种类 例句 Beautiful day (= It is a beautiful day), isn’t it? Pity we live so far from the sea. (It is a pity we live so far from the sea.) 说明 有时也 可省 略整个 句 子 的主语和谓语，只保留次 要成分。 She was poor
but (she was) honest. --what do you think made Mary so --Did you know anything about the accident? upset? --Losing her new bicycle (made --Not until you told me. (= I didn’t know anything Mary so upset). about it until you told me.) Seen from the plane (when it is seen from the plane), the house looks like 注意状 语从 句中的 主 语 tiny toys. 同主句主语的一致性。 If (it is) possible, I’ll go there with you. 若不定式后面是完成时， 省略时应保留 have；不定 The boy wanted to ride his bicycle 式后含有动词 be 的结构 in the street, but his mother told 时，也要保留 be 动词。 him not to. (not to ride his bicycle --Did you tell him the in the street.) news? --Alice, why didn’t you come --I ought to have (told him yesterday? the news), but I didn’t --I was going to (come yesterday), know how to speak. but I had an unexpected visitor. --Are you an engineer? --No, but I want to be.
? 状语从句中的省略用法 一、 如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致，且从句的谓语含有 be 动词的某种形式 （am/is/are/was/were） ，可同时省略从句的主语和 be 动词的某种形式。 1、when，while 引导的时间状语从句 e.g. 当你过马路的时候一定要小心。 Do be careful when (you are) crossing the street. 在我去工作的路上，我遇见了她。 When/While (I was) on my way to work, I met her. 2、if，unless，once 引导的条件状语从句 e.g. If (it is) properly treated, waste will do no harm to the environment.
我不会去晚会的，除非我被邀请。 I’ll not go to the party unless (I am) invited. 一旦你在超市里被抓到偷东西，你会受到惩罚的。 Once (you are) caught stealing in a supermarket, you will be punished. 3、though，although，whether，no matter whether/what/how/who 等引导的让 步状语从句 e.g. 他很开心，尽管他很贫穷。 He was happy, though/although (he was) poor. 他虽然年轻但懂得很多。 Though (he is) young, he knows a lot. No matter how/However hard the task (is), we must fulfill it in time. （注： 从句的主语和主句的主语不一致时， 只省略从句中的 be 动词形式） 4、as if，as though 引导的方式状语从句 e.g. She lay there, as if (she was) dead. （省略的主语和主句的主语一致） He opened his lips as if (he were going) to say something. 他张开嘴唇，好像 要说什么话似的。 He stood up as if/though (he wanted) to leave.（as if/though + to do 表示一个将 来的动作） 二、 than，as 引导的比较状语从句中的省略用法：当不同的主语进行比较时， 一般省略从句中的谓语；当从句中的主语与谓语（be 动词除外）和主句中 的主语与谓语相同时，通常省略从句中的主语和谓语，只保留比较部分。 e.g. He is taller than his brother (is). I have as much as confidence in you as (I have confidence) in him. 三、 以 if 从句为代表的状语从句中的特殊省略用法：通常省略了 it is，that is， there is/are。 E.g.如果有必要的话，这个老庙会被重新修建。 If (it is) possible/necessary, this old temple will be rebuilt. If (that is) so, I will call you back at 5:00 pm. There are only a few books in our school library, if (there are) any. ? 定语从句中的省略用法 关系词的省略 关系代词 that，which，whom 等在限制性定语从句中充当宾语 且不位于介词之后时，可以省略；in which 或 that 在先行词 way 后作方式状语从 句时可省略。 e.g. 你昨天拜访的那个人是我的祖父。 The man (that/who/whom) you visited last night is my grandpa. 我不喜欢你对待这个女孩的方式。 I don’t like the way (in which/that) you treat the girl.
? 虚拟语气中 if 及 should 的省略 1、 当条件状语从句中有 were，had，should 等时省略 if，把它们提至句首，形 成倒装句。 e.g. If I were a teacher, I would be strict with my students. = Were I a teacher, I would be strict with my students. 2、 Suggest，insist，order，require 等表示建议、要求、命令的动词后接的名词 性从句中，谓语动词常用―should+动词原形‖，should 可以省略。 e.g. 医生建议他尽力去减肥。 The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose weight. ? So 和 not 的替代性省略 用于避免重复前面所说过的内容，替代词 so/not 替代肯定或否定的名词性从句。 可与 believe，do，expect，fear，guess，hope，say，speak，suppose，think，I’m afraid 等连用 e.g. – Do you suppose he is going to attend the meeting? – I suppose not. — Can you finish your work today? — 我认为能。I think so . — 我认为不能。I don't think so . / I think not . ? 日常交际中的省略 在情景会话中，答语常常省略不会引起歧义的主语、谓语或宾语部分，而只保留 对方希望了解的内容。在复合句或并列句中，也有省略主、谓、宾的情况。 e.g. – How many copies do you want? -- (I want) Three copies, please. -- Have you ever been to the Great Wall? -- No, (I have) never (been to the Great Wall). 注意： 1、 感官动词 see，hear，feel，watch 等和使役动词 have，make，let 等后接不定 式作宾语时，不定式省略 to。 2、 do nothing but，can’t help but 等结构常接省略 to 的不定式。 e.g. 我们昨天只是仅仅呆在家里看电视了。 We didn’t do anything but stay at home watching TV yesterday. 听到这个消息，她禁不住哭了。 Hearing the news, she couldn’t help but cry. 3、 在特定语境中为了避免重复，当不定式再次出现时，在 want，wish，hope， try，plan，like，love，hate 后往往只保留 to，而省略后面的动词。但不定式 后有 be，have 时，也保留 be 和 have。 e.g. My parents encouraged me to go to college, （但是我不想去）but I didn’t want to.
随讲随练 1、—Lucy，could you please spare me a few minutes? —____，but I hope "a few minutes" won't turn into a few hours. A. It doesn't matter 2、—Hey，taxi! B. That's kind of you —___ _. C. I'm afraid not D. I guess so
—I want to go to the dentist's.
A. Good morning, sir. C. Where to, sir?
B. Nice to see you, sir. D. What are you going to do, sir?
3、The doctor expresses his strong desire that the patient _____ immediately. A. be operated on B. operated on C. was operated on D. would be operated on
4、When he came back, he found the bag he had ____ over the seat was gone. A. left to hang B. left hanging C. left hung D. to leave hanging
5、Liu Xiang spoke slowly to the Special Olympic competitors so as to have them____. A. understand him B. to be understood C. be understood D. to understand him
6、—Are there any English story books for us students in the library? —There are only a few, ____. A. if any B. if have C. if some D. if has
7、Francis, ____born in Kentucky, lived and practiced law in Missouri. A. was B. he was C. although D. but
8、—Does Betty know where her violin is? —She saw somebody walking off with one, but she doesn't know____. A. whose B. it C. whom D. which —No, and I C. don't want to be __. D. don't
9、—Aren't you the manager? A. don't want B. don't want to
10、—How are you getting on with your work? —Oh, I'm sorry. Things aren't going so well as____. A. plans B. planning C. planned D. to plan
11、—What's the matter with you? A. hope so B. hope to
—I didn't pass the test, but I still____. D. hope that
C. hope it
12、The doctor did what he could ___ the boy, but in vain. A. save B. to save C. saving D. saved I like my new dress and Mother ___, too. D. do
13、—You look happy today, Mary. A. likes B. does C. is
14、—What happened to the boy? He was making so much noise. —He wanted to play football, but his mother warned him ____. A. not B. to C. not to D./
15、____ for your brother, I would not have gone to see Mr. Wang. A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not
1. When first ________ to the market, these products enjoyed great success. (NMET 2004 全国卷 II) A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced 2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when ________ at the meeting by my boss. ( 2004 全国卷 IV) A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned 3. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ________ whether he was going in the right direction. ( 2003 安徽春) A. seeing B. having seen C. to have seen D. to see 4. Generally speaking, ________ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect. (2003 上海卷) A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken 5. Unless ________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. ( 2003 上海) A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited 6. When ________ , the museum will be open to the public next year. ( 2002 上海春) A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
7. Though ________ money, his parents man-aged to send him to university. (2002 上海卷) A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 8. The research is so designed that once ________ nothing can be done to change it. (NMET 2002) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 9. —You 're always working. Come on, let's go shopping. — ________ you ever want to do is going shopping. ( 2002 北京、安徽、内蒙古) A. Anything B. Something C. All D. That 10. Is this the reason ________ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?(NMET 2002 上海春) A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 11. What surprised me was not what he said but ________ he said it. (2004 湖北卷) A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 12. It is easy to do the repair. ________ you need is a hammer and some nails. ( 2004 天津卷) A. Something B. All C. Both D. Everything 13. That's an unpleasant thing to say about your father after ________ he's done for you. (NMET 2004 全国卷) A. something B. anything C. all D. that 14. As you've never been there before, I'll have someone ________ you the way. (MET 1990 上海卷) A. to show B. show C. showing D. showed 15. —I'll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat? —Not at all, ________ . (NMET 1995 全国卷 2) A. I have no time B. I'd rather not C. I'd like it D. I'd be happy to 16. —Does your brother intend to study German? —Yes, he intends ________ . ( 1998 上海卷) A. / B. to C. so D. that 17. —Would you like to go to the Grand Theatre with me tonight? — ________ . (NMET 1999 上海卷) A. Yes, I'd like to go to the Grand Theatre B. I'd like to, but I have an exam tomorrow C. No, I won't D. That's right 18. —You should have thanked her before you left. —I meant ________ , but when I was leaving I couldn't find her anywhere. ( 2000 北京春招卷) A. to do B. to C. doing D. doing to 19. ________ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. (NMET 1994 上海卷) A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 20. ________ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. (NMET 1995 上海卷) A. If it is not B. Were C. Had it not been D. If they were not 21. I will know what was on his mind at the time, nor will ________ . ( 2004 江苏卷) A. anyone B. anyone else C. no one D. no one else 22. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ________ any end to their influence on man's lives. (NMET 2004 广东卷) A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there
23. —I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! — ________ . (NMET 2004 全国卷 III) A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I
参考答案：1-5 DCABA 6-10 ACACC
Keys: 1—5 BCDBA 6—10 AADCA 11—15 AACBD 16—20 BBBBC 21—23 BCB