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语法:主谓一致


Subject-Verb Agreement

are (be) playing 1.The children ___ outside. 2.John gets ____ (get) up at six o’clock every morning. 3.They have ___ (have) not come yet. 4.Nobody knows ___ (know) who is going to win in the game.

主谓一致:
主语和谓语保持一致, 即谓语动词的形式 必须随着主语人称和数 的变化而变化。 三 大 原 则 语法一致 意义一致 就近/就远一致

语法一致
have ( have/has ) their own rooms. Both boys____ are (be) really lazy. Few students ___ are , were is, was, has Each boy ____ (have/ book. have, do has) his own has, does comes Every student _______(come) on time.

主语和谓语保持一致 决定于主语的“数”上

主语是复数, 主语是单数, 谓语用单数 。 谓语用复数。

The happy family has ____(have) five members. The happy family are ___(be) singing on the stage.

意义一致
is The group ____(be) made up of nine students. are (be) dancing happily. The group____
总结1:集体名词作主语时,如果视为一个整体,谓语
用单数,如果侧重个体成员,谓语动词用复数。

这类集体名词常见的有:team,class,family,group, army, crowd,government,audience, public, majority, minority等。

is The actress and singer ____(be) popular in China.

bread and butter knife and fork iron and steel a watch and chain a needle and thread

A knife and fork is

used to have meals.

比较:
visits our school The worker and writer ______ today.( visit ) come The worker and the writer have ___________to the meeting . (have come / has come )

总结2:

当一个冠词搭配多个名词,谓语动词用单数; 当多个冠词分别修饰各个名词,谓语动词用复数。 当and不表并列意义连接两个在意义上表示同一人, 物或由两个部件配成的物品时,谓语动词用单数

has Every boy and every girl ________(have) the right to receive education.

总结3:
由 each…and (each)…, every…and (every)…, no…and no…, many a …and (many a)… 连接单数名词做主语,谓语用单数。

总结4:定冠词the + 形容词


are (be) not always happy. 1.The rich _____

is 2.The new in modern times _____(be) strange to my great grandfather.
表示一类人,谓语动词用复数; 表示一类事物,谓语动词用单数。

most of the apples

most of the apple

were Most of the apples ______(be) rotten. Most of the apple ______(be) eaten by the rat. was

1.Two thirds of the students in our class are ______(be) boys. is 2.75% of the surface of the earth ___(be) covered with water. were 3.The rest of the boys _____(be) watching TV. was (be) stolen. 4.The rest of the money _______

总结5:分数或百分数或a lot of,

lots of, the rest of, some of, most of, all of ,half of, (a) part of +名词等作主语时,谓语动词的形式 与of 后面的名词的数一致。

总结5:定语从句
1.Tom is one of the best students are who ____(be) fond of music. 2.Tom is the only one of the best students is who ___(be) fond of music. One of+复数名词时,复数名词为先行词, 谓语动词用复数; 谓语动词用单数。

The (only) one of+复数名词,the( only) one为先行词,

用be动词填空。
is my hobby. 1.Collecting stamps ___ are my hobbies. 2.Swimming and dancing ____ is true. 3.What he said ____ is unknown. 4.Where and when he will go ___ 5.Where he will go and what he will do ___ are not clear. is a 6.What he wants on his birthday ____ bestseller. are 7.What he wants on his birthday _____ two pairs of new sports shoes.

总结6:动名词,不定式或从句作主语,
谓语动词通常用单数; 若用and连接两个动名词,不定式或从句, 表示两个不同的概念,则谓语动词用复数; 若表示同一概念,则谓语动词用单数;

What引导主语从句当句子中的表语是 具体名词时,要根据表语的单复决定谓 语的单复。

Ten miles ____(be) is a long distance. Sixty years is (be)a long time. is A million dollars ___(be) really a lot of money. Fifty kilograms is (be) too heavy to be carried. The United Nations was ___(be) born at the end of the Second World War. is Mathematics ___the language of science. His “Selected Poems” was ___(be) first published in 1965.

Someone wants(want) to see you. Everything is (be) ready. Either of the shirts ________(fit) me very well. fits has/have None of the students _____________(have) passe the exam. has/have (have) been to the Neither of them __________ Great Wall.

谓语动词常用单数的情况 总结1: 表示时间、金钱、距离、重量等,表单
位数量的复数名词作主语时,通常被看作整体, 谓语动词用单数。

总结2:由some, any, no, every

+one/thing/body 所构成的复合代词及either, each little, much 做主语时,谓语用单数。 neither, non 做主语时,指代可数名词,谓语单复数都可。

总结3:名词如news;以ics结尾的
学科名称mathematics, physics, politics, economics;国名如 The United Nations,the United States等; 报纸名书名如The New Times等,作主语时谓语用单数。

Many a boy likes _____(like) swimming.
like =Many boys _____(like) swimming. has More than one student ___read the book . (have) More students than one have ____ read the book.

=

总结4:
many a, more than one 从意义上,它们表示复数,但用作主语时, 谓语却习惯上用单数。

用be动词填空。

The police ____looking are for the missing child. The cattle ____kept in his farm. are The Rocky mountains ____in are the west of the north America The Olympic Games are ____held once every four years. are The Whites ____going to make a trip to London. The Greens were _____ watching TV when a fire broke out. My trousers ____new. are are The scissors ____sharp. A pair of shoes ____on is the desk.

谓语动词常用复数的情况 总结1:集体名词如people , police, cattle 表
复数概念做主语,谓语用复数。 总结2:山脉、群岛、瀑布、运动会等s 结 尾的复数名词作主语,谓语用复数。

总结3:the+姓的复数形式表一家人作主语,谓语用复数。

总结4:表示成双成套的名词,如chopsticks,
clothes, glasses, scissors, shoes, socks, trousers, gloves, shorts等,作主语时, 谓语动词通常用复数形式; 但如与a kind of, a pair of, a series of 连用 作主语时,谓语用单数。

is (be) to be sent to Xi’an. Either you or Tom ____ Neither he nor I have ____ (have) finished the experiment. likes (like) music. Not only his family but also he ____ am (be) to blame. Not you but I ___

总结:四大就近原则

either…or, neither…nor, not…but, not only…but also等连接的并列成分作主语, 其谓语通常要与靠近的主语保持一致。

另外There be 结构的主谓一致也遵循就近原则。 are There ____four chairs and a table in the room. There ____ is a table and four chairs in the room.

is The teacher with three students ____doing an experiment. has learned The girl as well as the boys ______ to drive. is to John, rather than his roommates, _____ blame. is Everybody except you ___in the classroom.

总结:四大就远原则 with, as well as,
rather than, except/but/besides等引出的短语 为附属成分,谓语与这些结构前面的主语 保持一致。

Homework
Do the exercises on 优化方案 after class.


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