motel—motor + hotel. 100.第 113 题 Minimal pair (最小对比对) 答案: A minimal pair is such a pair of different forms as identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings (as ?pill‘ and ?till‘). 101.第 114 题 Functional words (功能词) 答案: Functional words are grammatical words such as the article ?the‘ in English, which do not express the content of objects in the world. 102.第 115 题 Productive morphological rules 答案: Productive morphological rules refer to the morphological rules (such as the ?un- + Adj. =not +Adj.‘ rule) that can be used quite freely to form new words. 103.第 116 题 Productivity (多产性) 答案: Productivity refers to the fact that language makes possible the construction and interpretation of new signals by its users, which is why they can produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences, including sentences they have never heard before. This feature is unique to human language. 104.第 117 题

Syntax 答案: Syntax is a branch of linguistics that studies how words are combined to form sentences and the rules that govern the formation of sentences. 105.第 118 题 Coordination (并列) 答案: Coordination refers to the phenomenon of forming phrases by joining two or more elements of the same type with the help of a conjunction such as ?and‘ or ?or‘. 106.第 119 题 Top-down processing 答案: Top-down processing refers to the spontaneous and automatic interpretation of a sentence on the basis of whatever information is available before the analysis of all the phonemes in the sentence. 107.第 120 题 Category (范畴) 答案: Category refers to a group of linguistic items which fulfill the same or similar functions in a particular language such as a sentence, a noun phrase or a verb. 108.第 121 题 Representatives 答案: Representatives are the speaker‘s attempts to state or describe, say what the speaker believes to be true, e. g. ?I have never been to England before.‘, ?The man is a rich man. ‘ 109.第 122 题 Commissives 答案: Commissives are the speaker‘s attempts to commit the speaker himself to some future course of action, e. g. ?I promise to come.‘, ?I will call you tomorrow morning without fail. ‘ 110.第 123 题 Material culture

答案: Material culture is the concrete, substantial and observable aspect of the life of a people. 111.第 124 题 Linguistic repertoire (全部技能) 答案: Linguistic repertoire refers to the totality of linguistic varieties possessed by an individual. 112.第 125 题 Fossilization (化石作用) 答案: Fossilization refers to a process occurring from time to time in which incorrect linguistic features become a permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes a language. 113.第 126 题 Micro-sociolinguistics 答案: Micro-sociolinguistics refers to the study of society from the point of view of an individual member within it, or a worm‘s-eye view of language in use. 114.第 127 题 Grammaticality (语法性) 答案: Grammaticality refers to the grammatical meaning of a linguistic unit (such as ?a sentence‘), which is governed by the grammatical rules of the language. 115.第 128 题 Interlanguage (中介语) 答案: According to Selinker, interlanguage refers to an abstract system of learner‘s target language system. It has now been widely used to refer to the linguistic expressions learners produce especially the wrong or not idiomatic ones.

116.第 129 题 Error analysis 答案: Error analysis refers to the analysis of learners‘ errors, which involves first independently or

objectively, describing the learners‘ interlanguage, then a comparison of their version of the target language and the target language itself is followed to locate mismatches. 117.第 130 题 Pidgin (洋泾浜语) 答案: A pidgin is a special language variety that mixes or blends languages and it is used by people who speak different languages for restricted purposes such as trading. 118.第 131 题 Universal Grammar (普遍语法) 答案: Universal Grammar refers to the innate endowment to discover language‘s structure by matching the innate knowledge of basic grammatical system to that particular language. 119.第 132 题 Learning strategies (学习策略) 答案: Learning strategies are learners‘ conscious goal-oriented and problem-solving based efforts to achieve learning efficiency.

120.第 7 题 What is the difference between prescriptive (规定) and descriptive (描写) linguistics? 答案: The difference between prescriptive and descriptive linguistics is that prescriptive linguistics is to lay down rules for language users, whereas descriptive linguistics is to describe the language phenomena as they are. Therefore, the former is subjective, while the latter is objective and more scientific

121.第 8 题 What is Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (莎丕尔-沃尔夫假设)? 答案: According to Sapir and Whorf, language filters people‘s perception and the way they categorize experiences. This is termed Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. It comes in two versions, the strong and weak versions. The strong version holds that the language patterns determine people‘s thinking and behavior. The weak version holds that the language patterns influence people‘s thinking and behavior.

122.第 9 题 What is componential analysis (成分分析)? 答案: It is a way proposed by the structural semanticists to analyze word meaning into semantic features, using such labels as ?+HUMAN‘, ?+ADULT‘, ?+ANIMATE‘, ?+MALE‘, and so on. Componential analysis makes it possible to show how the words analyzed are related in meaning. 123.第 10 题 what is the relationship between pragmatics and semantics? 答案: The relation between pragmatics and semantics is that both are linguistic studies of meaning. But they differ in that semantics traditionally studies meanings of words, meanings of sentences in isolation from language use, whereas pragmatics studies meanings in the context of language use. 124.第 11 题 What is conversational implicature (会话含义)? 答案: Conversational implicature is a nonconventional implicature based on an addressee‘s assumption that the speaker is following the conversational maxims (会话准则) or at least the cooperative principle. It occurs when any of the four maxims is violated. 125.第 12 题 What is the interactionist view of language acquisition? 答案: The interactionist view of language acquisition is that language develops as a result of the complex interplay (相互作用) between the human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops. 126.第 13 题 What is the Critical Period Hypothesis (关键期假说)? 答案: The Critical Period Hypothesis refers to the specific and limited time period for language acquisition. It has two versions. The strong version suggests that children must acquire their first language by puberty (青春期) or they will never be able to learn from subsequent exposure. The weak version holds that language learning will be more difficult and incomplete after puberty. 127.第 14 题 What is motherese (儿语,妈妈语)?

答案: Motherese is a ―special‖ speech adults use in talking to little children with slow rate of speech, high pitch, rich intonation, shorter and simpler sentence structures, frequent repetition, paraphrasing and limited vocabulary. It is also termed ?caretaker talk‘ or child directed speech. 128.第 15 题 What are derivational morphemes (派生语素)? 答案: Derivational morphemes refer to morphemes (such as ?-ic‘ and ?-ism‘) that can be conjoined to other morphemes or words to derive a new word. 129.第 16 题 What is the distinction between competence (能力) and performance (语言运用)? 答案: According to Chomsky, competence is the ideal user‘s knowledge of the rules of his language, while performance is the actual realization of the ideal user‘s knowledge of the rules of his language in linguistic communication. 130.第 17 题 What are the possible different readings of the sentence ?That‘s not the book he wants. ‘? 答案: The sentence ?That‘s not the book he wants. ‘ may have the following readings: A. 'That‘s 'not the 'book he ?wants. (falling tone: fact) B. 'That‘s 'not the 'book he? wants. (rising tone: question) C. ?That‘s 'not the 'book he? wants. (fall-rise tone: implying ?some other book‘) 131.第 18 题 What is reference (所指)? 答案: Reference means what a linguistic form refers to in the real, physical world; it deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience. For instance, if we say ?The dog is barking‘, we must be talking about a certain dog in the situation; here, ?dog‘ refers to a dog known to both the speaker and the hearer. This is the reference of the word ?dog‘ in this particular situation. 132. 第 19 题 How does a sentence differ from an utterance (语句)? 答案: A sentence and an utterance differ in that a sentence is a grammatical and self-contained unit in

isolation from context, whereas utterance is something a speaker utters in a certain situation with a certain purpose. 133.第 133 题 What is cross-association (叠加)? 答案: Cross-association refers to the internal interference, or the close association of the two similar linguistic forms which leads to confusion, e. g. *The apricot is too sour to eat it. [I can‘t eat it. ] 134.第 134 题 How are sentence meaning (语义) and utterance meaning (语句意义) different from each other? 答案: Sentence meaning is the abstract, intrinsic property of the sentence itself in terms of predication. Whereas utterance meaning is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication, or in a context. So the difference between sentence meaning and utterance meaning is that the former is abstract and decontextualized, while the latter is concrete and context-dependent.


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